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1.
Infect Genet Evol ; 99: 105254, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757665

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), accountable for causing the coronavirus diseases 2019 (COVID-19), is already declared as a pandemic disease globally. Like previously reported SARS-CoV strain, the novel SARS-CoV-2 also initiates the viral pathogenesis via docking viral spike-protein with the membranal angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) - a receptor on variety of cells in the human body. Therefore, COVID-19 is broadly characterized as a disease that targets multiple organs, particularly causing acute complications via organ-specific pathogenesis accompanied by destruction of ACE2+ cells, including alveolus, cardiac microvasculature, endothelium, and glomerulus. Under such circumstances, the high expression of ACE2 in predisposing individuals associated with anomalous production of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) may promote enhanced viral load in COVID-19, which comparatively triggers excessive apoptosis. Furthermore, multi-organ injuries were found linked to altered ACE2 expression and inequality between the ACE2/angiotensin-(1-7)/mitochondrial Ang system (MAS) and renin-angiotensin-system (RAS) in COVID-19 patients. However, the exact pathogenesis of multi-organ damage in COVID-19 is still obscure, but several perspectives have been postulated, involving altered ACE2 expression linked with direct/indirect damages by the virus-induced immune responses, such as cytokinin storm. Thus, insights into the invasion of a virus with respect to ACE2 expression site can be helpful to simulate or understand the possible complications in the targeted organ during viral infection. Hence, this review summarizes the multiple organs invasion by SARS CoV-2 linked with ACE2 expression and their consequences, which can be helpful in the management of the COVID-19 pathogenesis under life-threatening conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Humans , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
2.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 14(12)2021 Nov 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542704

ABSTRACT

Without effective antivirals, the COVID-19 pandemic will likely continue to substantially affect public health. Medicinal plants and phytochemicals are attractive therapeutic options, particularly those targeting viral proteins essential for replication cycle. Herein, a total 179 phytochemicals of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) were screened and scrutinized against the SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) with considerable binding affinities in the range of -9.831 to -2.710 kcal/mol. The top 10 compounds with the best docking scores, licuraside, glucoliquiritin apioside, 7,3'-Dihydroxy-5'-methoxyisoflavone, licuroside, kanzonol R, neoisoliquiritin, licochalcone-A, formononetin, isomucronulatol, and licoricone, were redocked using AutoDock Vina, yielding -8.7 to -7.3 kcal/mol binding energy against Glycyrrhizin (-8.0 kcal/mol) as a reference ligand. Four compounds, licuraside, glucoliquiritin apioside, 7,3'-Dihydroxy-5'-methoxyisoflavone, and licuroside, with glycyrrhizin (reference ligand) were considered for the 100 ns MD simulation and post-simulation analysis which support the stability of docked bioactive compounds with viral protein. In vitro studies demonstrated robust anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity of licorice and glycyrrhizin under different treatment protocols (simulations treatment with viral infection, post-infection treatment, and pre-treatment), suggesting multiple mechanisms for action. Although both compounds inhibited SARS-CoV-2 replication, the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of glycyrrhizin was substantially lower than licorice. This study supports proceeding with in vivo experimentation and clinical trials and highlights licorice and glycyrrhizin as potential therapeutics for COVID-19.

3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(20)2021 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470888

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) became a globally leading public health concern over the past two years. Despite the development and administration of multiple vaccines, the mutation of newer strains and challenges to universal immunity has shifted the focus to the lack of efficacious drugs for therapeutic intervention for the disease. As with SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and other non-respiratory viruses, flavonoids present themselves as a promising therapeutic intervention given their success in silico, in vitro, in vivo, and more recently, in clinical studies. This review focuses on data from in vitro studies analyzing the effects of flavonoids on various key SARS-CoV-2 targets and presents an analysis of the structure-activity relationships for the same. From 27 primary papers, over 69 flavonoids were investigated for their activities against various SARS-CoV-2 targets, ranging from the promising 3C-like protease (3CLpro) to the less explored nucleocapsid (N) protein; the most promising were quercetin and myricetin derivatives, baicalein, baicalin, EGCG, and tannic acid. We further review promising in silico studies featuring activities of flavonoids against SARS-CoV-2 and list ongoing clinical studies involving the therapeutic potential of flavonoid-rich extracts in combination with synthetic drugs or other polyphenols and suggest prospects for the future of flavonoids against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Flavonoids/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Flavonoids/chemistry , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/physiology , Phosphoproteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , Rhinovirus/drug effects , Rhinovirus/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Virus Internalization/drug effects
4.
Immuno ; 1(3):285-304, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1390659

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by SARS-CoV-2, is a deadly disease affecting millions due to the non-availability of drugs and vaccines. The majority of COVID-19 drugs have been repurposed based on antiviral, immunomodulatory, and antibiotic potential. The pathogenesis and advanced complications with infection involve the immune-inflammatory cascade. Therefore, a therapeutic strategy could reduce infectivity, inflammation, and immune modulation. In recent years, modulating the endocannabinoid system, particularly activation of the cannabinoid type 2 (CB2) receptor is a promising therapeutic target for modulation of immune-inflammatory responses. JWH133, a selective, full functional agonist of the CB2 receptor, has been extensively studied for its potent anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and immunomodulatory properties. JWH133 modulates numerous signaling pathways and inhibits inflammatory mediators, including cytokines, chemokines, adhesion molecules, prostanoids, and eicosanoids. In this study, we propose that JWH133 could be a promising candidate for targeting infection, immunity, and inflammation in COVID-19, due to its pharmacological and molecular mechanisms in numerous preclinical efficacy and safety studies, along with its immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, organoprotective, and antiviral properties. Thus, JWH133 should be investigated in preclinical and clinical studies for its potential as an agent or adjuvant with other agents for its effect on viremia, infectivity, immune modulation, resolution of inflammation, reduction in severity, and progression of complications in COVID-19. JWH133 is devoid of psychotropic effects due to CB2 receptor selectivity, has negligible toxicity, good bioavailability and druggable properties, including pharmacokinetic and physicochemical effects. We believe that JWH133 could be a promising drug and may inspire further studies for an evidence-based approach against COVID-19.

5.
Brief Bioinform ; 22(2): 1361-1377, 2021 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352114

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a dreaded pandemic in lack of specific therapeutic agent. SARS-CoV-2 Mpro, an essential factor in viral pathogenesis, is recognized as a prospective therapeutic target in drug discovery against SARS-CoV-2. To tackle this pandemic, Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs are being screened against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro via in silico and in vitro methods to detect the best conceivable drug candidates. However, identification of natural compounds with anti-SARS-CoV-2 Mpro potential have been recommended as rapid and effective alternative for anti-SARS-CoV-2 therapeutic development. Thereof, a total of 653 natural compounds were identified against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro from NP-lib database at MTi-OpenScreen webserver using virtual screening approach. Subsequently, top four potential compounds, i.e. 2,3-Dihydroamentoflavone (ZINC000043552589), Podocarpusflavon-B (ZINC000003594862), Rutin (ZINC000003947429) and Quercimeritrin 6"-O-L-arabinopyranoside (ZINC000070691536), and co-crystallized N3 inhibitor as reference ligand were considered for stringent molecular docking after geometry optimization by DFT method. Each compound exhibited substantial docking energy >-12 kcal/mol and molecular contacts with essential residues, including catalytic dyad (His41 and Cys145) and substrate binding residues, in the active pocket of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro against N3 inhibitor. The screened compounds were further scrutinized via absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion - toxicity (ADMET), quantum chemical calculations, combinatorial molecular simulations and hybrid QM/MM approaches. Convincingly, collected results support the potent compounds for druglikeness and strong binding affinity with the catalytic pocket of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. Hence, selected compounds are advocated as potential inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and can be utilized in drug development against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus M Proteins/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Humans , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Quantum Theory
6.
Life Sci ; 257: 118080, 2020 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1152544

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic raised by SARS-CoV-2 is a public health emergency. However, lack of antiviral drugs and vaccine against human coronaviruses demands a concerted approach to challenge the SARS-CoV-2 infection. Under limited resource and urgency, combinatorial computational approaches to identify the potential inhibitor from known drugs could be applied against risen COVID-19 pandemic. Thereof, this study attempted to purpose the potent inhibitors from the approved drug pool against SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro). To circumvent the issue of lead compound from available drugs as antivirals, antibiotics with broad spectrum of viral activity, i.e. doxycycline, tetracycline, demeclocycline, and minocycline were chosen for molecular simulation analysis against native ligand N3 inhibitor in SARS-CoV-2 Mpro crystal structure. Molecular docking simulation predicted the docking score >-7 kcal/mol with significant intermolecular interaction at the catalytic dyad (His41 and Cys145) and other essential substrate binding residues of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. The best ligand conformations were further studied for complex stability and intermolecular interaction profiling with respect to time under 100 ns classical molecular dynamics simulation, established the significant stability and interactions of selected antibiotics by comparison to N3 inhibitor. Based on combinatorial molecular simulation analysis, doxycycline and minocycline were selected as potent inhibitor against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro which can used in combinational therapy against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Tetracyclines/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Binding Sites/physiology , COVID-19 , Computational Biology/methods , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Databases, Genetic , Humans , Ligands , Molecular Docking Simulation/methods , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Pandemics , Peptide Hydrolases/drug effects , Peptide Hydrolases/pharmacology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Protease Inhibitors , Protein Binding/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors
7.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1122257

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus, continues to be a global threat. The number of cases and deaths will remain escalating due to the lack of effective therapeutic agents. Several studies have established the importance of the viral main protease (Mpro) in the replication of SARS-CoV-2 which makes it an attractive target for antiviral drug development, including pharmaceutical repurposing and other medicinal chemistry approaches. Identification of natural products with considerable inhibitory potential against SARS-CoV-2 could be beneficial as a rapid and potent alternative with drug-likeness by comparison to de novo antiviral drug discovery approaches. Thereof, we carried out the structure-based screening of natural products from Echinacea-angustifolia, commonly used to prevent cold and other microbial respiratory infections, targeting SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. Four natural products namely, Echinacoside, Quercetagetin 7-glucoside, Levan N, Inulin from chicory, and 1,3-Dicaffeoylquinic acid, revealed significant docking energy (>-10 kcal/mol) in the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro catalytic pocket via substantial intermolecular contacts formation against co-crystallized ligand (<-4 kcal/mol). Furthermore, the docked poses of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro with selected natural products showed conformational stability through molecular dynamics. Exploring the end-point net binding energy exhibited substantial contribution of Coulomb and van der Waals interactions to the stability of respective docked conformations. These results advocated the natural products from Echinacea angustifolia for further experimental studies with an elevated probability to discover the potent SARS-CoV-2 Mpro antagonist with higher affinity and drug-likeness.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Echinacea/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Binding Sites , Drug Discovery , Flavones/chemistry , Fructans/chemistry , Glycosides/chemistry , Inulin/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Protein Binding , Quinic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Quinic Acid/chemistry
8.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085037

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus, continues to be a global threat. The number of cases and deaths will remain escalating due to the lack of effective therapeutic agents. Several studies have established the importance of the viral main protease (Mpro) in the replication of SARS-CoV-2 which makes it an attractive target for antiviral drug development, including pharmaceutical repurposing and other medicinal chemistry approaches. Identification of natural products with considerable inhibitory potential against SARS-CoV-2 could be beneficial as a rapid and potent alternative with drug-likeness by comparison to de novo antiviral drug discovery approaches. Thereof, we carried out the structure-based screening of natural products from Echinacea-angustifolia, commonly used to prevent cold and other microbial respiratory infections, targeting SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. Four natural products namely, Echinacoside, Quercetagetin 7-glucoside, Levan N, Inulin from chicory, and 1,3-Dicaffeoylquinic acid, revealed significant docking energy (>-10 kcal/mol) in the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro catalytic pocket via substantial intermolecular contacts formation against co-crystallized ligand (<-4 kcal/mol). Furthermore, the docked poses of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro with selected natural products showed conformational stability through molecular dynamics. Exploring the end-point net binding energy exhibited substantial contribution of Coulomb and van der Waals interactions to the stability of respective docked conformations. These results advocated the natural products from Echinacea angustifolia for further experimental studies with an elevated probability to discover the potent SARS-CoV-2 Mpro antagonist with higher affinity and drug-likeness.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Echinacea/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Binding Sites , Drug Discovery , Flavones/chemistry , Fructans/chemistry , Glycosides/chemistry , Inulin/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Protein Binding , Quinic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Quinic Acid/chemistry
9.
Brief Bioinform ; 22(2): 1361-1377, 2021 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1012822

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a dreaded pandemic in lack of specific therapeutic agent. SARS-CoV-2 Mpro, an essential factor in viral pathogenesis, is recognized as a prospective therapeutic target in drug discovery against SARS-CoV-2. To tackle this pandemic, Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs are being screened against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro via in silico and in vitro methods to detect the best conceivable drug candidates. However, identification of natural compounds with anti-SARS-CoV-2 Mpro potential have been recommended as rapid and effective alternative for anti-SARS-CoV-2 therapeutic development. Thereof, a total of 653 natural compounds were identified against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro from NP-lib database at MTi-OpenScreen webserver using virtual screening approach. Subsequently, top four potential compounds, i.e. 2,3-Dihydroamentoflavone (ZINC000043552589), Podocarpusflavon-B (ZINC000003594862), Rutin (ZINC000003947429) and Quercimeritrin 6"-O-L-arabinopyranoside (ZINC000070691536), and co-crystallized N3 inhibitor as reference ligand were considered for stringent molecular docking after geometry optimization by DFT method. Each compound exhibited substantial docking energy >-12 kcal/mol and molecular contacts with essential residues, including catalytic dyad (His41 and Cys145) and substrate binding residues, in the active pocket of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro against N3 inhibitor. The screened compounds were further scrutinized via absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion - toxicity (ADMET), quantum chemical calculations, combinatorial molecular simulations and hybrid QM/MM approaches. Convincingly, collected results support the potent compounds for druglikeness and strong binding affinity with the catalytic pocket of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. Hence, selected compounds are advocated as potential inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and can be utilized in drug development against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus M Proteins/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Humans , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Quantum Theory
10.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; 40(6): 2769-2784, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-929708

ABSTRACT

Recent outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has raised serious global concern for public health. The viral main 3-chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease (Mpro), known to control coronavirus replication and essential for viral life cycle, has been established as an essential drug discovery target for SARS-CoV-2. Herein, we employed computationally screening of Druglib database containing FDA approved drugs against active pocket of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro using MTiopen screen web server, yields a total of 1051 FDA approved drugs with docking energy >-7 kcal/mol. The top 10 screened potential compounds against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro were then studied by re-docking, binding affinity, intermolecular interaction, and complex stability via 100 ns all atoms molecular dynamics (MD) simulation followed by post-simulation analysis, including end point binding free energy, essential dynamics, and residual correlation analysis against native crystal structure ligand N3 inhibitor. Based on comparative molecular simulation and interaction profiling of the screened drugs with SARS-CoV-2 Mpro revealed R428 (-10.5 kcal/mol), Teniposide (-9.8 kcal/mol), VS-5584 (-9.4 kcal/mol), and Setileuton (-8.5 kcal/mol) with stronger stability and affinity than other drugs and N3 inhibitor; and hence, these drugs are advocated for further validation using in vitro enzyme inhibition and in vivo studies against SARS-CoV-2 infection.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Pandemics , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology
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