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1.
ERJ Open Res ; 7(3)2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1338098

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) impaired mucociliary clearance leads to recurrent airway infections and progressive lung destruction, and concern over chronic airway infection and patient-to-patient transmission is considerable. So far, there has been no defined consensus on how to control infection across centres caring for patients with PCD. Within the BEAT-PCD network, COST Action and ERS CRC together with the ERN-Lung PCD core a first initiative has now been taken towards creating such a consensus statement. METHODS: A multidisciplinary international PCD expert panel was set up to create a consensus statement for infection prevention and control (IP&C) for PCD, covering diagnostic microbiology, infection prevention for specific pathogens considered indicated for treatment and segregation aspects. Using a modified Delphi process, consensus to a statement demanded at least 80% agreement within the PCD expert panel group. Patient organisation representatives were involved throughout the process. RESULTS: We present a consensus statement on 20 IP&C statements for PCD including suggested actions for microbiological identification, indications for treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia cepacia and nontuberculous mycobacteria and suggested segregation aspects aimed to minimise patient-to-patient transmission of infections whether in-hospital, in PCD clinics or wards, or out of hospital at meetings between people with PCD. The statement also includes segregation aspects adapted to the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. CONCLUSION: The first ever international consensus statement on IP&C intended specifically for PCD is presented and is targeted at clinicians managing paediatric and adult patients with PCD, microbiologists, patient organisations and not least the patients and their families.

2.
Wien Klin Wochenschr ; 134(9-10): 399-419, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1802740

ABSTRACT

The Austrian Society of Pneumology (ASP) launched a first statement on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in May 2020, at a time when in Austria 285 people had died from this disease and vaccinations were not available. Lockdown and social distancing were the only available measures to prevent more infections and the breakdown of the health system. Meanwhile, in Austria over 13,000 patients have died in association with a SARS-CoV­2 infection and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was among the most common causes of death; however, SARS-CoV­2 has been mutating all the time and currently, most patients have been affected by the delta variant where the vaccination is very effective but the omicron variant is rapidly rising and becoming predominant. Particularly in children and young adults, where the vaccination rate is low, the omicron variant is expected to spread very fast. This poses a particular threat to unvaccinated people who are at elevated risk of severe COVID-19 disease but also to people with an active vaccination. There are few publications that comprehensively addressed the special issues with SARS-CoV­2 infection in patients with chronic lung diseases. These were the reasons for this updated statement. Pulmonologists care for many patients with an elevated risk of death in case of COVID-19 but also for patients that might be at an elevated risk of vaccination reactions or vaccination failure. In addition, lung function tests, bronchoscopy, respiratory physiotherapy and training therapy may put both patients and health professionals at an increased risk of infection. The working circles of the ASP have provided statements concerning these risks and how to avoid risks for the patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Diseases , Pulmonary Medicine , Austria/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Lung Diseases/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
4.
Front Pediatr ; 9: 637167, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201833

ABSTRACT

Children and adolescents seem to be at lower risk of developing clinical symptoms of COVID-19. We analyzed the rate of SARS-CoV-2 infections among 3,605 symptomatic children and adolescents at 4,402 outpatient visits presenting to a pediatric emergency department. In a total of 1,105 (32.6%) episodes, the patients fulfilled clinical case definitions for SARS-CoV-2 infection and were tested by nucleic acid testing. A SARS-CoV-2 infection was diagnosed in 10/1,100 episodes (0.3% of analyzed episodes, 0.91% of validly tested patients). Symptoms at presentation did not differ between patients with and without SARS-CoV-2 infection, apart from the frequency of measured temperature ≥37.5°C at presentation. Three percent of analyzed children reported disturbances of olfactory or gustatory senses, but none of them was infected with SARS-CoV-2. The rate of SARS-CoV-2 infections among symptomatic children and adolescents was low and SARS-CoV-2 infections could not reliably be differentiated from other infections without nucleic acid testing.

5.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 56(7): 1957-1966, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1137066

ABSTRACT

On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the pandemic because of a novel coronavirus, called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In January 2020, the first transmission to healthcare workers (HCWs) was described. SARS-CoV-2 is transmitted between people because of contact, droplets, and airborne. Airborne transmission is caused by aerosols that remain infectious when suspended in air over long distances and time. In the clinical setting, airborne transmission may occur during aerosol generating procedures like flexible bronchoscopy. To date, although the role of children in the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is not clear the execution of bronchoscopy is associated with a considerably increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission to HCWs. The aim of this overview is to summarize available recommendations and to apply them to pediatric bronchoscopy. We performed systematic literature searches using the MEDLINE (accessed via PubMed) and Scopus databases. We reviewed major recommendations and position statements published at the moment by the American Association for Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology, WHO, European Center for Disease Prevention and Control and expert groups on the management of patients with COVID-19 to limit transmission among HCWs. To date there is a lack of recommendations for safe bronchoscopy during the pandemic period. The main indications concern adults and little has been said about children. We have summarized available recommendations and we have applied them to pediatric bronchoscopy.


Subject(s)
Bronchoscopy/methods , COVID-19/therapy , Aerosols , Bronchoscopy/instrumentation , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Health Personnel , Humans , Pandemics , Pulmonary Medicine , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
6.
Paediatr Respir Rev ; 37: 68-73, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1051915

ABSTRACT

As the airways of SARS-CoV-2 infected patients contain a high viral load, bronchoscopy is associated with increased risk of patient to health care worker transmission due to aerosolised viral particles and contamination of surfaces during bronchoscopy. Bronchoscopy is not appropriate for diagnosing SARS-CoV-2 infection and, as an aerosol generating procedure involving a significant risk of transmission, has a very limited role in the management of SARS-CoV-2 infected patients including children. During the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic rigid bronchoscopy should be avoided due to the increased risk of droplet spread. Flexible bronchoscopy should be performed first in SARS-CoV-2 positive individuals or in unknown cases, to determine if rigid bronchoscopy is indicated. When available single-use flexible bronchoscopes may be considered for use; devices are available with a range of diameters, and improved image quality and degrees of angulation. When rigid bronchoscopy is necessary, jet ventilation must be avoided and conventional ventilation be used to reduce the risk of aerosolisation. Adequate personal protection equipment is key, as is training of health care workers in correct donning and doffing. Modified full face masks are a practical and safe alternative to filtering facepieces for use in bronchoscopy. When anaesthetic and infection prevention control protocols are strictly adhered to, bronchoscopy can be performed in SARS-CoV-2 positive children.


Subject(s)
Bronchoscopy/standards , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Infection Control/methods , Personal Protective Equipment , Practice Guidelines as Topic , COVID-19/transmission , Humans , Pandemics
7.
Wien Klin Wochenschr ; 132(13-14): 365-386, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-996394

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is currently a challenge worldwide. In Austria, a crisis within the healthcare system has so far been prevented. The treatment of patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), including SARS-CoV­2 infections, should continue to be based on evidence-based CAP guidelines during the pandemic; however, COVID-19 specific adjustments are useful. The treatment of patients with chronic lung diseases has to be adapted during the pandemic but must still be guaranteed.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Lung Diseases/complications , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Pulmonary Medicine , Adolescent , Adult , Austria , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Chronic Disease , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Humans , Lung Diseases/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
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