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3.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 150: w20225, 2020 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2270794

ABSTRACT

Switzerland is among the countries with the highest number of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) cases per capita in the world. There are likely many people with undetected SARS-CoV-2 infection because testing efforts are currently not detecting all infected people, including some with clinical disease compatible with COVID-19. Testing on its own will not stop the spread of SARS-CoV-2. Testing is part of a strategy. The World Health Organization recommends a combination of measures: rapid diagnosis and immediate isolation of cases, rigorous tracking and precautionary self-isolation of close contacts. In this article, we explain why the testing strategy in Switzerland should be strengthened urgently, as a core component of a combination approach to control COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Contact Tracing , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Patient Isolation , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Public Health Surveillance , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Mass Screening , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , Switzerland/epidemiology
4.
PLoS One ; 18(3): e0283149, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2272096

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We evaluate the diagnostic performance of dried blood microsampling combined with a high-throughput microfluidic nano-immunoassay (NIA) for the identification of anti-SARS-CoV-2 Spike IgG seropositivity. METHODS: We conducted a serological study among 192 individuals with documented prior SARS-CoV-2 infection and 44 SARS-CoV-2 negative individuals. Participants with prior SARS-CoV-2 infection had a long interval of 11 months since their qRT-PCR positive test. Serum was obtained after venipuncture and tested with an automated electrochemiluminescence anti-SARS-CoV-2 S total Ig reference assay, a commercial ELISA anti-S1 IgG assay, and the index test NIA. In addition, 109 participants from the positive cohort and 44 participants from the negative cohort participated in capillary blood collection using three microsampling devices: Mitra, repurposed glucose test strips, and HemaXis. Samples were dried, shipped by regular mail, extracted, and measured with NIA. RESULTS: Using serum samples, we achieve a clinical sensitivity of 98·33% and specificity of 97·62% on NIA, affirming the high performance of NIA in participants 11 months post infection. Combining microsampling with NIA, we obtain a clinical sensitivity of 95·05% using Mitra, 61·11% using glucose test strips, 83·16% using HemaXis, and 91·49% for HemaXis after automated extraction, without any drop in specificity. DISCUSSION: High sensitivity and specificity was demonstrated when testing micro-volume capillary dried blood samples using NIA, which is expected to facilitate its use in large-scale studies using home-based sampling or samples collected in the field.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoglobulin G , Microfluidics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
5.
Nat Rev Microbiol ; 2022 Dec 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2244385

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 viral load and detection of infectious virus in the respiratory tract are the two key parameters for estimating infectiousness. As shedding of infectious virus is required for onward transmission, understanding shedding characteristics is relevant for public health interventions. Viral shedding is influenced by biological characteristics of the virus, host factors and pre-existing immunity (previous infection or vaccination) of the infected individual. Although the process of human-to-human transmission is multifactorial, viral load substantially contributed to human-to-human transmission, with higher viral load posing a greater risk for onward transmission. Emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern have further complicated the picture of virus shedding. As underlying immunity in the population through previous infection, vaccination or a combination of both has rapidly increased on a global scale after almost 3 years of the pandemic, viral shedding patterns have become more distinct from those of ancestral SARS-CoV-2. Understanding the factors and mechanisms that influence infectious virus shedding and the period during which individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2 are contagious is crucial to guide public health measures and limit transmission. Furthermore, diagnostic tools to demonstrate the presence of infectious virus from routine diagnostic specimens are needed.

6.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 2443, 2023 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2242340

ABSTRACT

Respiratory infections are one of the most common causes of death among children under the age of five years. Data on prevalence and relevance of specific organisms in African children are still lacking. This case-control-study investigated prevalence and relevance of specific organisms in Ghanaian children admitted to hospital with symptoms of lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). Pharyngeal swabs were taken and tested by PCR for 19 respiratory isolates. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) were calculated to estimate associations between isolates and admission with LRTI. Population attributable fractions (PAFs) were calculated to assess the proportion of LRTI cases due to a particular pathogen. The study included 327 cases and 562 controls. We found associations between detection and admission for LRTI for influenza (aOR 98.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) 20.0-1789.6), respiratory syncytial virus (aOR 40.2; 95% CI 7.2-758.6), H. influenzae (aOR 4.1; 95% CI 2.2-7.9) and S. pneumoniae (aOR 2.4; 95% CI 1.7-3.4). PAFs ≥ 10% were observed for S. pneumoniae (30%; 95% CI 26-42), H. influenzae (10%; 95% CI 2-19) and influenza (10%; 95% CI 2-18). This study highlights the need for heightened surveillance and development of effective vaccines for respiratory pathogens other than SARS-CoV-2 in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Humans , Child , Infant , Child, Preschool , Ghana/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Haemophilus influenzae , Hospitalization , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(42): e2202871119, 2022 10 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2062401

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is the latest zoonotic RNA virus epidemic of concern. Learning how it began and spread will help to determine how to reduce the risk of future events. We review major RNA virus outbreaks since 1967 to identify common features and opportunities to prevent emergence, including ancestral viral origins in birds, bats, and other mammals; animal reservoirs and intermediate hosts; and pathways for zoonotic spillover and community spread, leading to local, regional, or international outbreaks. The increasing scientific evidence concerning the origins of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is most consistent with a zoonotic origin and a spillover pathway from wildlife to people via wildlife farming and the wildlife trade. We apply what we know about these outbreaks to identify relevant, feasible, and implementable interventions. We identify three primary targets for pandemic prevention and preparedness: first, smart surveillance coupled with epidemiological risk assessment across wildlife-livestock-human (One Health) spillover interfaces; second, research to enhance pandemic preparedness and expedite development of vaccines and therapeutics; and third, strategies to reduce underlying drivers of spillover risk and spread and reduce the influence of misinformation. For all three, continued efforts to improve and integrate biosafety and biosecurity with the implementation of a One Health approach are essential. We discuss new models to address the challenges of creating an inclusive and effective governance structure, with the necessary stable funding for cross-disciplinary collaborative research. Finally, we offer recommendations for feasible actions to close the knowledge gaps across the One Health continuum and improve preparedness and response in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chiroptera , One Health , Animals , Animals, Wild , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/prevention & control
8.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272663, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993491

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To report a prospective epidemiological, virological and serological investigation of a SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in a primary school. METHODS: As part of a longitudinal, prospective, school-based surveillance study, this investigation involved repeated testing of 73 pupils, 9 teachers, 13 non-teaching staff and 26 household members of participants who tested positive, with rapid antigen tests and/or RT-PCR (Day 0-2 and Day 5-7), serologies on dried capillary blood samples (Day 0-2 and Day 30), contact tracing interviews and SARS-CoV-2 whole genome sequencing. RESULTS: We identified 20 children (aged 4 to 6 years from 4 school classes), 2 teachers and a total of 4 household members who were infected by the Alpha variant during this outbreak. Infection attack rates were between 11.8 and 62.0% among pupils from the 4 school classes, 22.2% among teachers and 0% among non-teaching staff. Secondary attack rate among household members was 15.4%. Symptoms were reported by 63% of infected children, 100% of teachers and 50% of household members. All analysed sequences but one showed 100% identity. Serological tests detected 8 seroconversions unidentified by SARS-CoV-2 virological tests. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirmed child-to-child and child-to-adult SARS-CoV-2 transmission and introduction into households. Effective measures to limit transmission in schools have the potential to reduce the overall community circulation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Child , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Schools
9.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 3840, 2022 07 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1991578

ABSTRACT

Emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants raise questions about escape from previous immunity. As the population immunity to SARS-CoV-2 has become more complex due to prior infections with different variants, vaccinations or the combination of both, understanding the antigenic relationship between variants is needed. Here, we have assessed neutralizing capacity of 120 blood specimens from convalescent individuals infected with ancestral SARS-CoV-2, Alpha, Beta, Gamma or Delta, double vaccinated individuals and patients after breakthrough infections with Delta or Omicron-BA.1. Neutralization against seven authentic SARS-CoV-2 isolates (B.1, Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, Zeta and Omicron-BA.1) determined by plaque-reduction neutralization assay allowed us to map the antigenic relationship of SARS-CoV-2 variants. Highest neutralization titers were observed against the homologous variant. Antigenic cartography identified Zeta and Omicron-BA.1 as separate antigenic clusters. Substantial immune escape in vaccinated individuals was detected for Omicron-BA.1 but not Zeta. Combined infection/vaccination derived immunity results in less Omicron-BA.1 immune escape. Last, breakthrough infections with Omicron-BA.1 lead to broadly neutralizing sera.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Vaccination
10.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(4): e0085322, 2022 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1986335

ABSTRACT

The emergence of each novel SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern (VOC) requires investigation of its potential impact on the performance of diagnostic tests in use, including antigen-detecting rapid diagnostic tests (Ag-RDTs). Although anecdotal reports have been circulating that the newly emerged Omicron-BA.1 variant is in principle detectable by Ag-RDTs, few data on sensitivity are available. We have performed (i) analytical sensitivity testing with cultured virus in eight Ag-RDTs and (ii) retrospective testing in duplicates with clinical samples from vaccinated individuals with Omicron-BA.1 (n = 59) or Delta (n = 54) breakthrough infection on seven Ag-RDTs. Overall, in our analytical study we have found heterogenicity between Ag-RDTs for detecting Omicron-BA.1. When using cultured virus, we observed a trend toward lower endpoint sensitivity for Omicron-BA.1 detection than for earlier circulating SARS-CoV-2 and the other VOCs. In our retrospective study, the detection of Delta and Omicron-BA.1 was assessed in a comparable set of stored clinical samples using seven Ag-RDTs. Four hundred ninety-seven of all 826 tests (60.17%) performed on Omicron-BA.1 samples were positive, compared to 489/756 (64.68%) for Delta samples. In the analytical study, the sensitivity for both Omicron-BA.1 and Delta between the Ag-RDTs was variable. All seven Ag-RDTs showed comparable sensitivities to detect Omicron-BA.1 and Delta in the retrospective study. IMPORTANCE Sensitivity for detecting Omicron-BA.1 shows high heterogenicity between Ag-RDTs, necessitating a careful consideration when using these tests to guide infection prevention measures. Analytical and retrospective testing is a proxy and timely solution to generate rapid performance data, but it is not a replacement for clinical evaluations, which are urgently needed. Biological and technical reasons for detection failure by some Ag-RDTs need to be further investigated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity
12.
Pract Lab Med ; 31: e00290, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1926839

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Serological assays for the presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies are crucially needed for research and monitoring of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Antibodies are reliability detected in capillary blood, a minimally invasive and cost-effective alternative to venous blood testing. However, there is a limited knowledge on feasibility of capillary blood self-sampling. This study compared the feasibility of capillary blood self-testing in people aged less than 65 vs. people aged 65 or more. A secondary aim was to investigate the performance of the Hem-Col® (no additive) device compared to venous blood testing. Design and methods: Data were collected in a prospective study in Switzerland (n = 106). Capillary blood was collected using the Hem-Col® (no additive) device. Feasibility was assessed using 1) collecting the recommended amount of capillary blood and 2) achieving all steps of capillary blood collection. A sample of 5 ml of venous blood was also collected. Results: For the primary objective, 86.2%/62.1% of patients aged less than 65 collected the recommended amount of capillary blood/achieved all steps vs. 62.5%/39.6% of patients aged 65 or more (p = .006/p = .022). For the secondary objective, the correlation between capillary and venous blood was r = 0.992 and kappa = 1. Conclusions: Capillary blood self-testing appeared as a feasible and reliable alternative to venous blood testing. Such alternative would improve access to serological testing and spare health care resources. However, the difference between age groups should be considered when using self-sampling devices. Help should be developed for older people, such as phone counseling or encouraging asking younger family members for help.

13.
Nat Med ; 28(7): 1491-1500, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784006

ABSTRACT

Infectious viral load (VL) expelled as droplets and aerosols by infected individuals partly determines transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). RNA VL measured by qRT-PCR is only a weak proxy for infectiousness. Studies on the kinetics of infectious VL are important to understand the mechanisms behind the different transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 variants and the effect of vaccination on transmission, which allows guidance of public health measures. In this study, we quantified infectious VL in individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2 during the first five symptomatic days by in vitro culturability assay in unvaccinated or vaccinated individuals infected with pre-variant of concern (pre-VOC) SARS-CoV-2, Delta or Omicron BA.1. Unvaccinated individuals infected with pre-VOC SARS-CoV-2 had lower infectious VL than Delta-infected unvaccinated individuals. Full vaccination (defined as >2 weeks after receipt of the second dose during the primary vaccination series) significantly reduced infectious VL for Delta breakthrough cases compared to unvaccinated individuals. For Omicron BA.1 breakthrough cases, reduced infectious VL was observed only in boosted but not in fully vaccinated individuals compared to unvaccinated individuals. In addition, infectious VL was lower in fully vaccinated Omicron BA.1-infected individuals compared to fully vaccinated Delta-infected individuals, suggesting that mechanisms other than increased infectious VL contribute to the high infectiousness of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.1. Our findings indicate that vaccines may lower transmission risk and, therefore, have a public health benefit beyond the individual protection from severe disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Serologic Tests , Viral Load
14.
Scand J Public Health ; 50(1): 124-135, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1724282

ABSTRACT

Aims: To assess SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence over the first epidemic wave in the canton of Geneva, Switzerland, as well as risk factors for infection and symptoms associated with IgG seropositivity. Methods: Between April and June 2020, former participants of a representative survey of the 20-74-year-old population of canton Geneva were invited to participate in the study, along with household members aged over 5 years. Blood samples were tested for anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G. Questionnaires were self-administered. We estimated seroprevalence with a Bayesian model accounting for test performance and sampling design. Results: We included 8344 participants, with an overall adjusted seroprevalence of 7.8% (95% credible interval 6.8-8.9). Seroprevalence was highest among 18-49 year-olds (9.5%), and lowest in 5-9-year-old children (4.3%) and individuals >65 years (4.7-5.4%). Odds of seropositivity were significantly reduced for female retirees and unemployed men compared to employed individuals, and smokers compared to non-smokers. We found no significant association between occupation, level of education, neighborhood income and the risk of being seropositive. The symptom most strongly associated with seropositivity was anosmia/dysgeusia. Conclusions: Anti-SARS-CoV-2 population seroprevalence remained low after the first wave in Geneva. Socioeconomic factors were not associated with seropositivity in this sample. The elderly, young children and smokers were less frequently seropositive, although it is not clear how biology and behaviours shape these differences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Bayes Theorem , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Switzerland/epidemiology , Young Adult
15.
Nature ; 602(7896): 307-313, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585832

ABSTRACT

Emerging variants of concern (VOCs) are driving the COVID-19 pandemic1,2. Experimental assessments of replication and transmission of major VOCs and progenitors are needed to understand the mechanisms of replication and transmission of VOCs3. Here we show that the spike protein (S) from Alpha (also known as B.1.1.7) and Beta (B.1.351) VOCs had a greater affinity towards the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor than that of the progenitor variant S(D614G) in vitro. Progenitor variant virus expressing S(D614G) (wt-S614G) and the Alpha variant showed similar replication kinetics in human nasal airway epithelial cultures, whereas the Beta variant was outcompeted by both. In vivo, competition experiments showed a clear fitness advantage of Alpha over wt-S614G in ferrets and two mouse models-the substitutions in S were major drivers of the fitness advantage. In hamsters, which support high viral replication levels, Alpha and wt-S614G showed similar fitness. By contrast, Beta was outcompeted by Alpha and wt-S614G in hamsters and in mice expressing human ACE2. Our study highlights the importance of using multiple models to characterize fitness of VOCs and demonstrates that Alpha is adapted for replication in the upper respiratory tract and shows enhanced transmission in vivo in restrictive models, whereas Beta does not overcome Alpha or wt-S614G in naive animals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication , Amino Acid Substitution , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Animals, Laboratory/virology , COVID-19/veterinary , Cricetinae , Disease Models, Animal , Epithelial Cells/virology , Female , Ferrets/virology , Humans , Male , Mesocricetus/virology , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virulence/genetics
16.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 412-423, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585244

ABSTRACT

Although frequently reported since the beginning of the pandemic, questions remain regarding the impact of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) interaction with circulating respiratory viruses in coinfected patients. We here investigated dual infections involving early-pandemic SARS-CoV-2 and the Alpha variant and three of the most prevalent respiratory viruses, rhinovirus (RV) and Influenza A and B viruses (IAV and IBV), in reconstituted respiratory airway epithelial cells cultured at air-liquid interface. We found that SARS-CoV-2 replication was impaired by primary, but not secondary, rhino- and influenza virus infection. In contrast, SARS-CoV-2 had no effect on the replication of these seasonal respiratory viruses. Inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 correlated better with immune response triggered by RV, IAV and IBV than the virus entry. Using neutralizing antibody against type I and III interferons, SARS-CoV-2 blockade in dual infections could be partly prevented. Altogether, these data suggested that SARS-CoV-2 interaction with seasonal respiratory viruses would be modulated by interferon induction and could impact SARS-CoV-2 epidemiology when circulation of other respiratory viruses is restored.


Subject(s)
Coinfection/virology , Influenza A virus/physiology , Influenza B virus/physiology , Respiratory System/virology , Rhinovirus/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication/physiology , Coinfection/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Interferons/physiology
19.
J Clin Med ; 10(8)2021 Apr 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526830

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To assess the diagnostic performances of five automated anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoassays, Epitope (N), Diasorin (S1/S2), Euroimmun (S1), Roche N (N), and Roche S (S-RBD), and to provide a testing strategy based on pre-test probability. METHODS: We assessed the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) areas under the curve (AUC) values, along with the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values (PPVs), and negative predictive values (NPVs), of each assay using a validation sample set of 172 COVID-19 sera and 185 negative controls against a validated S1-immunofluorescence as a reference method. The three assays displaying the highest AUCs were selected for further serodetection of 2033 sera of a large population-based cohort. RESULTS: In the validation analysis (pre-test probability: 48.1%), Roche N, Roche S and Euroimmun showed the highest discriminant accuracy (AUCs: 0.99, 0.98, and 0.98) with PPVs and NPVs above 96% and 94%, respectively. In the population-based cohort (pre-test probability: 6.2%) these three assays displayed AUCs above 0.97 and PPVs and NPVs above 90.5% and 99.4%, respectively. A sequential strategy using an anti-S assay as screening test and an anti-N as confirmatory assays resulted in a 96.7% PPV and 99.5% NPV, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Euroimmun and both Roche assays performed equally well in high pre-test probability settings. At a lower prevalence, sequentially combining anti-S and anti-N assays resulted in the optimal trade-off between diagnostic performances and operational considerations.

20.
J Clin Immunol ; 41(8): 1723-1732, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525557

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 infection leads to high viral loads in the upper respiratory tract that may be determinant in virus dissemination. The extent of intranasal antiviral response in relation to symptoms is unknown. Understanding how local innate responses control virus is key in the development of therapeutic approaches. METHODS: SARS-CoV-2-infected patients were enrolled in an observational study conducted at the Geneva University Hospitals, Switzerland, investigating virological and immunological characteristics. Nasal wash and serum specimens from a subset of patients were collected to measure viral load, IgA specific for the S1 domain of the spike protein, and a cytokine panel at different time points after infection; cytokine levels were analyzed in relation to symptoms. RESULTS: Samples from 13 SARS-CoV-2-infected patients and six controls were analyzed. We found an increase in CXCL10 and IL-6, whose levels remained elevated for up to 3 weeks after symptom onset. SARS-CoV-2 infection also induced CCL2 and GM-CSF, suggesting local recruitment and activation of myeloid cells. Local cytokine levels correlated with viral load but not with serum cytokine levels, nor with specific symptoms, including anosmia. Some patients had S1-specific IgA in the nasal cavity while almost none had IgG. CONCLUSION: The nasal epithelium is an active site of cytokine response against SARS-CoV-2 that can last more than 2 weeks; in this mild COVID-19 cohort, anosmia was not associated with increases in any locally produced cytokines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/biosynthesis , Inflammation/etiology , Nasal Mucosa/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
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