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1.
Cell reports methods ; 1(4), 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1801491

ABSTRACT

Summary Multimodal advances in single-cell sequencing have enabled the simultaneous quantification of cell surface protein expression alongside unbiased transcriptional profiling. Here, we present LinQ-View, a toolkit designed for multimodal single-cell data visualization and analysis. LinQ-View integrates transcriptional and cell surface protein expression profiling data to reveal more accurate cell heterogeneity and proposes a quantitative metric for cluster purity assessment. Through comparison with existing multimodal methods on multiple public CITE-seq datasets, we demonstrate that LinQ-View efficiently generates accurate cell clusters, especially in CITE-seq data with routine numbers of surface protein features, by preventing variations in a single surface protein feature from affecting results. Finally, we utilized this method to integrate single-cell transcriptional and protein expression data from SARS-CoV-2-infected patients, revealing antigen-specific B cell subsets after infection. Our results suggest LinQ-View could be helpful for multimodal analysis and purity assessment of CITE-seq datasets that target specific cell populations (e.g., B cells). Graphical Highlights • LinQ-View integrates mRNA and protein expression data to reveal cell heterogeneity• LinQ-View prevents single dominant ADT features from affecting clustering• LinQ-View presents a quantitative purity metric for CITE-seq data• LinQ-View is specialized in handling CITE-seq data with fewer ADT features Motivation Multimodal single-cell sequencing enables multiple aspects for characterizing the dynamics of cell states and developmental processes. Properly integrating information from multiple modalities is a crucial step for interpreting cell heterogeneity. Here, we present LinQ-View, a computational workflow that provides an effective solution for integrating multiple modalities of CITE-seq data for downstream interpretation. LinQ-View balances information from multiple modalities to achieve accurate clustering results and is specialized in handling CITE-seq data with routine numbers of surface protein features. Li et al. present LinQ-View, a computational workflow that provides an effective solution for integrating multiple modalities of CITE-seq data and quantitative assessment of cluster purity. LinQ-View could be helpful for multimodal analysis and purity assessment of CITE-seq datasets that target specific cell populations.

2.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(2): 100531, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1679775

ABSTRACT

Antibodies against the influenza virus hemagglutinin stalk afford broad protection against antigenically drifted viruses. In this issue of Cell Reports Medicine, Yegorov et al.1 identify that current vaccine formulations induce neutralizing stalk antibodies in children-a highly vulnerable population.


Subject(s)
Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies , Child , Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus/immunology , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Seasons , Vaccines, Attenuated
3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315247

ABSTRACT

Single cell RNA sequencing is a powerful tool for characterizing the molecular and cellular heterogeneity of immune cells during their development and activation. Multimodal advances in single cell sequencing have enabled the simultaneous quantification of cell surface protein expression alongside unbiased transcriptional profiling. Here we present LinQ-View, a toolkit designed for multimodal single cell data visualization and analysis that links transcriptional and cell surface protein expression profiling data. Further, we propose a quantitative metric for cluster purity of CITE-seq data, enabling effective determination of clustering algorithms and their parameters, and finally demonstrate the utility of our toolkit through seamless integration with standard single cell analysis workflows on several public datasets. Through comparison to existing multimodal methods, we demonstrate that LinQ-View generates more accurate cell clusters and is highly efficient, even with massive datasets. LinQ-View is specialized in handling CITE-seq data with routine numbers of surface protein features (e.g. less than 50), by preventing variations in a single surface protein feature from affecting results. Finally, we utilized this method to integrate single cell transcriptional and protein expression data from COVID-19-infected patients and influenza-immunized subjects, revealing antigen-specific B cell subsets and previously unknown T cell subsets post-infection and vaccination.

4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-309780

ABSTRACT

Dissecting the evolution of memory B cells (MBCs) against SARS-CoV-2 is critical for understanding antibody recall upon secondary exposure. Here, we utilized single-cell sequencing to profile SARS-CoV-2-reactive B cell subsets in 42 COVID-19 patients. We isolated thousands of B cells in multiple distinct subsets specific to the SARS-CoV-2 spike, endemic coronavirus (HCoV) spikes, nucleoprotein (NP), and open reading frame 8 (ORF8). Spike-specific cells were enriched in the memory compartment of acutely infected and convalescent patients 1.5–5 months post-infection. With severe acute infection, we identified substantial populations of endemic HCoV-reactive antibody-secreting cells with highly mutated variable genes, indicative of preexisting immunity. Finally, MBCs exhibited maturation to NP and ORF8 over time relative to spike, especially in older patients. Monoclonal antibodies against these targets were non-neutralizing and non-protective in vivo. These findings reveal considerable antibody adaptation to non-neutralizing antigens during infection, emphasizing the importance of vaccination for inducing neutralizing spike-specific MBCs.Trial Registration Number: This clinical trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov with identifier NCT04340050, and clinical information for patients included in the study is detailed in Table S1–S3.Funding: This project was funded in part by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease (NIAID);National Institutes of Health (NIH) grant numbers U19AI082724 (P.C.W.), U19AI109946 (P.C.W.), U19AI057266 (P.C.W.), the NIAID Centers of Excellence for Influenza Research and Surveillance (CEIRS) grant numbers HHSN272201400005C(P.C.W.). N.W.A. was supported by the Multi-disciplinary Training program in Cancer Research (MTCR) - NIH T32 CA009594. A.J. and R.P.J were supported by federal funds from the NIAID, NIH, and Department of Health and Human Services under Contract HHSN272201700060C. F.K and F.A. were funded by the NIAID CEIRS contractHHSN272201400008C, Collaborative Influenza Vaccine Innovation Centers (CIVIC) contract 75N93019C00051 and the generous support of the JPB foundation, the Open Philanthropy Project (#2020-215611) and other philanthropic donations. Y.K. and P.H.were funded by the Research Program on Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Disease grant (JP19fk0108113) and the Japan Program for Infectious Diseases Research and Infrastructure (JP20fk0108272) from the Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED), NIAID CEIRS contract HHSN272201400008C, and CIVIC contract 75N93019C00051. D.F., C.N, Y.D., and P.D.H, were supported by NIAID contracts HHSN272201700060C and 75N93019C00062. M.S.D. and E.S.W. were supported by NIH grants R01 AI157155 and F30 AI152327, respectively.Conflict of Interest: Several antibodies generated from this work are being used by Now Diagnostics in Springdale, AR for the development of a diagnostic test. M.S.D. is a consultant for Inbios, Vir Biotechnology, NGM Biopharmaceuticals, and Carnival Corporation, and on the Scientific Advisory Boards of Moderna and Immunome. The Diamond laboratory has received funding support in sponsored research agreements from Moderna, Vir Biotechnology, and Emergent BioSolutions.Ethical Approval: All studies were performed with the approval of the University of Chicago institutional review board IRB20-0523 and University of Chicago, University of Wisconsin-Madison, and Washington University in St. Louis institutional biosafety committees. Informed consent was obtained after the research applications and possible consequences of the studies were disclosed to study subjects.

5.
mBio ; 12(6): e0297521, 2021 12 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518123

ABSTRACT

Several severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants have arisen that exhibit increased viral transmissibility and partial evasion of immunity induced by natural infection and vaccination. To address the specific antibody targets that were affected by recent viral variants, we generated 43 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from 10 convalescent donors that bound three distinct domains of the SARS-CoV-2 spike. Viral variants harboring mutations at K417, E484, and N501 could escape most of the highly potent antibodies against the receptor binding domain (RBD). Despite this, we identified 12 neutralizing mAbs against three distinct regions of the spike protein that neutralize SARS-CoV-2 and variants of concern (VOCs), including B.1.1.7 (alpha), P.1 (gamma), and B.1.617.2 (delta). Notably, antibodies targeting distinct epitopes could neutralize discrete variants, suggesting that different variants may have evolved to disrupt the binding of particular neutralizing antibody classes. These results underscore that humans exposed to the first pandemic wave of prototype SARS-CoV-2 possess neutralizing antibodies against current variants and that it is critical to induce antibodies targeting multiple distinct epitopes of the spike that can neutralize emerging variants of concern. IMPORTANCE We describe the binding and neutralization properties of a new set of human monoclonal antibodies derived from memory B cells of 10 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) convalescent donors in the first pandemic wave of prototype SARS-CoV-2. There were 12 antibodies targeting distinct epitopes on spike, including two sites on the RBD and one on the N-terminal domain (NTD), that displayed cross-neutralization of VOCs, for which distinct antibody targets could neutralize discrete variants. This work underlines that natural infection by SARS-CoV-2 induces effective cross-neutralization against only some VOCs and supports the need for COVID-19 vaccination for robust induction of neutralizing antibodies targeting multiple epitopes of the spike protein to combat the current SARS-CoV-2 VOCs and any others that might emerge in the future.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/blood , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , Convalescence , Epitopes/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests , Pandemics , Plasma/immunology , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
6.
Cell Rep Methods ; 1(4): 100056, 2021 Aug 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322060

ABSTRACT

Multimodal advances in single-cell sequencing have enabled the simultaneous quantification of cell surface protein expression alongside unbiased transcriptional profiling. Here, we present LinQ-View, a toolkit designed for multimodal single-cell data visualization and analysis. LinQ-View integrates transcriptional and cell surface protein expression profiling data to reveal more accurate cell heterogeneity and proposes a quantitative metric for cluster purity assessment. Through comparison with existing multimodal methods on multiple public CITE-seq datasets, we demonstrate that LinQ-View efficiently generates accurate cell clusters, especially in CITE-seq data with routine numbers of surface protein features, by preventing variations in a single surface protein feature from affecting results. Finally, we utilized this method to integrate single-cell transcriptional and protein expression data from SARS-CoV-2-infected patients, revealing antigen-specific B cell subsets after infection. Our results suggest LinQ-View could be helpful for multimodal analysis and purity assessment of CITE-seq datasets that target specific cell populations (e.g., B cells).

7.
Immunity ; 54(6): 1290-1303.e7, 2021 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1237724

ABSTRACT

Dissecting the evolution of memory B cells (MBCs) against SARS-CoV-2 is critical for understanding antibody recall upon secondary exposure. Here, we used single-cell sequencing to profile SARS-CoV-2-reactive B cells in 38 COVID-19 patients. Using oligo-tagged antigen baits, we isolated B cells specific to the SARS-CoV-2 spike, nucleoprotein (NP), open reading frame 8 (ORF8), and endemic human coronavirus (HCoV) spike proteins. SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific cells were enriched in the memory compartment of acutely infected and convalescent patients several months post symptom onset. With severe acute infection, substantial populations of endemic HCoV-reactive antibody-secreting cells were identified and possessed highly mutated variable genes, signifying preexisting immunity. Finally, MBCs exhibited pronounced maturation to NP and ORF8 over time, especially in older patients. Monoclonal antibodies against these targets were non-neutralizing and non-protective in vivo. These findings reveal antibody adaptation to non-neutralizing intracellular antigens during infection, emphasizing the importance of vaccination for inducing neutralizing spike-specific MBCs.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Immunodominant Epitopes/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibody Formation/genetics , B-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Computational Biology/methods , Cross Reactions/immunology , Epitope Mapping , Female , Gene Expression Profiling , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Immunodominant Epitopes/genetics , Immunologic Memory , Male , Neutralization Tests , Single-Cell Analysis/methods , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Transcriptome
8.
Nat Immunol ; 22(1): 67-73, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065904

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infections can cause coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which manifests with a range of severities from mild illness to life-threatening pneumonia and multi-organ failure. Severe COVID-19 is characterized by an inflammatory signature, including high levels of inflammatory cytokines, alveolar inflammatory infiltrates and vascular microthrombi. Here we show that patients with severe COVID-19 produced a unique serologic signature, including an increased likelihood of IgG1 with afucosylated Fc glycans. This Fc modification on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 IgGs enhanced interactions with the activating Fcγ receptor FcγRIIIa; when incorporated into immune complexes, Fc afucosylation enhanced production of inflammatory cytokines by monocytes, including interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor. These results show that disease severity in COVID-19 correlates with the presence of proinflammatory IgG Fc structures, including afucosylated IgG1.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Receptors, IgG/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Child , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Glycosylation , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/metabolism , Interleukin-6 , Male , Middle Aged , Receptors, IgG/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/immunology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
9.
mBio ; 12(1)2021 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1038406

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is currently causing a global pandemic. The antigen specificity of the antibody response mounted against this novel virus is not understood in detail. Here, we report that subjects with a more severe SARS-CoV-2 infection exhibit a larger antibody response against the spike and nucleocapsid protein and epitope spreading to subdominant viral antigens, such as open reading frame 8 and nonstructural proteins. Subjects with a greater antibody response mounted a larger memory B cell response against the spike, but not the nucleocapsid protein. Additionally, we revealed that antibodies against the spike are still capable of binding the D614G spike mutant and cross-react with the SARS-CoV-1 receptor binding domain. Together, this study reveals that subjects with a more severe SARS-CoV-2 infection exhibit a greater overall antibody response to the spike and nucleocapsid protein and a larger memory B cell response against the spike.IMPORTANCE With the ongoing pandemic, it is critical to understand how natural immunity against SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 develops. We have identified that subjects with more severe COVID-19 disease mount a more robust and neutralizing antibody response against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Subjects who mounted a larger response against the spike also mounted antibody responses against other viral antigens, including the nucleocapsid protein and ORF8. Additionally, this study reveals that subjects with more severe disease mount a larger memory B cell response against the spike. These data suggest that subjects with more severe COVID-19 disease are likely better protected from reinfection with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigens, Viral/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Cross Reactions , Epitopes/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Phosphoproteins/immunology
10.
Res Sq ; 2020 Sep 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-807694

ABSTRACT

Discovery of durable memory B cell (MBC) subsets against neutralizing viral epitopes is critical for determining immune correlates of protection from SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here, we identified functionally distinct SARS-CoV-2-reactive B cell subsets by profiling the repertoire of convalescent COVID-19 patients using a high-throughput B cell sorting and sequencing platform. Utilizing barcoded SARS-CoV-2 antigen baits, we isolated thousands of B cells that segregated into discrete functional subsets specific for the spike, nucleocapsid protein (NP), and open reading frame (ORF) proteins 7a and 8. Spike-specific B cells were enriched in canonical MBC clusters, and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from these cells were potently neutralizing. By contrast, B cells specific to ORF8 and NP were enriched in naïve and innate-like clusters, and mAbs against these targets were exclusively non-neutralizing. Finally, we identified that B cell specificity, subset distribution, and affinity maturation were impacted by clinical features such as age, sex, and symptom duration. Together, our data provide a comprehensive tool for evaluating B cell immunity to SARS-CoV-2 infection or vaccination and highlight the complexity of the human B cell response to SARS-CoV-2.

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