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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 606, 2022 Jul 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1928161

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Statins and aspirin have been proposed for treatment of COVID-19 because of their anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic properties. Several observational studies have shown favourable results. There is a need for a randomised controlled trial. METHODS: In this single-center, open-label, randomised controlled trial, 900 RT-PCR positive COVID-19 patients requiring hospitalisation, were randomly assigned to receive either atorvastatin 40 mg (Group A, n = 224), aspirin 75 mg (Group B, n = 225), or both (Group C, n = 225) in addition to standard of care for 10 days or until discharge whichever was earlier or only standard of care (Group D, n = 226). The primary outcome variable was clinical deterioration to WHO Ordinal Scale for Clinical Improvement ≥ 6. The secondary outcome was change in serum C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and troponin I. RESULTS: The primary outcome occurred in 25 (2.8%) patients: 7 (3.2%) in Group A, 3 (1.4%) in Group B, 8 (3.6%) in Group C, and 7 (3.2%) in Group D. There was no difference in primary outcome across the study groups (P = 0.463). Comparison of all patients who received atorvastatin or aspirin with the control group (Group D) also did not show any benefit [Atorvastatin: HR 1.0 (95% CI 0.41-2.46) P = 0.99; Aspirin: HR 0.7 (95% CI 0.27-1.81) P = 0.46]. The secondary outcomes revealed lower serum interleukin-6 levels among patients in Groups B and C. There was no excess of adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients admitted with mild to moderate COVID-19 infection, additional treatment with aspirin, atorvastatin, or a combination of the two does not prevent clinical deterioration. Trial Registry Number CTRI/2020/07/026791 ( http://ctri.nic.in ; registered on 25/07/2020).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clinical Deterioration , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Atorvastatin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Interleukin-6 , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
2.
Lung India ; 39(3): 247-253, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1810866

ABSTRACT

Background: Hypoxia in patients with COVID-19 is one of the strongest predictors of mortality. Silent hypoxia is characterised by the presence of hypoxia without dyspnoea. Silent hypoxia has been shown to affect the outcome in previous studies. Methods: This was a retrospective study of a cohort of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection who were hypoxic at presentation. Clinical, laboratory and treatment parameters in patients with silent hypoxia and dyspnoeic hypoxia were compared. Multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to identify the factors predicting mortality. Results: Among 2080 patients with COVID-19 admitted to our hospital, 811 patients were hypoxic with SpO2 <94% at the time of presentation. Among them, 174 (21.45%) did not have dyspnoea since the onset of COVID-19 symptoms. Further, 5.2% of patients were completely asymptomatic for COVID-19 and were found to be hypoxic only on pulse oximetry. The case fatality rate in patients with silent hypoxia was 45.4% as compared to 40.03% in dyspnoeic hypoxic patients (P = 0.202). The odds ratio of death was 1.1 (95% CI: 0.41-2.97) in the patients with silent hypoxia after adjusting for baseline characteristics, laboratory parameters, treatment and in-hospital complications, which did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.851). Conclusion: Silent hypoxia may be the only presenting feature of COVID-19. As the case fatality rate is comparable between silent and dyspnoeic hypoxia, it should be recognised early and treated as aggressively. Because home isolation is recommended in patients with COVID-19, it is essential to use pulse oximetry in the home setting to identify these patients.

3.
Lung India ; 39(3): 230-233, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1810862

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2), which causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has rapidly evolved into a pandemic, affecting more than 90 million people and more than 1.9 million deaths worldwide. Despite extensive study, the prognostic role of various hematological and biochemical parameters remains unclear. Methods: This study was carried out at a COVID care facility in Delhi. The demographic and clinical information, laboratory parameters (hematological, biochemical, and inflammatory), and the treatment of admitted COVID-19 patients during first wave were collected from electronic medical records and were subsequently analyzed. Results: Between March 2020 and November 2020, a total of 5574 patients were admitted to hospital due to COVID-19. Majority (77.2%) were male and had a mean (standard deviation [SD]) age of 38.9 (14.9) years. The mean (SD) duration of hospital stay was significantly higher in nonsurvivors. Out of the entire cohort, 8.7% of the patients had comorbidities, whereas 47.1% of the patients were asymptomatic at presentation. Compared to the survivors, the nonsurvivors had a significantly higher proportion of comorbidities and were more likely to be symptomatic. Patients who died during hospital stay had significantly higher relative neutrophil percent and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and lower lymphocyte percent. The patients who died had significantly higher levels of ferritin, D-dimer, and fibrinogen. Conclusions: Analysis of various hematological and inflammatory parameters can provide useful prognostic information among COVID-19-affected patients. It can also help in identifying patients who merit aggressive institutional care and thereby potentially mitigate the mortality.

4.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329364

ABSTRACT

Importance Both vaccination and natural infection lead to immunity and may augment mutual immune response against SARS-CoV-2. There is a need for an evidence-driven booster vaccination policy depending on durability of immune response. Objective To determine the durability of humoral immune response with varying age, vaccine type, duration, and previous natural infection at least six months after complete vaccination with ChAdOx1 nCov-19 or BBV152. Design Cross-sectional observational study conducted between November 2021 and January 2022. Setting Participants were drawn from a DBT COVID-19 Research Consortium cohort in Delhi National Capital Region, India. Participants We included 2003 individuals who had completed six months after complete vaccination: (i) vaccination with ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 and aged 18-59 years, (ii) vaccination with ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 and aged ≥60 years (iii) vaccination with BBV152 and aged 18-59 years (iv) vaccination with BBV152 and aged ≥60 years (v) vaccination with either vaccine plus SARS-CoV-2 infection referred as those having hybrid immunity. A group of 94 unvaccinated individuals was also included for comparison. Exposure Age, vaccination type, prior SARS-CoV-2 infection and duration from vaccination/infection. Main Outcome(s) and Measure(s) Humoral immune response determined by anti-RBD IgG concentrations and the presence of anti-nucleocapsid IgG. Results The serum anti-RBD IgG antibodies were detected (cut-off 24 BAU/ml) in 85% participants with a median titer of 163 (IQR 73, 403) BAU/ml. In the hybrid immunity group, 97.6% [295 (IQR 128, 687) BAU/mL] tested positive for anti-RBD IgG compared to 81.3% [139 (IQR 62, 326) BAU/ml] of only vaccinated participants [χ2 test: p <0.001]. The median anti-RBD IgG titers were higher in the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 versus BBV152 groups. The median anti-RBD IgG titer in the anti-nucleocapsid positive participants [326 (IQR 132, 739) BAU/ml] was significantly higher than in those without anti-nucleocapsid antibodies [131 (IQR 58, 288) BAU/ml;p <0.001]. The IgG anti-RBD antibodies was present in 85% of participants beyond a median of 8 months after complete vaccination. Conclusions and Relevance Considering the wide seropositivity rates due to natural SARS-CoV-2 infection, recommendation for boosters should take into account past infections in the population. Key points Question What is the extent of waning of humoral immune response in various groups of vaccinated individuals at least six months after complete vaccination with ChAdOx1 nCov-19 or BBV152 with or without prior natural infection? Findings Cross-sectional observational study demonstrates persistence of anti-RBD IgG in 85% of participants even beyond a median of 8 months after complete vaccination. The antibody concentrations were significantly higher in those with hybrid immunity. Meaning Humoral immunity may last longer due to heterologous antigenic exposure following vaccination and natural infection emphasizing the need for contextualizing the booster policy.

5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-317240

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Till date, no drug has shown definite benefit in non-severe COVID-19. Ivermectin is an antiparasitic drug which has in-vitro efficacy in reducing coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) load in severe disease. Objectives: To determine if a single oral administration of Ivermectin to patients with mild and moderate COVID-19 is effective in converting SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR to negative result and in reducing viral load. Methods: : In this double-blind trial, patients were randomized to elixir formulation of Ivermectin in 24 mg, 12 mg or placebo in 1:1:1 ratio. The co-primary outcomes were conversion of RT-PCR to negative result and the decline of viral load at day 5 of enrolment and were assessed in patients with positive RT-PCR at enrolment (modified intention-to-treat population). Safety outcomes included total and serious adverse events and were assessed in all patients who received the trial drug (intention-to-treat population). Results: : Among 157 patients randomized, 125 patients were included in mITT analysis. Forty patients each were assigned to Ivermectin 24 mg and 12 mg, and 45 patients to placebo. The RT-PCR negativity at day 5 was higher in the two Ivermectin arms but failed to attain statistical significance (Ivermectin 24 mg, 47.5%;12 mg, 35.0%;and placebo, 31.1%;p= 0.30). The decline of viral load at day 5 was similar in the three arms. No serious adverse events were encountered. Conclusion: In patients with mild and moderate COVID-19, a single administration of Ivermectin elixir (either 24 mg or 12 mg) demonstrated a trend towards higher proportion of RT-PCR negativity at day 5 of enrolment. The protocol was registered in the Clinical Trial Registry – India (CTRI) vide ref No CTRI/2020/06/026001.

6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311088

ABSTRACT

Background: Statins and aspirin have been advocated for treatment of Covid-19 owing to anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic properties and have shown favorable results in observational studies. There is a need for randomized controlled trial.Methods: We conducted a single-center, four-arm parallel design, open-label randomized controlled trial on RT-PCR positive Covid-19 patients, ≥ 40 years and < 75 years of age, requiring hospitalization [World Health Organization (WHO) Ordinal Scale for Clinical Improvement 3 to 5]. Patients were randomly assigned to either atorvastatin 40 mg (group A), aspirin 75 mg (group B), or both (group C) in addition to standard of care for 10 days or until discharge whichever was earlier or only standard of care (group D). The primary outcome variable was clinical deterioration to WHO Ordinal Scale for Clinical Improvement ≥ 6. The secondary outcome was change in serum inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein and Interleukin-6), and Troponin I.Findings: A total of 900 patients underwent randomization (with Groups A, B, C and D assigned 224, 225, 225 and 226 patients respectively). The primary outcome occurred in 25 (2.8%) patients: 7 (3.2%) in Group A, 3 (1.4%) in Group B, 8 (3.6%) in Group C and 7 (3.2%) in Group D. There was no difference in primary outcome across the study groups (P=0.463). Comparison of all patients who received atorvastatin or aspirin with the control group (Group D) also did not show any benefit [Atorvastatin: HR 1.0 (95% CI 0.41 - 2.46);Aspirin: HR 0.7 (95% CI 0.27 - 1.81)]. The secondary outcomes revealed lower serum IL-6 among patients in Groups B and C. There was no excess of adverse events.Interpretation: Among patients admitted with mild to moderate Covid-19 infection, additional treatment with aspirin, atorvastatin or a combination of the two does not prevent clinical deterioration.Trial Registry Number: CTRI/2020/07/026791 (http://ctri.nic.in;registered on 25th July 2020)Funding: None to declare. Declaration of Interest: None to declareEthical Approval: The trial was approved by the institutional ethical committee.

7.
Lung India ; 39(1): 16-26, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604705

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The "second wave" of the COVID-19 pandemic hit India from early April 2021 to June 2021. We describe the clinical features, treatment trends, and baseline laboratory parameters of a cohort of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and their association with the outcome. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study. Multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to identify clinical and biochemical predictors of developing hypoxia, deterioration during the hospital stay, and death. RESULTS: A total of 2080 patients were included. The case fatality rate was 19.5%. Among the survivors, the median duration of hospital stay was 8 (5-11) days. Out of 853 (42.3%%) of patients who had COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome at presentation, 340 (39.9%) died. Patients aged >45 years had higher odds of death as compared to the 18-44 years age group. Vaccination reduced the odds of death by 40% (odds ratio [OR] [95% confidence interval [CI]]: 0.6 [0.4-0.9], P = 0.032). Patients with hyper inflammation at baseline as suggested by leukocytosis (OR [95% CI]: 2.1 [1.5-3.1], P < 0.001), raised d-dimer >500 mg/dL (OR [95% CI]: 3.2 [2.2-4.7], P < 0.001), and raised C-reactive peptide >0.5 mg/L (OR [95% CI]: 3.7 [2.2-13], P = 0.037) had higher odds of death. Patients who were admitted in the 2nd week had lower odds and those admitted in the 3rd week had higher odds of death. CONCLUSION: This study shows that vaccination status and early admission during the inflammatory phase can change the course of illness of these patients. Improving vaccination rates and early admission of patients with moderate and severe COVID-19 can improve the outcomes.

8.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295883

ABSTRACT

Background Due to the unprecedented speed of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine development, their efficacy trials and issuance of emergency use approvals and marketing authorizations, additional scientific questions remain that need to be answered regarding vaccine effectiveness, vaccination regimens and the need for booster doses. While long-term studies on the correlates of protection, vaccine effectiveness, and enhanced surveillance are awaited, studies on breakthrough infections help us understand the nature and course of this illness among vaccinated individuals and guide in public health preparedness. Methods This observational cohort study aimed at comparing the differences in clinical, biochemical parameters and the hospitalization outcomes of 53 fully vaccinated individuals with those of unvaccinated (1,464) and partially vaccinated (231) individuals, among a cohort of 2,080 individuals hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Results Completing the course of vaccination protected individuals from developing severe COVID-19 as evidence by lower proportions of those with hypoxia, abnormal levels of inflammatory markers, requiring ventilatory support and death compared to unvaccinated and partially vaccinated individuals. There were no differences in these outcomes among patients who received either vaccine type approved in India. Conclusion With a current rate of only 9.5% of the Indian population being fully vaccinated, efforts should be made to improve the vaccination rates as a timely measure to prepare for the upcoming waves of this highly transmissible pandemic. Vaccination rates of the communities may also guide in the planning of the health needs and appropriate use of medical resources. Research in context Evidence before this study The Government of India started vaccinating its citizens from the 16 th of January 2021, after emergency use authorization had been received for the use of two vaccines, BBV152, a COVID-19 vaccine based on the whole-virion SARS-CoV-2 vaccine strain NIV-2020-770, (Covaxin) and the recombinant replication-deficient chimpanzee adenovirus vector encoding the spike protein ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 Corona Virus Vaccine (Covishield). These have been approved by the Indian regulatory authority based on randomized controlled studies. In these studies, was found that the vaccines led to more than 90% reduction in symptomatic COVID-19 disease. However, there is scarce evidence of the efficacy of these vaccines in real-world scenarios. A few studies have looked at vaccinated cohorts such as health care workers in whom the vaccines had an efficacy similar to the RCTs. In a study of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection admitted to a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi, it was found that mortality in fully vaccinated patients was 12.5% as compared to 31.5% in the unvaccinated cohort. Added-value of this study This cohort of hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection was studied during the peak of the second wave of COVID-19 in India during which the delta variant of concern was the predominant infecting strain and had 26% patients who were partially vaccinated and 71.4% who were unvaccinated. Only 3% of the patients were fully vaccinated and developed a breakthrough infection. At the time of presentation, 13% of the individuals with breakthrough infection and 48·5% in the non-vaccinated group were hypoxic. Inflammatory markers were significantly lower in the completely vaccinated patients with breakthrough infection. The need for use of steroids and anti-viral agents such as remdesivir was also significantly low in the breakthrough infection group. A significantly less proportion of the individuals with breakthrough infection required oxygen supplementation or ventilatory support. Very few deteriorated or progressed to critical illness during their hospital stay. Only 3 individuals (5.7%) out of the 53 who developed breakthrough infection succumbed to illness while case fatality rates were significantly higher in the unvaccinated (22.8%) and pa tially vaccinated (19.5%) groups. Propensity score weighted multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed lower odds of developing hypoxia, critical illness or death in those who were completely vaccinated. Implications of all the available evidence The real-world effectiveness of the vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 seems to be similar to the randomized controlled trials. The vaccines are very effective in reducing the incidence of severe COVID-19, hypoxia, critical illness and death. The reduced need for oxygen supplementation, mechanical ventilation and the requirement of corticosteroids or other expensive medications such as anti-viral drugs could go a long way in redistributing scarce health care resources. All nations must move forward and vaccinate the citizens, as the current evidence suggests that ‘prevention is better than cure’.

9.
Cureus ; 13(11): e19882, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551849

ABSTRACT

Background There is limited data on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Methodology We analyzed data of admitted COVID-19 patients evaluated for LTBI to examine the impact of LTBI on severity, laboratory parameters, and COVID-19 outcome. Prospectively collected data were analyzed for 60 patients who were administered the Mantoux tuberculosis skin test (TST) using five tuberculin units of purified protein derivative. All patients were administered TST irrespective of Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination status. Comorbidities, clinical features, radiologic involvement, laboratory parameters, and clinical course were analyzed concerning LTBI. Results The mean age was 45.9 (±15.2) years, and 35 (58.3%) patients had non-severe disease. The vast majority (n = 56/60; 93.3%) had been vaccinated with single-dose BCG in infancy or early childhood, as per national immunization guidelines. LTBI was diagnosed in 15 (25%) patients. LTBI prevalence was lower in severe (n = 1/25; 4%) than non-severe (n = 14/35; 40%) COVID-19 (p = 0.01) patients. LTBI patients had lower percentage neutrophil count, higher lymphocyte percentage, higher monocyte count, lower neutrophil-lymphocyte (NL) ratio, lower alanine aminotransferase, lower C-reactive protein, and lesser radiologic involvement compared to those without LTBI (p < 0.05). Similarly, among the mild COVID-19 subgroup, those with LTBI had higher lymphocyte and monocyte counts and lesser radiologic involvement than those without LTBI (p < 0.05). Conclusions LTBI patients appear to have milder disease, higher lymphocyte and monocyte count, higher NL ratio, and lesser radiographic involvement. This observation needs to be studied in larger studies using interferon release assays.

13.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(12): 1743-1749, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370593

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Ivermectin is an antiparasitic drug which has in-vitro efficacy in reducing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral load. Hence, Ivermectin is under investigation as a repurposed agent for treating COVID-19. METHODS: In this pilot, double blind, randomized controlled trial, hospitalized patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 were assigned to a single oral administration of an elixir formulation of Ivermectin at either 24 mg or 12 mg dose, or placebo in a 1:1:1 ratio. The co-primary outcomes were conversion of RT-PCR to negative result and the decline of viral load at day 5 of enrolment. Safety outcomes included total and serious adverse events. The primary outcomes were assessed in patients who had positive RT-PCR at enrolment (modified intention-to-treat population). Safety outcomes were assessed in all patients who received the intervention (intention-to-treat population). RESULTS: Among the 157 patients randomized, 125 were included in modified intention-to-treat analysis. 40 patients each were assigned to Ivermectin 24 mg and 12 mg, and 45 patients to placebo. The RT-PCR negativity at day 5 was higher in the two Ivermectin arms but failed to attain statistical significance (Ivermectin 24 mg, 47.5%; 12 mg arm, 35.0%; and placebo arm, 31.1%; p-value = 0.30). The decline of viral load at day 5 was similar in each arm. No serious adverse events occurred. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with mild and moderate COVID-19, a single oral administration of Ivermectin did not significantly increase either the negativity of RT-PCR or decline in viral load at day 5 of enrolment compared with placebo.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ivermectin , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Viral Load
14.
Indian J Med Res ; 153(1 & 2): 207-213, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1110548

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Healthcare workers (HCWs) are considered to be at a high risk of contracting COVID-19 infection. Besides, control of nosocomial infections transmitted from HCWs to the patients is also a cause of concern. This study was undertaken to investigate the seroprevalence of antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 virus among the hospital staff of a tertiary care health facility in north India. Methods: The HCWs were tested for SARS-CoV-2 serology (IgG+IgM) using chemiluminescence immunoassay between June 22 and July 24, 2020. Venous blood (2 ml) was collected and tested for SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgM antibodies. Results: Of the 3739 HCWs tested, 487 (13%) were positive for total SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. The highest seroprevalence was observed in administrative staff (19.6%) and least in physicians (5.4%). The staff who used public (20%) and hospital transportation (16.9%) showed higher seroprevalence compared to staff using personal transportation (12.4%). No difference was observed between HCWs posted in COVID versus non-COVID areas. All seropositive symptomatic HCWs in our study (53.6%) had mild symptoms, and the remaining 46.4 per cent were asymptomatic. The antibody positivity rate progressively increased from 7.0 per cent in the first week to 18.6 per cent in the fourth week during the study. Interpretation & conclusions: The presence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 in a significant number of asymptomatic HCWs, association with the use of public transport, relatively lower seroprevalence compared with the non-HCWs and rising trend during the period of the study highlight the need for serosurveillance, creating awareness for infection control practices including social distancing and study of infection dynamics in the community for effective control of an infectious pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Health Personnel , Infection Control , COVID-19/blood , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , India/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Tertiary Healthcare
15.
Trials ; 21(1): 902, 2020 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-895026

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of adding statin (atorvastatin) and/or aspirin on clinical deterioration in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 who require hospitalisation. The safety of these drugs in COVID-19 patients will also be evaluated. TRIAL DESIGN: This is a single-centre, prospective, four-arm parallel design, open-label, randomized control trial. PARTICIPANTS: The study will be conducted at National Cancer Institute (NCI), Jhajjar, Haryana, which is a part of All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi, and has been converted into a dedicated COVID-19 management centre since the outbreak of the pandemic. All RT-PCR confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection with age ≥ 40 years and < 75 years requiring hospital admission (patients with WHO clinical improvement ordinal score 3 to 5) will be included in the trial. Written informed consent will be taken for all recruited patients. Patients with a critical illness (WHO clinical improvement ordinal score > 5), documented significant liver disease/dysfunction (aspartate transaminase [AST] / alanine aminotransferase [ALT] > 240), myopathy and rhabdomyolysis (creatine phosphokinase [CPK] > 5x normal), allergy or intolerance to statins or aspirin, prior statin or aspirin use within 30 days, history of active gastrointestinal bleeding in past three months, coagulopathy, thrombocytopenia (platelet count < 100000/ dl), pregnancy, active breastfeeding, or inability to take oral or nasogastric medications will be excluded. Patients refusing to give written consent and taking drugs that are known to have a significant drug interaction with statin or aspirin [including cyclosporine, HIV protease inhibitors, hepatitis C protease inhibitor, telaprevir, fibric acid derivatives (gemfibrozil), niacin, azole antifungals (itraconazole, ketoconazole), clarithromycin and colchicine] will also be excluded from the trial. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: In this study, the benefit and safety of atorvastatin (statin) and/or aspirin as adjuvant therapy will be compared with the control group receiving usual care for management of COVID-19. Atorvastatin will be prescribed as 40 mg oral tablets once daily for ten days or until discharge, whichever is earlier. The dose of aspirin will be 75 mg once daily for ten days or until discharge, whichever is earlier. All other therapies will be administered according to the institute's COVID-19 treatment protocol and the treating physician's clinical judgment. MAIN OUTCOMES: All study participants will be prospectively followed up for ten days or until hospital discharge, whichever is longer for outcomes. The primary outcome will be clinical deterioration characterized by progression to WHO clinical improvement ordinal score ≥ 6 (i.e., endotracheal intubation, non-invasive mechanical ventilation, pressor agents, renal replacement therapy, ECMO requirement, and mortality). The secondary outcomes will be change in serum inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein and Interleukin-6), Troponin I, and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) from time zero to 5th day of study enrolment or 7th day after symptom onset, whichever is later. Other clinical outcomes that will be assessed include progression to Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), shock, ICU admission, length of ICU admission, length of hospital admission, and in-hospital mortality. Adverse drug effects like myalgia, myopathy, rhabdomyolysis, hepatotoxicity, and bleeding will also be examined in the trial to assess the safety of the interventions. RANDOMISATION: The study will use a four-arm parallel-group design. A computer-generated permuted block randomization with mixed block size will be used to randomize the participants in a 1:1:1:1 ratio to group A (atorvastatin with conventional therapy), group B (aspirin with conventional therapy), group C (aspirin + atorvastatin with conventional therapy), and group D (control; only conventional therapy). BLINDING (MASKING): The study will be an open-label trial. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): As there is no existing study that has evaluated the role of aspirin and atorvastatin in COVID-19 patients, formal sample size calculation has not been done. Patients satisfying the inclusion and exclusion criteria will be recruited during six months of study period. Once the first 200 patients are included in each arm (i.e., total 800 patients), the final sample size calculation will be done on the basis of the interim analysis of the collected data. TRIAL STATUS: The institutional ethical committee has approved the study protocol (Protocol version 3.0 [June 2020]). Participant recruitment starting date: 28th July 2020 Participant recruitment ending date: 27th January 2021 Trial duration: 6 months TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial has been prospectively registered in Clinical Trial Registry - India (ICMR- NIMS): Reference no. CTRI/2020/07/026791 (registered on 25 July 2020)]. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest of expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Subject(s)
Aspirin/therapeutic use , Atorvastatin/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Aspirin/adverse effects , Atorvastatin/adverse effects , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/adverse effects , India , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/adverse effects , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prospective Studies , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
16.
Indian J Med Res ; 152(1 & 2): 61-69, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-708771

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in China and rapidly spread globally including India. The characteristic clinical observations and outcomes of this disease (COVID-19) have been reported from different countries. The present study was aimed to describe the clinico-demographic characteristics and in-hospital outcomes of a group of COVID-19 patients in north India. METHODS: This was a prospective, single-centre collection of data regarding epidemiological, demographic, clinical and laboratory parameters, management and outcome of COVID-19 patients admitted in a tertiary care facility in north India. Patient outcomes were recorded as death, discharge and still admitted. RESULTS: Data of 144 patients with COVID-19 were recorded and analyzed. The mean age of the patients was 40.1±13.1 yr, with 93.1 per cent males, and included 10 (6.9%) foreign nationals. Domestic travel to or from affected States (77.1%) and close contact with COVID-19 patients in congregations (82.6%) constituted the most commonly documented exposure. Nine (6.3%) patients were smokers, with a median smoking index of 200. Comorbidities were present in 23 (15.9%) patients, of which diabetes mellitus (n=16; 11.1%) was the most common. A significant proportion of patients had no symptoms (n=64; 44.4%); among the symptomatic, cough (34.7%) was the most common symptom followed by fever (17.4%) and nasal symptoms (2.15%). Majority of the patients were managed with supportive treatment with hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin given on a case-to-case basis. Only five (3.5%) patients required oxygen supplementation, four (2.8%) patients had severe disease requiring intensive care, one required mechanical ventilation and mortality occurred in two (1.4%) patients. The time to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) negativity was 16-18 days. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSIONS: In this single-centre study of 144 hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19 in north India, the characteristic findings included younger age, high proportion of asymptomatic patients, long time to PCR negativity and low need for intensive care unit care.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Tertiary Care Centers , Adult , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
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