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1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-305590

ABSTRACT

Background: Laboratory diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection (the cause of COVID-19) uses PCR to detect viral RNA (vRNA) in respiratory samples. SARS-CoV-2 RNA has also been detected in other sample types, but there is limited understanding of the clinical or laboratory significance of its detection in blood. Methods: We undertook a systematic literature review to assimilate the evidence for the frequency of vRNA in blood, and to identify associated clinical characteristics. We performed RT-PCR in serum samples from a UK clinical cohort of acute and convalescent COVID-19 cases (n=212), together with convalescent plasma samples collected by NHS Blood and Transplant (NHSBT) (n=462 additional samples). To determine whether PCR-positive blood samples could pose an infection risk, we attempted virus isolation from a subset of RNA-positive samples. Results: We identified 28 relevant studies, reporting SARS-CoV-2 RNA in 0-76% of blood samples;pooled estimate 10% (95%CI 5-18%). Among serum samples from our clinical cohort, 27/212 (12.7%) had SARS-CoV-2 RNA detected by RT-PCR. RNA detection occurred in samples up to day 20 post symptom onset, and was associated with more severe disease (multivariable odds ratio 7.5). Across all samples collected ≥28 days post symptom onset, 0/494 (0%, 95%CI 0-0.7%) had vRNA detected. Among our PCR-positive samples, cycle threshold (ct) values were high (range 33.5-44.8), suggesting low vRNA copy numbers. PCR-positive sera inoculated into cell culture did not produce any cytopathic effect or yield an increase in detectable SARS-CoV-2 RNA. There was a relationship between RT-PCR negativity and the presence of total SARS-CoV-2 antibody (p=0.02). Conclusions: vRNA was detectable at low viral loads in a minority of serum samples collected in acute infection, but was not associated with infectious SARS-CoV-2 (within the limitations of the assays used). This work helps to inform biosafety precautions for handling blood products from patients with current or previous COVID-19.

2.
The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry ; 29(4, Supplement):S91-S92, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1135410

ABSTRACT

Introduction A substantial proportion of older adults will experience depression (including major depressive disorder and subsyndromal depressive symptoms), yet depression remains underdiagnosed and undertreated among older adults. Behavioral Activation is an effective, empirically-validated, first-line treatment for mild to moderate depression. Behavioral activation is a patient-centered intervention designed to decrease depressive behavior (e.g. social isolation, physical inactivity) and increase engagement in pleasurable activities (e.g. hobbies, family time). The objective of this scoping review is to evaluate the gaps in the literature and knowledge base regarding the implementation contexts, target populations, delivery modalities, assessment methods, and effectiveness of behavioral activation as a treatment for depression and/or anxiety among older adults, including both inpatient and outpatient settings. Methods We performed a scoping review and searched for peer-reviewed articles published from 1990 to 2020. The keywords and their combinations (e.g., depression, anxiety, elder(s), elderly, geriatric, older adult(s), age, aged, aging, behavio(u)ral activation) were used in search engines including the following but not limited to PubMed, PsycINFO, and Cochrane. Our search strategy identified 423 results;after removing duplicates, 232 results remained. Currently, we are evaluating the titles and abstracts using broad inclusion criteria to ensure that all relevant behavioral activation relevant to geriatric depression and/or anxiety are included. All types of studies and publications (e.g. randomized clinical trials, cohort studies, case controls, reviews, etc.) that focus on behavioral activation as an intervention or primary focus are being included in this comprehensive search. Studies have to include participants > 50 years old with either clinically diagnosed depression and/or anxiety at or above a pre-defined cut-point on a validated symptom scale (e.g., PHQ-9: >5 and GAD-7: >5). Results This scoping review will chart the landscape of literature relevant to behavioral activation for older adults with depression and/or anxiety. The literature will be reviewed in terms of study setting (e.g., community or outpatient settings, inpatient psychiatric units, assisted living facilities);study type (including randomized clinical trials, as well as observational studies, cohort studies, case controls, cross sectional, etc.);mode, frequency, and duration of intervention delivery;type and training of providers;assessment methods;and outcomes. Reviews will be examined for themes and consistency in synthesis of findings. Particular attention will be paid to identifying gaps in the literature where further work is needed to broaden the reach and impact of this promising intervention. Conclusions Scoping reviews represent a compelling method for evaluating existing literature and identifying gaps for future study. The present scoping review will synthesize the identified literature, in the hope of helping not only clinicians who work closely with older adults, but also researchers wishing to pursue studies in this area. Given a burgeoning older adult population and a paucity of geriatric mental health providers, clinical guidelines offering alternative nonpharmacologic therapy can be effective and cost-effective for clinicians and healthcare systems. Given the COVID-19 pandemic and the consequent escalation in social isolation among older adults, it is also hoped that this scoping review will identify promising avenues and methods for adapting behavioral activation in myriad ways—i.e., through implementation via telehealth platforms—to the older adult population. Funding Not applicable

3.
Wellcome Open Research ; 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1024793

ABSTRACT

Background: Laboratory diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection (the cause of COVID-19) uses PCR to detect viral RNA (vRNA) in respiratory samples. SARS-CoV-2 RNA has also been detected in other sample types, but there is limited understanding of the clinical or laboratory significance of its detection in blood. Methods: We undertook a systematic literature review to assimilate the evidence for the frequency of vRNA in blood, and to identify associated clinical characteristics. We performed RT-PCR in serum samples from a UK clinical cohort of acute and convalescent COVID-19 cases (n=212), together with convalescent plasma samples collected by NHS Blood and Transplant (NHSBT) (n=462 additional samples). To determine whether PCR-positive blood samples could pose an infection risk, we attempted virus isolation from a subset of RNA-positive samples. Results: We identified 28 relevant studies, reporting SARS-CoV-2 RNA in 0-76% of blood samples;pooled estimate 10% (95%CI 5-18%). Among serum samples from our clinical cohort, 27/212 (12.7%) had SARS-CoV-2 RNA detected by RT-PCR. RNA detection occurred in samples up to day 20 post symptom onset, and was associated with more severe disease (multivariable odds ratio 7.5). Across all samples collected ≥28 days post symptom onset, 0/494 (0%, 95%CI 0-0.7%) had vRNA detected. Among our PCR-positive samples, cycle threshold (ct) values were high (range 33.5-44.8), suggesting low vRNA copy numbers. PCR-positive sera inoculated into cell culture did not produce any cytopathic effect or yield an increase in detectable SARS-CoV-2 RNA. There was a relationship between RT-PCR negativity and the presence of total SARS-CoV-2 antibody (p=0.02). Conclusions: vRNA was detectable at low viral loads in a minority of serum samples collected in acute infection, but was not associated with infectious SARS-CoV-2 (within the limitations of the assays used). This work helps to inform biosafety precautions for handling blood products from patients with current or previous COVID-19.

4.
Euro Surveill ; 25(42)2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-886127

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 IgG screening of 1,000 antenatal serum samples in the Oxford area, United Kingdom, between 14 April and 15 June 2020, yielded a 5.3% seroprevalence, mirroring contemporaneous regional data. Among the 53 positive samples, 39 showed in vitro neutralisation activity, correlating with IgG titre (Pearson's correlation p<0.0001). While SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in pregnancy cohorts could potentially inform population surveillance, clinical correlates of infection and immunity in pregnancy, and antenatal epidemiology evolution over time need further study.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Population Surveillance , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/blood , Pregnancy Trimester, First/blood , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/blood , England/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pregnancy , Prenatal Diagnosis , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Single-Blind Method , Young Adult
5.
Can J Neurol Sci ; 48(1): 118-121, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-744328

ABSTRACT

We reviewed stroke care delivery during the COVID-19 pandemic at our stroke center and provincial telestroke system. We counted referrals to our prevention clinic, code strokes, thrombolysis, endovascular thrombectomies, and activations of a provincial telestroke system from February to April of 2017-2020. In April 2020, there was 28% reduction in prevention clinic referrals, 32% reduction in code strokes, and 26% reduction in telestroke activations compared to prior years. Thrombolysis and endovascular thrombectomy rates remained constant. Fewer patients received stroke services across the spectrum from prevention, acute care to telestroke care in Ontario, Canada, during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care/trends , COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care/trends , Referral and Consultation/trends , Stroke/epidemiology , Endovascular Procedures/trends , Humans , Ontario/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/prevention & control , Stroke/therapy , Telemedicine/trends , Thrombectomy/trends , Thrombolytic Therapy/trends
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