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1.
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research ; 71(1):45-51, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1597927

ABSTRACT

Vaccine among people globally preparations must be made within countries for covid-19 vaccine safety surveillance on an urgent basis. Safety surveillance must be capable of investigating adverse event of special interest (AESI) and adverse event following immunization to determine a change in the benefit-risk profile of the vaccine. COVID-19 vaccine is the most important tool to stem the pandemic. WHO emergency use listing, while using regulatory pathway through national regulatory authorities. Vaccine safety communication plan should be developed. Expending the global vaccine safety system to meet the needs of covid-19 and other emergency and routine use vaccine is a priority currently. The protective efficacy and the short term and long-term side effect of the vaccine are of major concern. Various strategies have been designed the covid-19 pandemic. The highly infectious corona virus disease 2019 associate with me pathogenic severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread to become a global pandemic. The development of covid-19 vaccine is crucial for the world to return to pre-pandemic normalcy and the collective global effort has been invested into protective against SARS-CoV2.

2.
Journal of Research in Medical and Dental Science ; 9(11):14-20, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1576500

ABSTRACT

The term corona virus (Latin: Corona, crown) is coined due to presence of spikes glycoproteins on the surface that gives it a crown-like appearance. Coronaviruses came from the family Coronaviridae and the order Nidovirales. Novel Corona Virus Disease outbreak happened in January 2020 subsequently dispersed around the world and reason for death of several million people worldwide. Currently, no effective treatment for severe COVID-19 patients is present. Now days, patients are only treated symptomatically. Scientific community working to develop novel antiviral drugs, vaccines, immunomodulatory medications. In the recent scenario of COVID-19 pandemic, we lack any better therapeutic option for treatment of severe COVID-19 patients. MSCs may be a better option for providing emergency therapy. Vast number of studies and clinical trials are warranted regarding the safety and efficacy stem cell therapy in COVID-19 and other respiratory disorders.

3.
Indian Journal of Medical Specialities ; 12(4):188-193, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1534359

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus-induced disease (COVID-19) has emerged as a dreaded pandemic which is a threat to the entire world. It all began in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and rapidly spread over the world. It is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) which is an enveloped virus single-stranded, positive-sensed ribonucleic acid virus that enters the host cell lungs via endocytosis or membrane fusion utilizing the ACE-2 receptor. The virus particles release and replicate into new progenies, which cause cytokine storm in some cases by releasing pro-inflammatory mediators into the lungs. It dominantly manifests as SARS-CoV-2 and eventually involves all systems of human body. As of July 15, 2021, approximately 189 million COVID-19-infected cases have been reported worldwide, with over 4 million individuals dying as a result. In India, so far there are approximately 31 million infected cases and 4 lakhs human lives have been lost. Various antivirals, antibiotics, corticosteroids, and other adjuvant therapies were being experimentally employed for COVID-19 prophylaxis and treatment. Many pharmaceutical companies have worked on COVID-19 vaccinations to stop the virus progression and transmission. In several countries, including India, the United States, and Russia, the COVID-19 vaccine has already been approved for human use. India has been able to produce two vaccines, namely Covaxin and Covishield, and launches a massive vaccination drive for people above 18 years adults. Till now, approximately 304 million subjects have been partially vaccinated and 73 million subjects are fully vaccinated. Various other COVID-19 vaccines are in Phase 3 of clinical development. Vaccines against COVID are a major tool against the progression and prevention of COVID-19.

4.
Environ Res ; 200: 111754, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1324118

ABSTRACT

Our purpose of this research is to study the variation in air quality during lockdown (LD) and Post-lockdown (Post-LD) with respect to Pre-lockdown (Pre-LD) in most polluted cities of India by comparing the data of PM10 and PM2.5 in different periods: Pre-LD, LD and post-LD. We have selected top five cities of India out of the 20 most polluted cities across the world including Ghaziabad, Delhi, Noida, Greater Noida, and Lucknow (LKO). Historical data of atmospheric PM10 and PM2.5 for all cities were obtained from the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) online web portal of air quality data, except LKO. However, atmospheric PMs was monitored in LKO and samples of PM10 and PM2.5 were collected. During the LD and Post-LD period, due to anthropogenic emissions switch-off' a sharp decline was observed in concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 in both circumstances (monthly and mean variation) as compared to Pre-LD in all selected cities. The Percentage changes (PCs) was found in mean concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 during LD** and Post-LD*** with respect to Pre-LD at selected cities; Delhi -40.78%**, -58.42%*** and -57.60%**, -70.11%***; Ghaziabad -31.20%**, -53.91%*** and -57.29%**, -44.82%***; Noida -36.59&**, -53.95&*** and -58.36%**, -68.49%***; Greater Noida -39.39%**, -55.75%*** and -61.07%**, -71.56%***; LKO -57.95%**, -65.01%*** and -63.31%**, -59.95%*** respectively. The PCs of both pollutants exhibited a significant decrease in mean concentrations in all selected cities during LD and Post-LD with respect to Pre-LD period. Consequently, the results of current studies suggest that due to COVID-19 pandemic national LD restriction on anthropogenic activities, both coarse and fine pollutants have significantly reduced and air quality greatly improved during LD and Post-LD as compared to pre-LD period in all selected cities of India.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Cities , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , India , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Journal of Research in Medical and Dental Science ; 9(4):433-437, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1250128

ABSTRACT

Introduction: In recent days, trend of taking online lectures is booming in medical education all around the globe. Online lectures show its greatest importance during COVID-19 outbreak and lockdown period, where it is the only possible way to teach the international students from home. However, there are several issues including lack of support from management, ignorance & resistance of other faculty members, changes in syllabus of medical education putting extra pressure on overloaded teaching faculty, low level of satisfaction in students, poor internet connection, poor software qualities, poor language skills in students,lack of communication between teacher and students. Material and method: We ran an online survey, under which we send the set of Questions (given in the Table 1) to 54 volunteer Fourth Year Medical students, who were taking online lectures during COVID-19 Pandemic. Results: In our online survey we found that 92 % students agree with idea of saving energy and time through online lectures. 46 % students face poor internet problems, 20 % students face problems to understand online lectures because of their poor language skills,22% students reported lack of concentration during online classes, 38% students reported technical issues,42% students are satisfied, 42% partially satisfied, 10 % students not satisfied. 94% students believe that these online lectures are not enough to make students more confident and independent about medical knowledge. Additionally, 37% students (maximum number of students) reported that they like to take online lectures one zoom app. Conclusion: Online teaching in medical colleges is still a new concept;however, with improved technology, it can be a fruitful deal for the coming generations. During COVID -19, these online lectures became a crucial candlelight in the dark era of lockdown worldwide. Last but not the least, online lectures are not the substitute of face-to-face classroom lectures. Contrarily, if we solve the connectivity issues, electronic device issues, software problems, language issues etc., then only online lectures can reach up to the level of face-to-face classroom lectures.

6.
Public Health Nutr ; 24(6): 1275-1290, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-997752

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to develop and validate a questionnaire to assess the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on lifestyle-related behaviour related to eating, activity and sleep pattern. DESIGN: Indexed study used a mixed method design. Phase I employed qualitative methods for development of questionnaire including literature review, focus group discussion, expert evaluation and pre-testing. Phase II used quantitative methods for establishing construct validity of the questionnaire via parallel factor analysis. PARTICIPANTS: Phase 1 involved participation of experts from different fields (Departments of Medicine, Nutrition and Clinical Psychology) and general adult population. For phase II, data were collected from 124 adult respondents (female = 57·26 %); mean age (36 ± 14·8 years) residing in an urban setting. RESULTS: The questionnaire consisted of three sections: (A) socio-demographic and anthropometric parameters, (B) twenty-four items each for investigating the changes in eating, activity and sleep behaviour before v. during COVID-19, (C) six items assessing COVID-19 specific reasons for lifestyle change. The Cronbach's α value of the questionnaire is 0·83 suggesting its good internal consistency. CONCLUSIONS: This appears to be a valid tool to assess the impact of COVID-19 on lifestyle-related behaviours with potential utility for public health researchers to identify these changes at community level and develop strategies to reinforce corrective behaviours.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Health Impact Assessment/standards , Surveys and Questionnaires/standards , Adult , Aged , Exercise , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Feeding Behavior , Female , Humans , Life Style , Male , Middle Aged , Reproducibility of Results , Research Design , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep
7.
Medical Writing ; 29(3):16-23, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-896289

ABSTRACT

The European regulatory landscape for clinical trials and medical devices is in the midst of major transformation. Older policies are giving way to new regulations that emphasise more harmonised and streamlined processes for document submittal, greater public transparency of documents, and the creation of plain language summaries of clinical trials for easier understanding by the general public. This article provides an overview of impor tant new regulations and policies, including some new guidances regarding research related to the COVID-19 pandemic. This article also discusses opportunities for medical writers working in the context of a new regulatory environment that requires balancing increased public disclosure of information and greater privacy protections for individuals. © 2020, European Medical Writers Association. All rights reserved.

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