Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 9 de 9
Filter
1.
J Infect Dis ; 224(9): 1489-1499, 2021 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522216

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) induces a complex antibody response that varies by orders of magnitude between individuals and over time. METHODS: We developed a multiplex serological test for measuring antibodies to 5 SARS-CoV-2 antigens and the spike proteins of seasonal coronaviruses. We measured antibody responses in cohorts of hospitalized patients and healthcare workers followed for up to 11 months after symptoms. A mathematical model of antibody kinetics was used to quantify the duration of antibody responses. Antibody response data were used to train algorithms for estimating time since infection. RESULTS: One year after symptoms, we estimate that 36% (95% range, 11%-94%) of anti-Spike immunoglobulin G (IgG) remains, 31% (95% range, 9%-89%) anti-RBD IgG remains, and 7% (1%-31%) of anti-nucleocapsid IgG remains. The multiplex assay classified previous infections into time intervals of 0-3 months, 3-6 months, and 6-12 months. This method was validated using data from a seroprevalence survey in France, demonstrating that historical SARS-CoV-2 transmission can be reconstructed using samples from a single survey. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to diagnosing previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, multiplex serological assays can estimate the time since infection, which can be used to reconstruct past epidemics.

2.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(2): e0039121, 2021 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443360

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies are an excellent indicator of past COVID-19 infection. As the COVID-19 pandemic progresses, retained sensitivity over time is an important quality in an antibody assay that is to be used for the purpose of population seroprevalence studies. We compared 5,788 health care worker (HCW) serum samples by using two serological assays (Abbott SARS-CoV-2 anti-nucleocapsid immunoglobulin G (IgG) and Roche anti-SARS-CoV-2 anti-nucleocapsid total antibody) and a subset of samples (all Abbott assay positive or grayzone, n = 485) on Wantai SARS-CoV-2 anti-spike antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). For 367 samples from HCW with a previous PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, we correlated the timing of infection with assay results. Overall, seroprevalence was 4.2% on Abbott and 9.5% on Roche. Of those with previously confirmed infection, 41% (150/367) and 95% (348/367) tested positive on Abbott and Roche, respectively. At 21 weeks (150 days) after confirmed infection, positivity on Abbott started to decline. Roche positivity was retained for the entire study period (33 weeks). Factors associated (P ≤ 0.050) with Abbott seronegativity in those with previous PCR-confirmed infection included sex (odds ratio [OR], 0.30 male ; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.15 to 0.60), symptom severity (OR 0.19 severe symptoms; 95% CI, 0.05 to 0.61), ethnicity (OR, 0.28 Asian ethnicity; 95% CI, 0.12 to 0.60), and time since PCR diagnosis (OR, 2.06 for infection 6 months previously; 95% CI, 1.01 to 4.30). Wantai detected all previously confirmed infections. In our population, Roche detected antibodies up to at least 7 months after natural infection with SARS-CoV-2. This finding indicates that the Roche total antibody assay is better suited than Abbott IgG assay to population-based studies. Wantai demonstrated high sensitivity, but sample selection was biased. The relationship between serological response and functional immunity to SARS-CoV-2 infection needs to be delineated. IMPORTANCE As the COVID-19 pandemic progresses, retained sensitivity over time is an important quality in an antibody assay that is to be used for the purpose of population seroprevalence studies. There is a relative paucity of published literature in this field to help guide public health specialists when planning seroprevalence studies. In this study, we compared results of 5,788 health care worker blood samples tested by using two assays (Roche and Elecsys, anti-nucleocapsid antibody) and by testing a subset on a third assay (Wantai enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA] anti-spike antibody). We found significant differences in the performance of these assays, especially with distance in time from PCR-confirmed COVID-19 infection, and we feel these results may significantly impact the choice of assay for others conducting similar studies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Young Adult
3.
Ir J Med Sci ; 2021 Jul 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1321866

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Serological SARS-CoV-2 assays have an important role in guiding the pandemic response. This research aimed to compare the performance of 2 antinucleocapsid assays. METHODS: Serum from 49 HCWs was analysed at baseline and 6 months using the Abbott diagnostics SARS-CoV-2 IgG assay and the Roche Diagnostics Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 total antibody assay. RESULTS: At baseline, 14/49 participants (29%) demonstrated antibody reactivity using the Abbott assay. At 6 months, 4/14 participants (29%) continued to demonstrate reactivity. A total of 14/49 (29%) participants had detectable antibodies at baseline using the Roche assay. In total, 13/14 (93%) of participants demonstrated antibody reactivity at 6 months. The Abbott assay showed a statistically significant difference in the signal-to-threshold values of baseline reactive samples when repeated at 6 months (p = 0.001). This was not seen with the Roche assay (p = 0.51). CONCLUSION: In this small study, the Roche Diagnostics Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 total antibody assay appears superior in performance to the Abbott diagnostics SARS-CoV-2 IgG assay in accurately detecting participants with a history of confirmed COVID-19 disease at 6 months follow-up. This finding should be born in mind in the planning of future seroprevalence studies, especially when considering the use of anti-nucleocapsid assays.

4.
J Infect Dis ; 224(9): 1489-1499, 2021 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317919

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) induces a complex antibody response that varies by orders of magnitude between individuals and over time. METHODS: We developed a multiplex serological test for measuring antibodies to 5 SARS-CoV-2 antigens and the spike proteins of seasonal coronaviruses. We measured antibody responses in cohorts of hospitalized patients and healthcare workers followed for up to 11 months after symptoms. A mathematical model of antibody kinetics was used to quantify the duration of antibody responses. Antibody response data were used to train algorithms for estimating time since infection. RESULTS: One year after symptoms, we estimate that 36% (95% range, 11%-94%) of anti-Spike immunoglobulin G (IgG) remains, 31% (95% range, 9%-89%) anti-RBD IgG remains, and 7% (1%-31%) of anti-nucleocapsid IgG remains. The multiplex assay classified previous infections into time intervals of 0-3 months, 3-6 months, and 6-12 months. This method was validated using data from a seroprevalence survey in France, demonstrating that historical SARS-CoV-2 transmission can be reconstructed using samples from a single survey. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to diagnosing previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, multiplex serological assays can estimate the time since infection, which can be used to reconstruct past epidemics.

5.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314763

ABSTRACT

Serological assays have been widely employed during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic to measure antibody responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and to track seroconversion in populations. However, currently available assays do not allow determination of neutralization capacity within the assay protocol. Furthermore, commercial serology assays have a high buy-in cost that is inaccessible for many research groups. We have replicated the serological enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 antibody isotypes, developed at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York. Additionally, we have modified the protocol to include a neutralization assay with only a minor modification to this protocol. We used this assay to screen local COVID-19 patient sera (n = 91) and pre-COVID-19 control sera (n = 103), and obtained approximate parity with approved commercial anti-nucleoprotein-based assays with these sera. Furthermore, data from our neutralization assay closely aligns with that generated using a spike-based pseudovirus infection model when a subset of patient sera was analyzed.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Seroconversion
6.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 18(6): 997-1003, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256079

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Much is known about the acute infective process of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative virus of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. The marked inflammatory response and coagulopathic state in acute SARS-CoV-2 infection may promote pulmonary fibrosis. However, little is known about the incidence and seriousness of post-COVID-19 pulmonary pathology. Objectives: To describe the respiratory recovery and self-reported health after infection at the time of outpatient attendance. Methods: Infection severity was graded into three groups: 1) not requiring admission, 2) requiring hospital admission, and 3) requiring intensive care unit care. Participants underwent chest radiography and a 6-minute walk test (6MWT). Fatigue and subjective return to health were assessed, and concentrations of CRP (C-reactive protein), IL-6 (interleukin-6), sCD25 (soluble CD25), and D-dimer were measured. The associations between initial illness and abnormal chest X-ray findings, 6MWT distance, and perception of maximal exertion were investigated. Results: A total of 487 patients were offered an outpatient appointment, of whom 153 (31%) attended for assessment at a median of 75 days after diagnosis. A total of 74 (48%) had required hospital admission during acute infection. Persistently abnormal chest X-ray findings were seen in 4%. The median 6MWT distance covered was 460 m. A reduced distance covered was associated with frailty and length of inpatient stay. A total of 95 (62%) patients believed that they had not returned to full health, whereas 47% met the case definition for fatigue. Ongoing ill health and fatigue were associated with an increased perception of exertion. None of the measures of persistent respiratory disease were associated with initial disease severity. Conclusions: This study highlights the rates of objective respiratory disease and subjective respiratory symptoms after COVID-19 and the complex multifactorial nature of post-COVID-19 ill health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Fatigue/physiopathology , Frailty/physiopathology , Lung/physiopathology , Recovery of Function , Adult , Aged , Ambulatory Care , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/physiopathology , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Female , Health Status , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Physical Exertion , Radiography, Thoracic , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Walk Test
7.
Front Immunol ; 12: 676932, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241170

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The immunological and inflammatory changes following acute COVID-19 are hugely variable. Persistent clinical symptoms following resolution of initial infection, termed long COVID, are also hugely variable, but association with immunological changes has not been described. We investigate changing immunological parameters in convalescent COVID-19 and interrogate their potential relationships with persistent symptoms. Methods: We performed paired immunophenotyping at initial SARS-CoV-2 infection and convalescence (n=40, median 68 days) and validated findings in 71 further patients at median 101 days convalescence. Results were compared to 40 pre-pandemic controls. Fatigue and exercise tolerance were assessed as cardinal features of long COVID using the Chalder Fatigue Scale and 6-minute-walk test. The relationships between these clinical outcomes and convalescent immunological results were investigated. Results: We identify persistent expansion of intermediate monocytes, effector CD8+, activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and reduced naïve CD4+ and CD8+ T cells at 68 days, with activated CD8+ T cells remaining increased at 101 days. Patients >60 years also demonstrate reduced naïve CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and expanded activated CD4+ T cells at 101 days. Ill-health, fatigue, and reduced exercise tolerance were common in this cohort. These symptoms were not associated with immune cell populations or circulating inflammatory cytokines. Conclusion: We demonstrate myeloid recovery but persistent T cell abnormalities in convalescent COVID-19 patients more than three months after initial infection. These changes are more marked with age and are independent of ongoing subjective ill-health, fatigue and reduced exercise tolerance.


Subject(s)
Aging/physiology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Cohort Studies , Convalescence , Female , Humans , Immunophenotyping , Longitudinal Studies , Lymphocyte Activation , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics
8.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 18(6): 997-1003, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1015968

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Much is known about the acute infective process of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative virus of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. The marked inflammatory response and coagulopathic state in acute SARS-CoV-2 infection may promote pulmonary fibrosis. However, little is known about the incidence and seriousness of post-COVID-19 pulmonary pathology. Objectives: To describe the respiratory recovery and self-reported health after infection at the time of outpatient attendance. Methods: Infection severity was graded into three groups: 1) not requiring admission, 2) requiring hospital admission, and 3) requiring intensive care unit care. Participants underwent chest radiography and a 6-minute walk test (6MWT). Fatigue and subjective return to health were assessed, and concentrations of CRP (C-reactive protein), IL-6 (interleukin-6), sCD25 (soluble CD25), and D-dimer were measured. The associations between initial illness and abnormal chest X-ray findings, 6MWT distance, and perception of maximal exertion were investigated. Results: A total of 487 patients were offered an outpatient appointment, of whom 153 (31%) attended for assessment at a median of 75 days after diagnosis. A total of 74 (48%) had required hospital admission during acute infection. Persistently abnormal chest X-ray findings were seen in 4%. The median 6MWT distance covered was 460 m. A reduced distance covered was associated with frailty and length of inpatient stay. A total of 95 (62%) patients believed that they had not returned to full health, whereas 47% met the case definition for fatigue. Ongoing ill health and fatigue were associated with an increased perception of exertion. None of the measures of persistent respiratory disease were associated with initial disease severity. Conclusions: This study highlights the rates of objective respiratory disease and subjective respiratory symptoms after COVID-19 and the complex multifactorial nature of post-COVID-19 ill health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Fatigue/physiopathology , Frailty/physiopathology , Lung/physiopathology , Recovery of Function , Adult , Aged , Ambulatory Care , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/physiopathology , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Female , Health Status , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Physical Exertion , Radiography, Thoracic , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Walk Test
9.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0240784, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-917987

ABSTRACT

Fatigue is a common symptom in those presenting with symptomatic COVID-19 infection. However, it is unknown if COVID-19 results in persistent fatigue in those recovered from acute infection. We examined the prevalence of fatigue in individuals recovered from the acute phase of COVID-19 illness using the Chalder Fatigue Score (CFQ-11). We further examined potential predictors of fatigue following COVID-19 infection, evaluating indicators of COVID-19 severity, markers of peripheral immune activation and circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines. Of 128 participants (49.5 ± 15 years; 54% female), more than half reported persistent fatigue (67/128; 52.3%) at median of 10 weeks after initial COVID-19 symptoms. There was no association between COVID-19 severity (need for inpatient admission, supplemental oxygen or critical care) and fatigue following COVID-19. Additionally, there was no association between routine laboratory markers of inflammation and cell turnover (leukocyte, neutrophil or lymphocyte counts, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, lactate dehydrogenase, C-reactive protein) or pro-inflammatory molecules (IL-6 or sCD25) and fatigue post COVID-19. Female gender and those with a pre-existing diagnosis of depression/anxiety were over-represented in those with fatigue. Our findings demonstrate a significant burden of post-viral fatigue in individuals with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection after the acute phase of COVID-19 illness. This study highlights the importance of assessing those recovering from COVID-19 for symptoms of severe fatigue, irrespective of severity of initial illness, and may identify a group worthy of further study and early intervention.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Fatigue/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Fatigue/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...