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1.
Microb Drug Resist ; 27(9): 1167-1175, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406451

ABSTRACT

Background: The aim of this study was to assess the drivers of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial infection development in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its impact on patient outcome. Methods: Retrospective analysis on data from 32 consecutive patients with COVID-19, admitted to our intensive care unit (ICU) from March to May 2020. Outcomes considered were MDR infection and ICU mortality. Results: Fifty percent of patients developed an MDR infection during ICU stay after a median time of 8 [4-11] days. Most common MDR pathogens were carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii, causing bloodstream infections and pneumonia. MDR infections were linked to a higher length of ICU stay (p = 0.002), steroid therapy (p = 0.011), and associated with a lower ICU mortality (odds ratio: 0.439, 95% confidence interval: 0.251-0.763; p < 0.001). Low-dose aspirin intake was associated with both MDR infection (p = 0.043) and survival (p = 0.015). Among MDR patients, mortality was related with piperacillin-tazobactam use (p = 0.035) and an earlier onset of MDR infection (p = 0.042). Conclusions: MDR infections were a common complication in critically ill COVID-19 patients at our center. MDR risk was higher among those dwelling longer in the ICU and receiving steroids. However, MDR infections were not associated with a worse outcome.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter Infections/mortality , COVID-19/mortality , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Klebsiella Infections/mortality , Opportunistic Infections/mortality , Pneumonia/mortality , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Acinetobacter Infections/drug therapy , Acinetobacter Infections/microbiology , Acinetobacter Infections/virology , Acinetobacter baumannii/drug effects , Acinetobacter baumannii/growth & development , Acinetobacter baumannii/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Aspirin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/microbiology , COVID-19/virology , Carbapenems/therapeutic use , Critical Illness , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Klebsiella Infections/drug therapy , Klebsiella Infections/microbiology , Klebsiella Infections/virology , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Klebsiella pneumoniae/growth & development , Klebsiella pneumoniae/pathogenicity , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Opportunistic Infections/virology , Piperacillin, Tazobactam Drug Combination/therapeutic use , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Pneumonia/microbiology , Pneumonia/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Steroids/therapeutic use , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
2.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(9): 1250-1261, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305226

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been implicated in a wide spectrum of cardiac manifestations following the acute phase of the disease. OBJECTIVES: To assess the range of cardiac sequelae after COVID-19 recovery. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Embase, Scopus (inception through 17 February 2021) and Google scholar (2019 through 17 February 2021). STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Prospective and retrospective studies, case reports and case series. PARTICIPANTS: Adult patients assessed for cardiac manifestations after COVID-19 recovery. EXPOSURE: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection diagnosed by PCR. METHODS: Systematic review. RESULTS: Thirty-five studies (fifteen prospective cohort, seven case reports, five cross-sectional, four case series, three retrospective cohort and one ambidirectional cohort) evaluating cardiac sequelae in 52 609 patients were included. Twenty-nine studies used objective cardiac assessments, mostly cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) in 16 studies, echocardiography in 15, electrocardiography (ECG) in 16 and cardiac biomarkers in 18. Most studies had a fair risk of bias. The median time from diagnosis/recovery to cardiac assessment was 48 days (1-180 days). Common short-term cardiac abnormalities (<3 months) included increased T1 (proportion: 30%), T2 (16%), pericardial effusion (15%) and late gadolinium enhancement (11%) on CMR, with symptoms such as chest pain (25%) and dyspnoea (36%). In the medium term (3-6 months), common changes included reduced left ventricular global longitudinal strain (30%) and late gadolinium enhancement (10%) on CMR, diastolic dysfunction (40%) on echocardiography and elevated N-terminal proB-type natriuretic peptide (18%). In addition, COVID-19 survivors had higher risk (risk ratio 3; 95% CI 2.7-3.2) of developing heart failure, arrythmias and myocardial infarction. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 appears to be associated with persistent/de novo cardiac injury after recovery, particularly subclinical myocardial injury in the earlier phase and diastolic dysfunction later. Larger well-designed and controlled studies with baseline assessments are needed to better measure the extent of cardiac injury and its clinical impact.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Echocardiography , Electrocardiography , Heart Diseases/etiology , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
3.
Intern Emerg Med ; 16(8): 2051-2061, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1245735

ABSTRACT

Growing reports since the beginning of the pandemic and till date describe increased rates of cardiac complications (CC) in the active phase of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). CC commonly observed include myocarditis/myocardial injury, arrhythmias and heart failure, with an incidence reaching about a quarter of hospitalized patients in some reports. The increased incidence of CC raise questions about the possible heightened susceptibility of patients with cardiac disease to develop severe COVID-19, and whether the virus itself is involved in the pathogenesis of CC. The wide array of CC seems to stem from multiple mechanisms, including the ability of the virus to directly enter cardiomyocytes, and to indirectly damage the heart through systemic hyperinflammatory and hypercoagulable states, endothelial injury of the coronary arteries and hypoxemia. The induced CC seem to dramatically impact the prognosis of COVID-19, with some studies suggesting over 50% mortality rates with myocardial damage, up from ~ 5% overall mortality of COVID-19 alone. Thus, it is particularly important to investigate the relation between COVID-19 and heart disease, given the major effect on morbidity and mortality, aiming at early detection and improving patient care and outcomes. In this article, we review the growing body of published data on the topic to provide the reader with a comprehensive and robust description of the available evidence and its implication for clinical practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/complications , Heart Diseases/etiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , COVID-19/therapy , Disease Management , Heart Diseases/complications , Heart Diseases/therapy , Humans , Myocarditis/etiology , Prognosis , Risk Factors
4.
Transpl Infect Dis ; 23(4): e13595, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1145347

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of continuing immune suppressive therapy in solid organ transplant recipients (SOTR) with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: Systematic review and meta-analysis of data on 202 SOTR with COVID-19, published as case reports or case series. We extracted clinical, hemato-chemical, imaging, treatment, and outcome data. RESULTS: Most patients were kidney recipients (61.9%), males (68.8%), with median age of 57 years. The majority was on tacrolimus (73.5%) and mycophenolate (65.8%). Mortality was 18.8%, but an equal proportion was still hospitalized at last follow up. Immune suppressive therapy was withheld in 77.2% of patients, either partially or completely. Tacrolimus was continued in 50%. One third of survivors that continued immunosuppressants were on dual therapy plus steroids. None of those who continued immunosuppressants developed critical COVID-19 disease. Age (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1-1.11, P = .001) and lopinavir/ritonavir use (OR 3.3, 95%CI 1.2-8.5, P = .013) were independent predictors of mortality while immunosuppression maintenance (OR 0.067, 95% CI 0.008-0.558, P = .012) and tacrolimus continuation (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.1-0.7, P = .013) were independent predictors of survival. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that maintaining immune suppression might be safe in SOTR with moderate and severe COVID-19. Specifically, receiving tacrolimus could be beneficial for COVID-19 SOTR. Because of the quality of the available evidence, no definitive guidance on how to manage SOTR with COVID-19 can be derived from our data.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Organ Transplantation , Graft Rejection , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Organ Transplantation/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients
7.
Intern Emerg Med ; 15(5): 791-800, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-343413

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is currently causing a pandemic and will likely persist in endemic form in the foreseeable future. Physicians need to correctly approach this new disease, often representing a challenge in terms of differential diagnosis. Although COVID-19 lacks specific signs and symptoms, we believe internists should develop specific skills to recognize the disease, learning its 'semeiotic'. In this review article, we summarize the key clinical features that may guide in differentiating a COVID-19 case, requiring specific testing, from upper respiratory and/or influenza-like illnesses of other aetiology. We consider two different clinical settings, where availability of the different diagnostic strategies differs widely: outpatient and inpatient. Our reasoning highlights how challenging a balanced approach to a patient with fever and flu-like symptoms can be. At present, clinical workup of COVID-19 remains a hard task to accomplish. However, knowledge of the natural history of the disease may aid the internist in putting common and unspecific symptoms into the correct clinical context.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Internal Medicine , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Clinical Competence , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Infection ; 48(5): 779-782, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-276775

ABSTRACT

At present, there is no definitive antiviral treatment for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We describe our early experience with remdesivir in four critically ill COVID-19 patients. Patients received a 200 mg loading dose, followed by 100 mg daily intravenously for up to 10 days. All patients had been previously treated with other antivirals before remdesivir initiation. One patient experienced a torsade de pointes requiring cardiac resuscitation and one died due to multiple organ failure. Three patients showed biochemical signs of liver injury. Lymphocyte count increased in all patients soon after remdesivir initiation. Nasal swab SARS-CoV-2 RNA became negative in three of four patients after 3 days of therapy. We observed an in vivo virological effect of remdesivir in four critically ill, COVID-19 patients, coupled with a significant burden of adverse events. Although limited by the low number of subjects studied, our preliminary experience may be relevant for clinicians treating COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , RNA, Viral/blood , Adenosine Monophosphate/administration & dosage , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Alanine/administration & dosage , Alanine/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/diagnosis , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/etiology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/physiopathology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/virology , Convalescence , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Critical Illness , Darunavir/administration & dosage , Darunavir/adverse effects , Drug Administration Schedule , Drug Combinations , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Multiple Organ Failure/chemically induced , Multiple Organ Failure/diagnosis , Multiple Organ Failure/physiopathology , Multiple Organ Failure/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Ritonavir/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Torsades de Pointes/chemically induced , Torsades de Pointes/diagnosis , Torsades de Pointes/physiopathology , Torsades de Pointes/virology
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