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Br J Haematol ; 201(4): 766-773, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2326116


Many medications have been reported to be associated with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) through pharmacovigilance data and published case reports. Whilst there are existing data available regarding drug-induced thrombotic microangiopathy, there is no available synthesis of evidence to assess drug-induced TTP (DI-TTP). Despite this lack of evidence, patients with TTP are often advised against using many medications due to the theoretical risk of DI-TTP. This systematic review evaluated the evidence for an association of medications reported as potential triggers for TTP. Of 5098 records available 261 articles were assessed further for eligibility. Fifty-seven reports, totalling 90 patients, were included in the final analysis. There were no cases where the level of association was rated as definite or probable, demonstrating a lack of evidence of any drug causing DI-TTP. This paucity of evidence was also demonstrated in the pharmacovigilance data, where 613 drugs were reported as potential causes of TTP without assessment of the strength of association. This systematic review demonstrates the need for standardised reporting of potential drugs causing TTP. Many reports omit basic information and, therefore, hinder the chance of finding a causative link if one exists.

Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic , Thrombotic Microangiopathies , Humans , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/chemically induced , Pharmacovigilance , North America
Br J Haematol ; 196(1): 79-94, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1402884


Coagulation dysfunction and thrombosis are major complications in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Patients on oral anticoagulants (OAC) prior to diagnosis of COVID-19 may therefore have better outcomes. In this multicentre observational study of 5 883 patients (≥18 years) admitted to 26 UK hospitals between 1 April 2020 and 31 July 2020, overall mortality was 29·2%. Incidences of thrombosis, major bleeding (MB) and multiorgan failure (MOF) were 5·4%, 1·7% and 3·3% respectively. The presence of thrombosis, MB, or MOF was associated with a 1·8, 4·5 or 5·9-fold increased risk of dying, respectively. Of the 5 883 patients studied, 83·6% (n = 4 920) were not on OAC and 16·4% (n = 963) were taking OAC at the time of admission. There was no difference in mortality between patients on OAC vs no OAC prior to admission when compared in an adjusted multivariate analysis [hazard ratio (HR) 1·05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·93-1·19; P = 0·15] or in an adjusted propensity score analysis (HR 0·92 95% CI 0·58-1·450; P = 0·18). In multivariate and adjusted propensity score analyses, the only significant association of no anticoagulation prior to diagnosis of COVID-19 was admission to the Intensive-Care Unit (ICU) (HR 1·98, 95% CI 1·37-2·85). Thrombosis, MB, and MOF were associated with higher mortality. Our results indicate that patients may have benefit from prior OAC use, especially reduced admission to ICU, without any increase in bleeding.

Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Thrombosis/complications , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Administration, Oral , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombosis/epidemiology , United Kingdom/epidemiology
Br J Haematol ; 195(1): 85-89, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270821


The impact of COVID-19 infection on pregnant women remains relatively unknown but the physiological changes of pregnancy and hypercoagulability of COVID-19 may further increase thrombotic risk. In this retrospective multicentre observational study, we report clinical characteristics and outcomes in 36 pregnant women requiring hospitalisation for COVID-19 compared to a propensity-matched cohort of non-pregnant women. Pregnant women had a lower haemoglobin and higher lymphocyte counts but no differences in other haematological or biochemical parameters on admission compared to non-pregnant women. There was no significant difference in the duration of hospitalisation; median two days (1-77) for pregnant versus eight days (1-49) for non-pregnant women. A higher proportion of non-pregnant women required mechanical ventilation [11/36 (31%) vs 3/36 (8%), P = 0·03] and received thromboprophylaxis with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) within 24 h of admission [25/36 (69%) vs 15 /36(42%), P = 0·03] compared to pregnant women. One pregnant woman required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. The rate of thrombosis was similar in both groups (one in each group). No women developed major bleeding or died. Data suggest that although non-pregnant women had a severe clinical course, overall outcomes were not different between women with or without pregnancy. The use of thromboprophylaxis was inconsistent, demonstrating a need for establishing evidence-based guidance for COVID-19 during pregnancy.

COVID-19/blood , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Adult , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Middle Aged , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Retrospective Studies , United Kingdom , Young Adult