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1.
J Clin Med ; 11(3)2022 Jan 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667219

ABSTRACT

We previously reported higher ACE2 levels in smokers and patients with COPD. The current study investigates if patients with interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) such as IPF and LAM have elevated ACE2, TMPRSS2, and Furin levels, increasing their risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection and development of COVID-19. Surgically resected lung tissue from IPF, LAM patients, and healthy controls (HC) was immunostained for ACE2, TMPRSS2, and Furin. Percentage ACE2, TMPRSS2, and Furin expression was measured in small airway epithelium (SAE) and alveolar areas using computer-assisted Image-Pro Plus 7.0 software. IPF and LAM tissue was also immunostained for myofibroblast marker α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and growth factor transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-ß1). Compared to HC, ACE2, TMPRSS2 and Furin expression were significantly upregulated in the SAE of IPF (p < 0.01) and LAM (p < 0.001) patients, and in the alveolar areas of IPF (p < 0.001) and LAM (p < 0.01). There was a significant positive correlation between smoking history and ACE2 expression in the IPF cohort for SAE (r = 0.812, p < 0.05) and alveolar areas (r = 0.941, p < 0.01). This, to our knowledge, is the first study to compare ACE2, TMPRSS2, and Furin expression in patients with IPF and LAM compared to HC. Descriptive images show that α-SMA and TGF-ß1 increase in the IPF and LAM tissue. Our data suggests that patients with ILDs are at a higher risk of developing severe COVID-19 infection and post-COVID-19 interstitial pulmonary fibrosis. Growth factors secreted by the myofibroblasts, and surrounding tissue could further affect COVID-19 adhesion proteins/cofactors and post-COVID-19 interstitial pulmonary fibrosis. Smoking seems to be the major driving factor in patients with IPF.

2.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther ; 20(6): 829-835, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662066

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic in India has resulted in mass destruction in the form of second wave.Indian citizens and government were badly affected and were left constrained with basic medical facilities in treating the heavy load of patients. The possibility of reemergence of virulent strains of SARS-CoV-2 still exists. AREA COVERED: In this article, we tend to discuss why India is at high risk to be to be affected by the other waves and what strategies could be implemented to contain the viral spread. It provides these insights with reference to the gaps and the lessons learnt from the second wave along with the possible solutions to tackle these problems that were not effectively handled during the previous episodes of viral spread. We propose strategies for implementing effective vaccination programs, focus on speeding up different ways of diagnosis, management of essential hospital aids, prevention from vaccine escape mutant strains  and implementation of COVID-appropriate behavior in rural areas of India. EXPERT OPINION: This article has significance to the researchers and government officials in understanding the gaps that led to COVID-19 second wave in India and provides an opportunity to improve on certain areas for handling the future waves with more vigilance.Abbreviations: COVID-19 - Coronavirus disease 2019; SARS-COV-2 - severe acute respiratory syndrome - Coronavirus 2; δ - Delta variant; δ+ - Delta plus variant; WHO - World Health Organization; RT -PCR - Reverse transcription PCR; IFN-1 - Interferon 1; VOCs - Variants of concern; HCWs - healthcare workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , India/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control
3.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 17: 101-115, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1630608

ABSTRACT

Background: Smokers and patients with COPD are highly susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection, leading to severe COVID-19. Methods: This cross-sectional study involved resected lung tissues from 16 patients with GOLD stage I or II COPD; of which 8 were current smokers COPD (COPD-CS), and 8 ex-smokers COPD (COPD-ES), 7 normal lung function smokers (NLFS), 9 patients with small airways disease (SAD), and 10 were never-smoking normal controls (NC). Immunostaining for ACE2, Furin, and TMPRSS2 was performed and analysed for percent expression in small airway epithelium (SAE) and counts for positively and negatively stained type 2 pneumocytes and alveolar macrophages (AMs) were done using Image ProPlus V7.0. Furthermore, primary small airway epithelial cells (pSAEC) were analysed by immunofluorescence after exposure to cigarette smoke extract (CSE). Results: ACE2, Furin, and TMPRSS2 expression significantly increased in SAE and type 2 pneumocytes in all the subjects (except Furin for NLFS) compared to NC (p < 0.001). Similar significance was observed for ACE2 positive AM (p < 0.002), except COPD-ES, which decreased in ACE2 positive AMs (p < 0.003). Total type 2 pneumocytes and AMs significantly increased in the pathological groups compared to NC (p < 0.01), except SAD (p = 0.08). However, AMs are significantly reduced in COPD-ES (p < 0.003). Significant changes were observed for tissue co-expression of Furin and TMPRSS2 with ACE2 in SAE, type 2 pneumocytes and AMs. These markers also negatively correlated with lung function parameters, such as FEV1/FVC % predicted, FEF25-75%, DLCO% predicted. A strong co-localisation and expression for ACE2 (p < 0.0001), Furin (p < 0.01), and TMPRSS2 (p < 0.0001) was observed in pSAEC treated with 1% CSE than controls. Discussion: The increased expression of ACE2, TMPRSS2 and Furin, in the SAE, type 2 pneumocytes and AMs of smokers and COPD are detrimental to lung function and proves that these patient groups could be more susceptible to severe COVID-19 infection. Increased type 2 pneumocytes suggest that these patients are vulnerable to developing post-COVID-19 interstitial pulmonary fibrosis or fibrosis in general. There could be a silently developing interstitial pathology in smokers and patients with COPD. This is the first comprehensive study to report such changes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Alveolar Epithelial Cells , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fibrosis , Humans , Macrophages, Alveolar , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Smokers , Up-Regulation
4.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol ; 142: 106114, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1499649

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged from Wuhan in China before it spread to the entire globe. It causes coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) where mostly individuals present mild symptoms, some remain asymptomatic and some show severe lung inflammation and pneumonia in the host through the induction of a marked inflammatory 'cytokine storm'. New and efficacious vaccines have been developed and put into clinical practice in record time, however, there is a still a need for effective treatments for those who are not vaccinated or remain susceptible to emerging SARS-CoV-2 variant strains. Despite this, effective therapeutic interventions against COVID-19 remain elusive. Here, we have reviewed potential drugs for COVID-19 classified on the basis of their mode of action. The mechanisms of action of each are discussed in detail to highlight the therapeutic targets that may help in reducing the global pandemic. The review was done up to July 2021 and the data was assessed through the official websites of WHO and CDC for collecting the information on the clinical trials. Moreover, the recent research papers were also assessed for the relevant data. The search was mainly based on keywords like Coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, drugs (specific name of the drugs), COVID-19, clinical efficiency, safety profile, side-effects etc.This review outlines potential areas for future research into COVID-19 treatment strategies.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adaptive Immunity/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antimalarials/pharmacology , Antiparasitic Agents/pharmacology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Immunization, Passive/methods , Probiotics/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
5.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol ; 137: 106039, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318825

ABSTRACT

Following the emergence of electronic cigarette, or vaping product use associated lung injury (EVALI) in 2019 in the US, regulation of e-cigarettes has become globally tighter and the collective evidence of the detrimental effects of vaping has grown. The danger of cellular distress and altered homeostasis is heavily associated with the modifiable nature of electronic cigarette devices. An array of harmful chemicals and elevated concentrations of metals have been detected in e-cigarette aerosols which have been linked to various pathogeneses. Vaping is linked to increased inflammation, altered lipid homeostasis and mitochondrial dysfunction whilst also increasing microbial susceptibility whilst the long-term damage is yet to be observed. The scientific evidence is mounting and highlighting that, along with traditional tobacco cigarette smoking, electronic cigarette vaping is not a safe practice.


Subject(s)
Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems/statistics & numerical data , Lung Injury/pathology , Vaping/adverse effects , Chronic Disease , Humans , Lung Injury/etiology
8.
J Clin Med ; 10(5)2021 Mar 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125903

ABSTRACT

Tobacco smoking has emerged as a risk factor for increasing the susceptibility to infection from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) via increased expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) in the lung, linked to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) development. Given the modifiable nature of electronic cigarettes and the delivery of high concentrations of nicotine, we investigate whether electronic cigarette vaping has the potential to increase susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection. We exposed BEAS-2B cells (bronchial epithelium transformed with Ad12-SV40 2B) and primary small airway epithelial cells (SAECs) to electronic cigarette aerosol condensates produced from propylene glycol/vegetable glycerin or commercially bought e-liquid (±added nicotine) and cigarette smoke extract to investigate if electronic cigarette exposure, like cigarette smoke, increases the expression of ACE2 in lung epithelial cells. In BEAS-2B cells, cytotoxicity (CCK-8), membrane integrity (LDH), and ACE2 protein expression (immunofluorescence) were measured for both 4- and 24 h treatments in BEAS-2B cells and 4 h in SAECs; ACE2 gene expression was measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for 4 h treatment in BEAS-2B cells. Nicotine-free condensates and higher concentrations of nicotine-containing condensates were cytotoxic to BEAS-2B cells. Higher LDH release and reduced membrane integrity were seen in BEAS-2B cells treated for 24 h with higher concentrations of nicotine-containing condensates. ACE2 protein expression was observably increased in all treatments compared to cell controls, particularly for 24 h exposures. ACE2 gene expression was significantly increased in cells exposed to the locally bought e-liquid condensate with high nicotine concentration and cigarette smoke extract compared with cell controls. Our study suggests that vaping alone and smoking alone can result in an increase in lung ACE2 expression. Vaping and smoking are avoidable risk factors for COVID-19, which, if avoided, could help reduce the number of COVID-19 cases and the severity of the disease. This is the first study to utilize electronic cigarette aerosol condensates, novel and developed in our laboratory, for investigating ACE2 expression in human airway epithelial cells.

9.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 319(4): L585-L595, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-991951

ABSTRACT

In 2019, the United States experienced the emergence of the vaping-associated lung injury (VALI) epidemic. Vaping is now known to result in the development and progression of severe lung disease in the young and healthy. Lack of regulation on electronic cigarettes in the United States has resulted in over 2,000 patients and 68 deaths. We examine the clinical representation of VALI and the delve into the scientific evidence of how deadly exposure to electronic cigarettes can be. E-cigarette vapor is shown to affect numerous cellular processes, cellular metabolism, and cause DNA damage (which has implications for cancer). E-cigarette use is associated with a higher risk of developing crippling lung conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which would develop several years from now, increasing the already existent smoking-related burden. The role of vaping and virus susceptibility is yet to be determined; however, vaping can increase the virulence and inflammatory potential of several lung pathogens and is also linked to an increased risk of pneumonia. As it has emerged for cigarette smoking, great caution should also be given to vaping in relation to SARS-CoV-2 infection and the COVID-19 pandemic. Sadly, e-cigarettes are continually promoted and perceived as a safer alternative to cigarette smoking. E-cigarettes and their modifiable nature are harmful, as the lungs are not designed for the chronic inhalation of e-cigarette vapor. It is of interest that e-cigarettes have been shown to be of no help with smoking cessation. A true danger lies in vaping, which, if ignored, will lead to disastrous future costs.


Subject(s)
E-Cigarette Vapor/toxicity , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/epidemiology , Lung Injury/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Vaping/adverse effects , Adolescent , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Disease Susceptibility/chemically induced , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/chemically induced , Lung Injury/chemically induced , Lung Injury/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/chemically induced , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Smoking Cessation/methods , United States/epidemiology , Vaping/epidemiology , Vaping/mortality
10.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 320(1): L158-L163, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-919085

ABSTRACT

Lungs of smokers and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are severely compromised and are susceptible to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) attack. The dangerous combination of enhanced SARS-CoV-2 attachment receptor protein ACE2 along with an increase in endocytic vacuoles will enable viral attachment, entry, and replication. The objective of the study was to identify the presence of SARS-CoV-2 host attachment receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) along with endocytic vacuoles, early endosome antigen-1 (EEA1), late endosome marker RAB7, cathepsin-L, and lysosomal associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1) as lysosome markers in the airways of smokers and COPD patients. The study design was cross-sectional and involved lung resections from 39 patients in total, which included 19 patients with Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stage I or GOLD stage II COPD, of which 9 were current smokers with COPD (COPD-CS) and 10 were ex-smokers with COPD (COPD-ES), 10 were normal lung function smokers, and 10 were never-smoking normal controls. Immunostaining for ACE2, EEA1, RAB7, and cathepsin-L was done. A comparative description for ACE2, EEA1, RAB7, and cathepsin-L expression pattern is provided for the patient groups. Furthermore, staining intensity for LAMP-1 lysosomes was measured as the ratio of the LAMP-1-stained areas per total area of epithelium or subepithelium, using Image ProPlus v7.0 software. LAMP-1 expression showed a positive correlation to patient smoking history while in COPD LAMP-1 negatively correlated to lung function. The active presence of ACE2 protein along with endocytic vacuoles such as early/late endosomes and lysosomes in the small airways of smokers and COPD patients provides evidence that these patient groups could be more susceptible to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/pathology , Smoking/pathology , Transport Vesicles/metabolism , Cathepsin L/metabolism , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Susceptibility , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lysosome-Associated Membrane Glycoproteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Smokers , Vesicular Transport Proteins/metabolism , rab GTP-Binding Proteins/metabolism
12.
Expert Rev Respir Med ; 15(2): 197-212, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-759841

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 is a recent emerging pandemic whose prognosis is still unclear. Diagnostic tools are the main players that not only indicate a possible infection but can further restrict the transmission and can determine the extent to which disease progression would occur. AREAS COVERED: In this paper, we have performed a narrative and critical review on different technology-based diagnostic strategies such as molecular approaches including real-time reverse transcriptase PCR, serological testing through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, laboratory and point of care devices, radiology-based detection through computed tomography and chest X-ray, and viral cell cultures on Vero E6 cell lines are discussed in detail to address COVID-19. This review further provides an overview of emergency use authorized immunodiagnostic and molecular diagnostic kits and POC devices by FDA for timely and efficient conduction of diagnostic tests. The majority of the literature cited in this paper is collected from guidelines on protocols and other considerations on diagnostic strategies of COVID-19 issued by WHO, CDC, and FDA under emergency authorization. EXPERT OPINION: Such information holds importance to the health professionals in conducting error-free diagnostic tests and researches in producing better clinical strategies by addressing the limitations associated with the available methods.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Algorithms , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Testing , Chlorocebus aethiops , Colorimetry , Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Luminescent Measurements , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Point-of-Care Testing , Quarantine/psychology , Radiography , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Vero Cells , Virus Replication
14.
J Clin Med ; 9(3)2020 Mar 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-10427

ABSTRACT

The epicenter of the original outbreak in China has high male smoking rates of around 50%, and early reported death rates have an emphasis on older males, therefore the likelihood of smokers being overrepresented in fatalities is high. In Iran, China, Italy, and South Korea, female smoking rates are much lower than males. Fewer females have contracted the virus. If this analysis is correct, then Indonesia would be expected to begin experiencing high rates of Covid-19 because its male smoking rate is over 60% (Tobacco Atlas). Smokers are vulnerable to respiratory viruses. Smoking can upregulate angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) receptor, the known receptor for both the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and the human respiratory coronavirus NL638. This could also be true for new electronic smoking devices such as electronic cigarettes and "heat-not-burn" IQOS devices. ACE2 could be a novel adhesion molecule for SARS-CoV-2 causing Covid-19 and a potential therapeutic target for the prevention of fatal microbial infections, and therefore it should be fast tracked and prioritized for research and investigation. Data on smoking status should be collected on all identified cases of Covid-19.

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