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1.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 66(2): e0158121, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799247

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak has highlighted the need for broad-spectrum antivirals against coronaviruses (CoVs). Here, pheophorbide a (Pba) was identified as a highly active antiviral molecule against human CoV-229E after bioguided fractionation of plant extracts. The antiviral activity of Pba was subsequently shown for SARS-CoV-2 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and its mechanism of action was further assessed, showing that Pba is an inhibitor of coronavirus entry by directly targeting the viral particle. Interestingly, the antiviral activity of Pba depends on light exposure, and Pba was shown to inhibit virus-cell fusion by stiffening the viral membrane, as demonstrated by cryoelectron microscopy. Moreover, Pba was shown to be broadly active against several other enveloped viruses and reduced SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV replication in primary human bronchial epithelial cells. Pba is the first described natural antiviral against SARS-CoV-2 with direct photosensitive virucidal activity that holds potential for COVID-19 therapy or disinfection of SARS-CoV-2-contaminated surfaces.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , COVID-19 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Biological Products/pharmacology , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Gut Microbes ; 14(1): 2018900, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585291

ABSTRACT

Mounting evidence suggests that the gut-to-lung axis is critical during respiratory viral infections. We herein hypothesized that disruption of gut homeostasis during severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection may associate with early disease outcomes. To address this question, we took advantage of the Syrian hamster model. Our data confirmed that this model recapitulates some hallmark features of the human disease in the lungs. We further showed that SARS-CoV-2 infection associated with mild intestinal inflammation, relative alteration in intestinal barrier property and liver inflammation and altered lipid metabolism. These changes occurred concomitantly with an alteration of the gut microbiota composition over the course of infection, notably characterized by a higher relative abundance of deleterious bacterial taxa such as Enterobacteriaceae and Desulfovibrionaceae. Conversely, several members of the Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae families, including bacteria known to produce the fermentative products short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), had a reduced relative proportion compared to non-infected controls. Accordingly, infection led to a transient decrease in systemic SCFA amounts. SCFA supplementation during infection had no effect on clinical and inflammatory parameters. Lastly, a strong correlation between some gut microbiota taxa and clinical and inflammation indices of SARS-CoV-2 infection severity was evidenced. Collectively, alteration of the gut microbiota correlates with disease severity in hamsters making this experimental model valuable for the design of interventional, gut microbiota-targeted, approaches for the control of COVID-19.Abbreviations: SARS-CoV-2, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; COVID-19, coronavirus disease 2019; SCFAs, short-chain fatty acids; dpi, day post-infection; RT-PCR, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction; IL, interleukin. ACE2, angiotensin converting enzyme 2; TMPRSS2, transmembrane serine protease 2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/microbiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Disease Models, Animal , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Mesocricetus , Animals , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacteria/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , Cricetinae , Fatty Acids, Volatile/administration & dosage , Fatty Acids, Volatile/metabolism , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index
3.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-294238

ABSTRACT

Drug repurposing has the advantage of shortening regulatory preclinical development steps. Here, we screened a library of drug compounds, already registered in one or several geographical areas, to identify those exhibiting antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 with relevant potency. Of the 1,942 compounds tested, 21 exhibited a substantial antiviral activity in Vero-81 cells. Among them, clofoctol, an antibacterial drug used for the treatment of bacterial respiratory tract infections, was further investigated due to favorable safety profile and pharmacokinetic properties. Notably, the peak concentration of clofoctol that can be achieved in human lungs is more than 20 times higher than its IC 50 measured against SARS-CoV-2 in human pulmonary cells. This compound inhibits SARS-CoV-2 at a post-entry step. Lastly, therapeutic treatment of human ACE2 receptor transgenic mice decreased viral load, reduced inflammatory gene expression and lowered pulmonary pathology. Altogether, these data strongly support clofoctol as a therapeutic candidate for the treatment of COVID-19 patients. Summary Antivirals targeting SARS-CoV-2 are sorely needed. In this study, we screened a library of drug compounds and identified clofoctol as an antiviral against SARS-CoV-2. We further demonstrated that, in vivo, this compound reduces inflammatory gene expression and lowers pulmonary pathology.

4.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 66(2): e0158121, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528522

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak has highlighted the need for broad-spectrum antivirals against coronaviruses (CoVs). Here, pheophorbide a (Pba) was identified as a highly active antiviral molecule against human CoV-229E after bioguided fractionation of plant extracts. The antiviral activity of Pba was subsequently shown for SARS-CoV-2 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and its mechanism of action was further assessed, showing that Pba is an inhibitor of coronavirus entry by directly targeting the viral particle. Interestingly, the antiviral activity of Pba depends on light exposure, and Pba was shown to inhibit virus-cell fusion by stiffening the viral membrane, as demonstrated by cryoelectron microscopy. Moreover, Pba was shown to be broadly active against several other enveloped viruses and reduced SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV replication in primary human bronchial epithelial cells. Pba is the first described natural antiviral against SARS-CoV-2 with direct photosensitive virucidal activity that holds potential for COVID-19 therapy or disinfection of SARS-CoV-2-contaminated surfaces.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , COVID-19 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Biological Products/pharmacology , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
5.
iScience ; 24(12): 103478, 2021 Dec 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521098

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) rapidly rampaged worldwide, causing a pandemic of coronavirus disease (COVID -19), but the biology of SARS-CoV-2 remains under investigation. We demonstrate that both SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and human coronavirus 229E (hCoV-229E) or its purified S protein, one of the main viruses responsible for the common cold, induce the transient opening of Pannexin-1 (Panx-1) channels in human lung epithelial cells. However, the Panx-1 channel opening induced by SARS-CoV-2 is greater and more prolonged than hCoV-229E/S protein, resulting in an enhanced ATP, PGE2, and IL-1ß release. Analysis of lung lavages and tissues indicate that Panx-1 mRNA expression is associated with increased ATP, PGE2, and IL-1ß levels. Panx-1 channel opening induced by SARS-CoV-2 spike protein is angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2), endocytosis, and furin dependent. Overall, we demonstrated that Panx-1 channel is a critical contributor to SARS-CoV-2 infection and should be considered as an alternative therapy.

6.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(48): 25428-25435, 2021 11 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1490696

ABSTRACT

The main protease (3CLp) of the SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent for the COVID-19 pandemic, is one of the main targets for drug development. To be active, 3CLp relies on a complex interplay between dimerization, active site flexibility, and allosteric regulation. The deciphering of these mechanisms is a crucial step to enable the search for inhibitors. In this context, using NMR spectroscopy, we studied the conformation of dimeric 3CLp from the SARS-CoV-2 and monitored ligand binding, based on NMR signal assignments. We performed a fragment-based screening that led to the identification of 38 fragment hits. Their binding sites showed three hotspots on 3CLp, two in the substrate binding pocket and one at the dimer interface. F01 is a non-covalent inhibitor of the 3CLp and has antiviral activity in SARS-CoV-2 infected cells. This study sheds light on the complex structure-function relationships of 3CLp and constitutes a strong basis to assist in developing potent 3CLp inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Small Molecule Libraries/pharmacology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Binding Sites , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/chemistry , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular , Protein Conformation , Protein Multimerization , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Small Molecule Libraries/chemistry , Vero Cells
7.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 65(7): e0009721, 2021 06 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486469

ABSTRACT

Efforts to mitigate the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic include the screening of existing antiviral molecules that could be repurposed to treat severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections. Although SARS-CoV-2 replicates and propagates efficiently in African green monkey kidney (Vero) cells, antivirals such as nucleos(t)ide analogs (NUCs) often show decreased activity in these cells due to inefficient metabolization. SARS-CoV-2 exhibits low viability in human cells in culture. Here, serial passages of a SARS-CoV-2 isolate (original-SARS2) in the human hepatoma cell clone Huh7.5 led to the selection of a variant (adapted-SARS2) with significantly improved infectivity in human liver (Huh7 and Huh7.5) and lung cancer (unmodified Calu-1 and A549) cells. The adapted virus exhibited mutations in the spike protein, including a 9-amino-acid deletion and 3 amino acid changes (E484D, P812R, and Q954H). E484D also emerged in Vero E6-cultured viruses that became viable in A549 cells. Original and adapted viruses were susceptible to scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SR-B1) receptor blocking, and adapted-SARS2 exhibited significantly less dependence on ACE2. Both variants were similarly neutralized by COVID-19 convalescent-phase plasma, but adapted-SARS2 exhibited increased susceptibility to exogenous type I interferon. Remdesivir inhibited original- and adapted-SARS2 similarly, demonstrating the utility of the system for the screening of NUCs. Among the tested NUCs, only remdesivir, molnupiravir, and, to a limited extent, galidesivir showed antiviral effects across human cell lines, whereas sofosbuvir, ribavirin, and favipiravir had no apparent activity. Analogously to the emergence of spike mutations in vivo, the spike protein is under intense adaptive selection pressure in cell culture. Our results indicate that the emergence of spike mutations will most likely not affect the activity of remdesivir.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Pandemics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Virus Replication
8.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 78(7): 3565-3576, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384325

ABSTRACT

Many studies on SARS-CoV-2 have been performed over short-time scale, but few have focused on the ultrastructural characteristics of infected cells. We used TEM to perform kinetic analysis of the ultrastructure of SARS-CoV-2-infected cells. Early infection events were characterized by the presence of clusters of single-membrane vesicles and stacks of membrane containing nuclear pores called annulate lamellae (AL). A large network of host cell-derived organelles transformed into virus factories was subsequently observed in the cells. As previously described for other RNA viruses, these replication factories consisted of double-membrane vesicles (DMVs) located close to the nucleus. Viruses released at the cell surface by exocytosis harbored the typical crown of spike proteins, but viral particles without spikes were also observed in intracellular compartments, possibly reflecting incorrect assembly or a cell degradation process.


Subject(s)
SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Viral Replication Compartments/ultrastructure , Virus Release/physiology , Virus Replication/physiology , Animals , COVID-19/pathology , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vero Cells , Viral Replication Compartments/physiology
9.
Cells ; 10(8)2021 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348607

ABSTRACT

The mechanisms of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) egress, similar to those of other coronaviruses, remain poorly understood. The virus buds in intracellular compartments and is therefore thought to be released by the biosynthetic secretory pathway. However, several studies have recently challenged this hypothesis. It has been suggested that coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2, use lysosomes for egress. In addition, a focused ion-beam scanning electron microscope (FIB/SEM) study suggested the existence of exit tunnels linking cellular compartments rich in viral particles to the extracellular space resembling those observed for the human immunodeficiency (HIV) in macrophages. Here, we analysed serial sections of Vero cells infected with SARS-CoV-2 by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We found that SARS-CoV-2 was more likely to exit the cell in small secretory vesicles. Virus trafficking within the cells involves small vesicles, with each generally containing a single virus particle. These vesicles then fuse with the plasma membrane to release the virus into the extracellular space. This work sheds new light on the late stages of the SARS-CoV-2 infectious cycle of potential value for guiding the development of new antiviral strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Secretory Vesicles/ultrastructure , Virus Replication , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Vero Cells , Virion/physiology
10.
Pathogens ; 10(7)2021 Jul 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1302436

ABSTRACT

Vaccination remains one of the most effective tools to prevent infectious diseases. To ensure that the best possible antigenic components are chosen to stimulate a cognitive immune response, boosting antigen presentation using adjuvants is common practice. Nanodiamond-based adjuvants are proposed here as a rapid and versatile platform for antigen conjugation, utilizing peptides common to different pathogenic strains and making this strategy a good candidate for a "ready-to-use" vaccine. Initiation of an inflammatory reaction with a resulting immune response is based on the ability of living organisms to entrap nanostructures such as nanodiamonds with neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) formation. In this work, coronavirus peptide homological for MERS-CoV, fusion inhibitor, was conjugated to nanodiamonds and used to induce neutrophilic-driven self-limiting inflammation. The resulting adjuvant was safe and did not induce any tissue damage at the site of injection. Mice immunization resulted in IgG titers of »,000 within 28 days. Immunization of rabbits resulted in the formation of a high level of antibodies persistently present for up to 120 days after the first immunization (animal lifespan ~3 years). The peptide used for immunization proved to be reactive with sera of convalescent COVID patients, demonstrating the possibility of developing pancoronaviral vaccine candidates.

11.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 65(7): e0009721, 2021 06 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1203931

ABSTRACT

Efforts to mitigate the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic include the screening of existing antiviral molecules that could be repurposed to treat severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections. Although SARS-CoV-2 replicates and propagates efficiently in African green monkey kidney (Vero) cells, antivirals such as nucleos(t)ide analogs (NUCs) often show decreased activity in these cells due to inefficient metabolization. SARS-CoV-2 exhibits low viability in human cells in culture. Here, serial passages of a SARS-CoV-2 isolate (original-SARS2) in the human hepatoma cell clone Huh7.5 led to the selection of a variant (adapted-SARS2) with significantly improved infectivity in human liver (Huh7 and Huh7.5) and lung cancer (unmodified Calu-1 and A549) cells. The adapted virus exhibited mutations in the spike protein, including a 9-amino-acid deletion and 3 amino acid changes (E484D, P812R, and Q954H). E484D also emerged in Vero E6-cultured viruses that became viable in A549 cells. Original and adapted viruses were susceptible to scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SR-B1) receptor blocking, and adapted-SARS2 exhibited significantly less dependence on ACE2. Both variants were similarly neutralized by COVID-19 convalescent-phase plasma, but adapted-SARS2 exhibited increased susceptibility to exogenous type I interferon. Remdesivir inhibited original- and adapted-SARS2 similarly, demonstrating the utility of the system for the screening of NUCs. Among the tested NUCs, only remdesivir, molnupiravir, and, to a limited extent, galidesivir showed antiviral effects across human cell lines, whereas sofosbuvir, ribavirin, and favipiravir had no apparent activity. Analogously to the emergence of spike mutations in vivo, the spike protein is under intense adaptive selection pressure in cell culture. Our results indicate that the emergence of spike mutations will most likely not affect the activity of remdesivir.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Pandemics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Virus Replication
12.
Microorganisms ; 9(2)2021 Feb 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1134189

ABSTRACT

An outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) resulted in the coronavirus disease pandemic, drastically affecting global health and economy. Though the understanding of the disease has improved, fighting the virus remains challenging. One of the strategies is repurposing existing drugs as inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2. Fluoxetine (FLX), a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, reportedly inhibits the replication of RNA viruses, especially Coxsackieviruses B (CVB), such as CV-B4 in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the in vitro antiviral activity of FLX against SARS-CoV-2 in a model of acute infection. When 10 µM of FLX was added to SARS-CoV-2-infected Vero E6 cells, the virus-induced cytopathic effect was not observed. In this model, the level of infectious particles in the supernatant was lower than that in controls. The level was below the limit of detection of the assay up to day 3 post-infection when FLX was administered before viral inoculation or simultaneously followed by daily inoculation. In conclusion, FLX can inhibit SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. Further studies are needed to investigate the potential value of FLX to combat SARS-CoV-2 infections, treat SARS-CoV-2-induced diseases, and explain the antiviral mechanism of this molecule to pave way for novel treatment strategies.

13.
Microorganisms ; 9(2):339, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1077165

ABSTRACT

An outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) resulted in the coronavirus disease pandemic, drastically affecting global health and economy. Though the understanding of the disease has improved, fighting the virus remains challenging. One of the strategies is repurposing existing drugs as inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2. Fluoxetine (FLX), a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, reportedly inhibits the replication of RNA viruses, especially Coxsackieviruses B (CVB), such as CV-B4 in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the in vitro antiviral activity of FLX against SARS-CoV-2 in a model of acute infection. When 10 μM of FLX was added to SARS-CoV-2-infected Vero E6 cells, the virus-induced cytopathic effect was not observed. In this model, the level of infectious particles in the supernatant was lower than that in controls. The level was below the limit of detection of the assay up to day 3 post-infection when FLX was administered before viral inoculation or simultaneously followed by daily inoculation. In conclusion, FLX can inhibit SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. Further studies are needed to investigate the potential value of FLX to combat SARS-CoV-2 infections, treat SARS-CoV-2-induced diseases, and explain the antiviral mechanism of this molecule to pave way for novel treatment strategies.

14.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 78(7): 3565-3576, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1033048

ABSTRACT

Many studies on SARS-CoV-2 have been performed over short-time scale, but few have focused on the ultrastructural characteristics of infected cells. We used TEM to perform kinetic analysis of the ultrastructure of SARS-CoV-2-infected cells. Early infection events were characterized by the presence of clusters of single-membrane vesicles and stacks of membrane containing nuclear pores called annulate lamellae (AL). A large network of host cell-derived organelles transformed into virus factories was subsequently observed in the cells. As previously described for other RNA viruses, these replication factories consisted of double-membrane vesicles (DMVs) located close to the nucleus. Viruses released at the cell surface by exocytosis harbored the typical crown of spike proteins, but viral particles without spikes were also observed in intracellular compartments, possibly reflecting incorrect assembly or a cell degradation process.


Subject(s)
SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Viral Replication Compartments/ultrastructure , Virus Release/physiology , Virus Replication/physiology , Animals , COVID-19/pathology , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vero Cells , Viral Replication Compartments/physiology
15.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 584251, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-914434

ABSTRACT

A better understanding of the anti-SARS-CoV-2 immune response is necessary to finely evaluate commercial serological assays but also to predict protection against reinfection and to help the development of vaccines. For this reason, we monitored the anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody response in infected patients. In order to assess the time of seroconversion, we used 151 samples from 30 COVID-19 inpatients and monitored the detection kinetics of anti-S1, anti-S2, anti-RBD and anti-N antibodies with in-house ELISAs. We observed that specific antibodies were detectable in all inpatients 2 weeks post-symptom onset and that the detection of the SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid and RBD was more sensitive than the detection of the S1 or S2 subunits. Using retroviral particles pseudotyped with the spike of the SARS-CoV-2, we also monitored the presence of neutralizing antibodies in these samples as well as 25 samples from asymptomatic individuals that were shown SARS-CoV-2 seropositive using commercial serological tests. Neutralizing antibodies reached a plateau 2 weeks post-symptom onset and then declined in the majority of inpatients but they were undetectable in 56% of asymptomatic patients. Our results indicate that the SARS-CoV-2 does not induce a prolonged neutralizing antibody response. They also suggest that induction of neutralizing antibodies is not the only strategy to adopt for the development of a vaccine. Finally, they imply that anti-SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies should be titrated to optimize convalescent plasma therapy.

16.
Med Sci (Paris) ; 36(6-7): 633-641, 2020.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-611702

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus is a large family of viruses that infect mammals and birds. Coronaviruses are known to cross barrier species and infect new ones. In the past twenty years, we witnessed the emergence of three different coronaviruses, the latest one being the SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) responsible for the COVID-19 (covid disease 19) pandemic. Coronaviruses are enveloped virus with a long positive sense RNA genome. Like all viruses, they hijack the cellular machinery to replicate and produce new virions. There is no approved vaccine or specific antiviral molecule against coronaviruses but with the urgency to treat COVID-19, several candidate therapies are currently investigated.


TITLE: Les coronavirus, ennemis incertains. ABSTRACT: Les coronavirus sont une famille de virus qui infectent un grand nombre de mammifères et d'oiseaux. Cette famille de virus est connue pour sa capacité à franchir les barrières d'espèces et à en infecter de nouvelles. La pandémie actuelle de COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 19) est la conséquence de la troisième émergence de coronavirus, la plus récente, dans la population humaine depuis le début du siècle, celle du SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2). Les coronavirus sont des virus enveloppés à ARN simple brin de polarité positive, qui, comme tous les virus, exploitent la machinerie cellulaire pour se multiplier. À ce jour, il n'existe aucun vaccin ni traitement antiviral spécifique pour lutter contre les coronavirus, mais plusieurs pistes thérapeutiques sont explorées pour traiter le COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Virus Physiological Phenomena , Animals , Betacoronavirus/classification , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Betacoronavirus/ultrastructure , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Epidemics , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS Virus , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Viral Structural Proteins/chemistry , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/virology
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