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1.
Bmj ; 370 (no pagination), 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2267877

ABSTRACT

Clinical question What is the role of drug interventions in the treatment and prevention of covid-19? Recommendations The first version on this living guidance focuses on corticosteroids. It contains a strong recommendation for systemic corticosteroids in patients with severe and critical covid-19, and a weak or conditional recommendation against systemic corticosteroids in patients with non-severe covid-19. Corticosteroids are inexpensive and are on the World Health Organisation list of essential medicines. How this guideline was created This guideline reflects an innovative collaboration between the WHO and the MAGIC Evidence Ecosystem Foundation, driven by an urgent need for global collaboration to provide trustworthy and living covid-19 guidance. A standing international panel of content experts, patients, clinicians, and methodologists, free from relevant conflicts of interest, produce recommendations for clinical practice. The panel follows standards, methods, processes, and platforms for trustworthy guideline development using the GRADE approach. We apply an individual patient perspective while considering contextual factors (that is, resources, feasibility, acceptability, equity) for countries and healthcare systems. The evidence A living systematic review and network meta-analysis, supported by a prospective meta-analysis, with data from eight randomised trials (7184 participants) found that systemic corticosteroids probably reduce 28 day mortality in patients with critical covid-19 (moderate certainty evidence;87 fewer deaths per 1000 patients (95% confidence interval 124 fewer to 41 fewer)), and also in those with severe disease (moderate certainty evidence;67 fewer deaths per 1000 patients (100 fewer to 27 fewer)). In contrast, systemic corticosteroids may increase the risk of death in patients without severe covid-19 (low certainty evidence;absolute effect estimate 39 more per 1000 patients, (12 fewer to 107 more)). Systemic corticosteroids probably reduce the need for invasive mechanical ventilation, and harms are likely to be minor (indirect evidence). Understanding the recommendations The panel made a strong recommendation for use of corticosteroids in severe and critical covid-19 because there is a lower risk of death among people treated with systemic corticosteroids (moderate certainty evidence), and they believe that all or almost all fully informed patients with severe and critical covid-19 would choose this treatment. In contrast, the panel concluded that patients with non-severe covid-19 would decline this treatment because they would be unlikely to benefit and may be harmed. Moreover, taking both a public health and a patient perspective, the panel warned that indiscriminate use of any therapy for covid-19 would potentially rapidly deplete global resources and deprive patients who may benefit from it most as potentially lifesaving therapy. Updates This is a living guideline. Work is under way to evaluate other interventions. New recommendations will be published as updates to this guideline. Readers note This is version 1 of the living guideline, published on 4 September (BMJ 2020;370:m3379) version 1. Updates will be labelled as version 2, 3 etc. When citing this article, please cite the version number. Submitted August 28 Accepted August 31Copyright © Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to.

2.
LANCET DIGITAL HEALTH ; 4(4), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1935260

ABSTRACT

Background Dexamethasone was the first intervention proven to reduce mortality in patients with COVID-19 being treated in hospital. We aimed to evaluate the adoption of corticosteroids in the treatment of COVID-19 in the UK after the RECOVERY trial publication on June 16, 2020, and to identify discrepancies in care. Methods We did an audit of clinical implementation of corticosteroids in a prospective, observational, cohort study in 237 UK acute care hospitals between March 16, 2020, and April 14, 2021, restricted to patients aged 18 years or older with proven or high likelihood of COVID-19, who received supplementary oxygen. The primary outcome was administration of dexamethasone, prednisolone, hydrocortisone, or methylprednisolone. This study is registered with ISRCTN, ISRCTN66726260. Findings Between June 17, 2020, and April 14, 2021, 47 795 (75.2%) of 63 525 of patients on supplementary oxygen received corticosteroids, higher among patients requiring critical care than in those who received ward care (11 185 [86.6%] of 12 909 vs 36 415 [72.4%] of 50 278). Patients 50 years or older were significantly less likely to receive corticosteroids than those younger than 50 years (adjusted odds ratio 0.79 [95% CI 0.70-0.89], p=0.0001, for 70-79 years;0.52 [0.46-0.58], p<0.0001, for >80 years), independent of patient demographics and illness severity. 84 (54.2%) of 155 pregnant women received corticosteroids. Rates of corticosteroid administration increased from 27.5% in the week before June 16, 2020, to 75-80% in January, 2021. Interpretation Implementation of corticosteroids into clinical practice in the UK for patients with COVID-19 has been successful, but not universal. Patients older than 70 years, independent of illness severity, chronic neurological disease, and dementia, were less likely to receive corticosteroids than those who were younger, as were pregnant women. This could reflect appropriate clinical decision making, but the possibility of inequitable access to life-saving care should be considered. Copyright (C) 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.

3.
Lancet Infectious Diseases ; 22(1):18-19, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1663194
4.
J Hosp Infect ; 114: 163-166, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385943

ABSTRACT

The survival of newer variants of SARS-CoV-2 on a representative surface has been compared to the established UK circulating isolate to determine whether enhanced environmental stability could play a part in their increased transmissibility. Stainless steel coupons were inoculated with liquid cultures of the three variants, with coupons recovered over seven days and processed for recoverable viable virus using plaque assay. After drying, there was no significant difference in inactivation rates between variants, indicating that there is no increased environmental persistence from the new variants.


Subject(s)
Equipment Contamination , SARS-CoV-2 , Stainless Steel , COVID-19 , Humans
5.
J Hosp Infect ; 108: 189-196, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1019281

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding how severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is spread within the hospital setting is essential in order to protect staff, implement effective infection control measures, and prevent nosocomial transmission. METHODS: The presence of SARS-CoV-2 in the air and on environmental surfaces around hospitalized patients, with and without respiratory symptoms, was investigated. Environmental sampling was undertaken within eight hospitals in England during the first wave of the coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak. Samples were analysed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and virus isolation assays. FINDINGS: SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected on 30 (8.9%) of 336 environmental surfaces. Cycle threshold values ranged from 28.8 to 39.1, equating to 2.2 x 105 to 59 genomic copies/swab. Concomitant bacterial counts were low, suggesting that the cleaning performed by nursing and domestic staff across all eight hospitals was effective. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in four of 55 air samples taken <1 m from four different patients. In all cases, the concentration of viral RNA was low and ranged from <10 to 460 genomic copies/m3 air. Infectious virus was not recovered from any of the PCR-positive samples analysed. CONCLUSIONS: Effective cleaning can reduce the risk of fomite (contact) transmission, but some surface types may facilitate the survival, persistence and/or dispersal of SARS-CoV-2. The presence of low or undetectable concentrations of viral RNA in the air supports current guidance on the use of specific personal protective equipment for aerosol-generating and non-aerosol-generating procedures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Disinfection/statistics & numerical data , Health Facilities/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Aerosols , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Cross Infection/transmission , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Disinfection/methods , England/epidemiology , Female , Fomites/statistics & numerical data , Fomites/virology , Health Personnel/education , Hospitals/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Male , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
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