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Crit Care Explor ; 3(12): e0587, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560069


New treatments and increased experience are changing the management of hospitalized coronavirus disease 2019 patients but the impact on ICU management is unclear. OBJECTIVES: To examine characteristics, ventilatory management, and outcomes of critically ill patients in two distinct waves of the pandemic. DESIGN SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Observational cohort study in an ICU in a single-center university-affiliated U.K. hospital. Two-hundred ten adults with coronavirus disease 2019 admitted to ICU between March 17, 2020, to May 31, 2020, and September 1, 2020, to December 10, 2020, with hourly data and 100% follow-up to ICU discharge. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Data were extracted from the electronic medical record for patient characteristics and clinical data. Patients were classified into distinct waves of the pandemic and assessed for differences between the two waves. RESULTS: The duration of noninvasive ventilation/nasal high flow increased in wave 2 versus wave 1, both in self-ventilating patients (107 vs 72 hr; p = 0.02), and in those ultimately requiring invasive mechanical ventilation (34 vs 10 hr; p = 0.02). The proportion of survivors treated without invasive mechanical ventilation increased in wave 2 (59% vs 39%; p = 0.01). In both waves, longer duration of noninvasive ventilation/nasal high flow prior to intubation was associated with higher ICU mortality (survivors 10 hr [4-21 hr] vs nonsurvivors 50 hr [23-124 hr]; p < 0.01). Proned invasive mechanical ventilation was common (54.7%) and prolonged. In wave 2, invasive mechanical ventilation patients were generally more hypoxic with proning initiated at lower Pao2/Fio2 ratios (81 vs 116 mm Hg; p = 0.02) and yielding smaller improvements in Fio2 requirements. Continued proning episodes despite poor responses were commonplace and typically futile. Length of stay for patients requiring tracheostomy increased markedly in wave 2 (51.3 vs 33.7 d; p = 0.03). Overall survival remained similar in wave 2 (68.0% vs 60.9%; p = 0.31). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Our data suggest that management of critically ill coronavirus disease 2019 patients is changing with more survivors avoiding invasive mechanical ventilation. Duration of noninvasive ventilation/nasal high flow use is increasing, which may be associated with worsening outcomes for individuals who require invasive mechanical ventilation. Among invasively ventilated patients, changes in the use of and response to prone positioning and increased length of stay following tracheostomy may imply that the care of these patients is becoming more challenging.

BMJ Open ; 11(10): e047314, 2021 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462953


INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the single greatest contributor to global mortality. The successful introduction and scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) delivered a reduction in HIV mortality. Consequently, an association was found between the scale-up of ART and an increased prevalence of comorbidities among people living with HIV (PLWH) such as hypertension and dyslipidaemia. A higher quality diet can delay the onset of comorbidities related to HIV infection. Diet quality and its methods of assessment are not fully established among PLWH. This review will identify the diet quality and food insecurity indices that have been used among PLWH and how these constructs are associated with risk of developing CVD. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The frameworks recommended by Arksey and O'Malley and the Joanna Briggs Institute's manual for conducting scoping reviews will be adopted. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews guidelines will be used for reporting. A search strategy was developed using keywords related to the topic. A preliminary MEDLINE (via PubMed) search was conducted on 11 November 2020 to develop a comprehensive search strategy. The final search will be conducted on PubMed, EbscoHost, Scopus, Web of Science and Cochrane Library databases. Titles and abstracts of retrieved records will be screened independently by two reviewers. Data will be extracted from records that meet the inclusion criteria using a predesigned charting tool. Discrepancies in decisions made by reviewers will be resolved by consensus or the decision of a third reviewer. Extracted data will be presented in tables or charts. A descriptive summary of the charts or tables will follow. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is not required for a scoping review. Findings will inform other studies currently underway and will be presented at conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals. REGISTRATION NUMBER:

Cardiovascular Diseases , HIV Infections , Adult , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Diet , Food Insecurity , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Research Design , Review Literature as Topic , Systematic Reviews as Topic