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1.
J Perinatol ; 42(10): 1328-1337, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1972567

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We examined the relationship between trimester of SARS-CoV-2 infection, illness severity, and risk for preterm birth. STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed data for 6336 pregnant persons with SARS-CoV-2 infection in 2020 in the United States. Risk ratios for preterm birth were calculated for illness severity, trimester of infection, and illness severity stratified by trimester of infection adjusted for age, selected underlying medical conditions, and pregnancy complications. RESULT: Pregnant persons with critical COVID-19 or asymptomatic infection, compared to mild COVID-19, in the second or third trimester were at increased risk of preterm birth. Pregnant persons with moderate-to-severe COVID-19 did not show increased risk of preterm birth in any trimester. CONCLUSION: Critical COVID-19 in the second or third trimester was associated with increased risk of preterm birth. This finding can be used to guide prevention strategies, including vaccination, and inform clinical practices for pregnant persons.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Premature Birth , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome , Premature Birth/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
2.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol ; 36(4): 476-484, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794581

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multiple reports have described neonatal SARS-CoV-2 infection, including likely in utero transmission and early postnatal infection, but published estimates of neonatal infection range by geography and design type. OBJECTIVES: To describe maternal, pregnancy and neonatal characteristics among neonates born to people with SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy by neonatal SARS-CoV-2 testing results. METHODS: Using aggregated data from the Surveillance for Emerging Threats to Mothers and Babies Network (SET-NET) describing infections from 20 January 2020 to 31 December 2020, we identified neonates who were (1) born to people who were SARS-CoV-2 positive by RT-PCR at any time during their pregnancy, and (2) tested for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR during the birth hospitalisation. RESULTS: Among 28,771 neonates born to people with SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy, 3816 (13%) underwent PCR testing and 138 neonates (3.6%) were PCR positive. Ninety-four per cent of neonates testing positive were born to people with infection identified ≤14 days of delivery. Neonatal SARS-CoV-2 infection was more frequent among neonates born preterm (5.7%) compared to term (3.4%). Neonates testing positive were born to both symptomatic and asymptomatic pregnant people. CONCLUSIONS: Jurisdictions reported SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR results for only 13% of neonates known to be born to people with SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy. These results provide evidence of neonatal infection identified through multi-state systematic surveillance data collection and describe characteristics of neonates with SARS-CoV-2 infection. While perinatal SARS-CoV-2 infection was uncommon among tested neonates born to people with SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy, nearly all cases of tested neonatal infection occurred in pregnant people infected around the time of delivery and was more frequent among neonates born preterm. These findings support the recommendation for neonatal SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR testing, especially for people with acute infection around the time of delivery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(4): 873-876, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771002

ABSTRACT

The Surveillance for Emerging Threats to Mothers and Babies Network conducts longitudinal surveillance of pregnant persons in the United States with laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection during pregnancy. Of 6,551 infected pregnant persons in this analysis, 142 (2.2%) had positive RNA tests >90 days and up to 416 days after infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Laboratories , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Serologic Tests , United States
4.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-331559

ABSTRACT

Objective: To describe prevalence of breastmilk feeding among people with SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy and examine associations between breastmilk feeding, timing of maternal infection before delivery, and rooming-in status during delivery hospitalization. Methods Retrospective cohort using data from five states reporting initiation of breastmilk feeding of infants at birth among people with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy in 2020. Results Among 9760 (weighted N) people with SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy, 86.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 83.3%-88.7%) initiated breastmilk feeding during birth hospitalization. People with infection ≤ 14 days before delivery had significantly lower prevalence of breastmilk feeding (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] 0.90, 95% CI: 0.82, 0.97) compared to those with infection > 14 days before delivery. When stratified by rooming-in status, the association between timing of infection and breastmilk feeding remained only among infants who did not room-in with their mother (aPR 0.78, 95% CI: 0.66, 0.92). Conclusion Pregnant and postpartum people with SARS-CoV-2 infection should be advised about the importance of breastmilk feeding, how to safely feed their infants in the same room, and have access to lactation support.

5.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-330969

ABSTRACT

Background: Pregnant persons with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection are at increased risk of preterm birth, and evidence suggests this risk may be higher among pregnant persons with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) or among those infected later in pregnancy. However, the relationship between trimester of SARS-CoV-2 infection, severity of COVID-19, and preterm birth is not fully understood. Objective: This study examined the relationship between trimester of SARS-CoV-2 infection, illness severity, and risk for preterm birth after adjusting for maternal age, selected underlying conditions, and pregnancy complications. Study Design: Using a cohort of 6,396 pregnant persons with SARS-CoV-2 infection in 2020 identified through the Surveillance for Emerging Threats to Mothers and Babies Network, we analyzed data for those with infection at <37 weeks gestation who delivered a singleton liveborn infant. Illness severity groups (asymptomatic infection, mild, moderate-to-severe, and critical) were adapted from National Institutes of Health and World Health Organization criteria. Risk ratios for preterm birth (<37 weeks) were calculated for illness severity categories (referent=mild), trimester of SARS-CoV-2 infection (referent=first trimester), and illness severity stratified by trimester of infection adjusted for age, selected underlying medical conditions, and pregnancy complications. Results: : Pregnant persons with critical COVID-19, compared to mild COVID-19, in the second (aRR 3.9;95% CI: 1.7-9.0) or third (aRR 4.6;95% CI: 3.2-6.6) trimester were at increased risk of preterm birth. Among persons infected in the second or third trimester, those with critical COVID-19 delivered sooner after infection compared with persons with mild COVID-19 (p<0.001 for second trimester and p=0.02 for third trimester). Nearly half of those with moderate-to-severe or critical COVID-19 delivered by cesarean, with most critical COVID-19 cesarean deliveries as emergent (76.6% weighted [65/96 unweighted]). Conclusion: When infection occurred in the second or third trimester, critical COVID-19 was associated with increased risk of preterm birth, and those with critical COVID-19 delivered sooner after infection compared to those with mild COVID-19. These findings can be used to guide prevention strategies, including vaccination, and inform clinical practices for pregnant persons, particularly those presenting with critical COVID-19 later in pregnancy.

6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318348

ABSTRACT

Background: Multiple reports have described neonatal SARS-CoV-2 infection, including likely in utero transmission and early postnatal infection. Most neonatal infections reported to date have been asymptomatic or mild disease;however, severe cases, including respiratory failure requiring intensive care unit admission, have been described. Objectives: To describe maternal, pregnancy and infant characteristics among neonates born to women with SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy by neonatal SARS-CoV-2 testing results. Methods: : Using aggregated data from the Surveillance for Emerging Threats to Mothers and Babies Network (SET-NET) from March 29, 2020–August 6, 2021, we identified neonates who were: 1) born to women who were SARS-CoV-2 positive by RT-PCR at any time during their pregnancy, and 2) tested for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR during the birth hospitalization. Results: : Among 25,896 neonates of mothers with SARS-CoV-2-infection, 3,381 (13%) underwent PCR testing. One hundred thirty-six neonates (4%) were PCR-positive. Neonates testing positive were born to both symptomatic and asymptomatic women, and 95% were born to women with infection identified ≤ with 14 days of delivery. Conclusions: : While perinatal SARS-CoV-2 infection was uncommon among neonates born to women with SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy, nearly all cases of neonatal infection occurred in pregnant women infected around the time of delivery. These findings underline the need for infection prevention and control measures in delivery and outpatient pediatric settings, as well as counselling for persons who acquire COVID-19 during pregnancy about potential risk to their neonates. Moreover, pregnant people and those wanting to become pregnant should be vaccinated against COVID-19 in order to protect themselves and their infants.

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