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1.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 11(1): 36, 2022 02 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703219

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The most frequent adverse events in healthcare are healthcare-associated infections, whose burden is highest in resource-limited settings. In addition, low resource settings often lack Hand Hygiene (HH) knowledge and reliable supply to disinfectant, a necessity emphasized by the past West African Ebola Epidemic and the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. PASQUALE aims to increase patient safety by introducing the WHO multimodal HH strategy in the University Hospital Bouaké, Côte d'Ivoire. METHODS: Assessment of HH knowledge, perception and compliance was performed 12 months before, right after the intervention and at a ten months interval using questionnaires for knowledge and perception and direct observation for compliance. The intervention consisted of a HH training and the introduction of local production of alcohol-based hand-rub. In the absence of a control group, the effectiveness of the intervention was assessed by a before-and-after study. RESULTS: Baseline knowledge score was 14/25, increased significantly to 17/25 (p < 0.001) upon first and decreased to 13/25 in second follow-up. Compliance showed a significant increase from 12.7% to 36.8% (p < 0.001) in first and remained at 36.4% in second follow-up. Alcohol-based hand-rub production and consumption almost doubled after first confirmed COVID-19 case in Côte d'Ivoire. CONCLUSION: The WHO HH improvement strategy is an effective and pandemic-adaptable method to increase long-term HH compliance. This study emphasizes that the implementation of the strategy to build a robust system is of utmost importance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Hand Hygiene , Hospitals, University , Pandemics , World Health Organization , Adult , Cote d'Ivoire/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hand Disinfection , Health Facilities , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
2.
Murray, Christopher J. L.; Ikuta, Kevin Shunji, Sharara, Fablina, Swetschinski, Lucien, Robles Aguilar, Gisela, Gray, Authia, Han, Chieh, Bisignano, Catherine, Rao, Puja, Wool, Eve, Johnson, Sarah C.; Browne, Annie J.; Chipeta, Michael Give, Fell, Frederick, Hackett, Sean, Haines-Woodhouse, Georgina, Kashef Hamadani, Bahar H.; Kumaran, Emmanuelle A. P.; McManigal, Barney, Agarwal, Ramesh, Akech, Samuel, Albertson, Samuel, Amuasi, John, Andrews, Jason, Aravkin, Aleskandr, Ashley, Elizabeth, Bailey, Freddie, Baker, Stephen, Basnyat, Buddha, Bekker, Adrie, Bender, Rose, Bethou, Adhisivam, Bielicki, Julia, Boonkasidecha, Suppawat, Bukosia, James, Carvalheiro, Cristina, Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos, Chansamouth, Vilada, Chaurasia, Suman, Chiurchiù, Sara, Chowdhury, Fazle, Cook, Aislinn J.; Cooper, Ben, Cressey, Tim R.; Criollo-Mora, Elia, Cunningham, Matthew, Darboe, Saffiatou, Day, Nicholas P. J.; De Luca, Maia, Dokova, Klara, Dramowski, Angela, Dunachie, Susanna J.; Eckmanns, Tim, Eibach, Daniel, Emami, Amir, Feasey, Nicholas, Fisher-Pearson, Natasha, Forrest, Karen, Garrett, Denise, Gastmeier, Petra, Giref, Ababi Zergaw, Greer, Rachel Claire, Gupta, Vikas, Haller, Sebastian, Haselbeck, Andrea, Hay, Simon I.; Holm, Marianne, Hopkins, Susan, Iregbu, Kenneth C.; Jacobs, Jan, Jarovsky, Daniel, Javanmardi, Fatemeh, Khorana, Meera, Kissoon, Niranjan, Kobeissi, Elsa, Kostyanev, Tomislav, Krapp, Fiorella, Krumkamp, Ralf, Kumar, Ajay, Kyu, Hmwe Hmwe, Lim, Cherry, Limmathurotsakul, Direk, Loftus, Michael James, Lunn, Miles, Ma, Jianing, Mturi, Neema, Munera-Huertas, Tatiana, Musicha, Patrick, Mussi-Pinhata, Marisa Marcia, Nakamura, Tomoka, Nanavati, Ruchi, Nangia, Sushma, Newton, Paul, Ngoun, Chanpheaktra, Novotney, Amanda, Nwakanma, Davis, Obiero, Christina W.; Olivas-Martinez, Antonio, Olliaro, Piero, Ooko, Ednah, Ortiz-Brizuela, Edgar, Peleg, Anton Yariv, Perrone, Carlo, Plakkal, Nishad, Ponce-de-Leon, Alfredo, Raad, Mathieu, Ramdin, Tanusha, Riddell, Amy, Roberts, Tamalee, Robotham, Julie Victoria, Roca, Anna, Rudd, Kristina E.; Russell, Neal, Schnall, Jesse, Scott, John Anthony Gerard, Shivamallappa, Madhusudhan, Sifuentes-Osornio, Jose, Steenkeste, Nicolas, Stewardson, Andrew James, Stoeva, Temenuga, Tasak, Nidanuch, Thaiprakong, Areerat, Thwaites, Guy, Turner, Claudia, Turner, Paul, van Doorn, H. Rogier, Velaphi, Sithembiso, Vongpradith, Avina, Vu, Huong, Walsh, Timothy, Waner, Seymour, Wangrangsimakul, Tri, Wozniak, Teresa, Zheng, Peng, Sartorius, Benn, Lopez, Alan D.; Stergachis, Andy, Moore, Catrin, Dolecek, Christiane, Naghavi, Mohsen.
Lancet ; 399(10325): 629-655, 2022 02 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1624565

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) poses a major threat to human health around the world. Previous publications have estimated the effect of AMR on incidence, deaths, hospital length of stay, and health-care costs for specific pathogen-drug combinations in select locations. To our knowledge, this study presents the most comprehensive estimates of AMR burden to date. METHODS: We estimated deaths and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) attributable to and associated with bacterial AMR for 23 pathogens and 88 pathogen-drug combinations in 204 countries and territories in 2019. We obtained data from systematic literature reviews, hospital systems, surveillance systems, and other sources, covering 471 million individual records or isolates and 7585 study-location-years. We used predictive statistical modelling to produce estimates of AMR burden for all locations, including for locations with no data. Our approach can be divided into five broad components: number of deaths where infection played a role, proportion of infectious deaths attributable to a given infectious syndrome, proportion of infectious syndrome deaths attributable to a given pathogen, the percentage of a given pathogen resistant to an antibiotic of interest, and the excess risk of death or duration of an infection associated with this resistance. Using these components, we estimated disease burden based on two counterfactuals: deaths attributable to AMR (based on an alternative scenario in which all drug-resistant infections were replaced by drug-susceptible infections), and deaths associated with AMR (based on an alternative scenario in which all drug-resistant infections were replaced by no infection). We generated 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs) for final estimates as the 25th and 975th ordered values across 1000 posterior draws, and models were cross-validated for out-of-sample predictive validity. We present final estimates aggregated to the global and regional level. FINDINGS: On the basis of our predictive statistical models, there were an estimated 4·95 million (3·62-6·57) deaths associated with bacterial AMR in 2019, including 1·27 million (95% UI 0·911-1·71) deaths attributable to bacterial AMR. At the regional level, we estimated the all-age death rate attributable to resistance to be highest in western sub-Saharan Africa, at 27·3 deaths per 100 000 (20·9-35·3), and lowest in Australasia, at 6·5 deaths (4·3-9·4) per 100 000. Lower respiratory infections accounted for more than 1·5 million deaths associated with resistance in 2019, making it the most burdensome infectious syndrome. The six leading pathogens for deaths associated with resistance (Escherichia coli, followed by Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) were responsible for 929 000 (660 000-1 270 000) deaths attributable to AMR and 3·57 million (2·62-4·78) deaths associated with AMR in 2019. One pathogen-drug combination, meticillin-resistant S aureus, caused more than 100 000 deaths attributable to AMR in 2019, while six more each caused 50 000-100 000 deaths: multidrug-resistant excluding extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis, third-generation cephalosporin-resistant E coli, carbapenem-resistant A baumannii, fluoroquinolone-resistant E coli, carbapenem-resistant K pneumoniae, and third-generation cephalosporin-resistant K pneumoniae. INTERPRETATION: To our knowledge, this study provides the first comprehensive assessment of the global burden of AMR, as well as an evaluation of the availability of data. AMR is a leading cause of death around the world, with the highest burdens in low-resource settings. Understanding the burden of AMR and the leading pathogen-drug combinations contributing to it is crucial to making informed and location-specific policy decisions, particularly about infection prevention and control programmes, access to essential antibiotics, and research and development of new vaccines and antibiotics. There are serious data gaps in many low-income settings, emphasising the need to expand microbiology laboratory capacity and data collection systems to improve our understanding of this important human health threat. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Wellcome Trust, and Department of Health and Social Care using UK aid funding managed by the Fleming Fund.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Global Burden of Disease , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Global Health , Humans , Models, Statistical
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 80, 2022 Jan 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649812

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 cases in Germany increased in early March 2020. By April 2020, cases among health care workers (HCW) were detected across departments at a tertiary care hospital in Berlin, prompting a longitudinal investigation to assess HCW SARS-CoV-2 serostatus with an improved testing strategy and associated risk factors. METHODS: In May/June and December 2020, HCWs voluntarily provided blood for serology and nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal (NP/OP) samples for real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and completed a questionnaire. A four-tiered SARS-CoV-2 serological testing strategy including two different enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and biological neutralization test (NT) was used. ELISA-NT correlation was assessed using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Sociodemographic and occupational factors associated with seropositivity were assessed with multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: In May/June, 18/1477 (1.2%) HCWs were SARS-CoV-2 seropositive, followed by 56/1223 (4.6%) in December. Among those tested in both, all seropositive in May/June remained seropositive by ELISA and positive by NT after 6 months. ELISA ratios correlated well with NT titres in May/June (R = 0.79) but less so in December (R = 0.41). Those seropositive reporting a past SARS-CoV-2 positive PCR result increased from 44.4% in May/June to 85.7% in December. HCWs with higher occupational risk (based on profession and working site), nurses, males, and those self-reporting COVID-19-like symptoms had significantly higher odds of seropositivity. CONCLUSIONS: This investigation provides insight into the burden of HCW infection in this local outbreak context and the antibody dynamics over time with an improved robust testing strategy. It also highlights the continued need for effective infection control measures particularly among HCWs with higher occupational risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Germany/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Tertiary Care Centers
4.
Lancet Reg Health Eur ; 14: 100303, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1620911

ABSTRACT

Background: Outbreaks of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in hospitals and long-term care facilities (LTCFs) pose serious public health threats. We analysed how frequency and size of SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks in hospitals and LTCFs have altered since the beginning of the pandemic, in particular since the start of the vaccination campaign. Methods: We used mandatory notification data on SARS-CoV-2 cases in Germany and stratified by outbreak cases in hospitals and LTCFs. German vaccination coverage data were analysed. We studied the association of the occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks and outbreak cases with SARS-CoV-2 cases in Germany throughout the four pandemic waves. We built also counterfactual scenarios with the first pandemic wave as the baseline. Findings: By 21 September 2021, there were 4,147,387 SARS-CoV-2 notified cases since March 2020. About 20% of these cases were reported as being related to an outbreak, with 1% of the cases in hospitals and 4% in LTCFs. The median number of outbreak cases in the different phases was smaller (≤5) in hospitals than in LTCFs (>10). In the first and second pandemic waves, we observed strong associations in both facility types between SARS-CoV-2 outbreak cases and total number of notified SARS-CoV-2 cases. However, during the third pandemic wave we observed a decline in outbreak cases in both facility types and only a weak association between outbreak cases and all cases. Interpretation: The vaccination campaign and non-pharmaceutical interventions have been able to protect vulnerable risk groups in hospitals and LTCFs. Funding: No specific funding.

5.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(11): 3045-3058, 2021 10 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526166

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a substantial impact on health systems. The WHO Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) Surveillance and Quality Assessment Collaborating Centres Network conducted a survey to assess the effects of COVID-19 on AMR surveillance, prevention and control. METHODS: From October to December 2020, WHO Global Antimicrobial Resistance and Use Surveillance System (GLASS) national focal points completed a questionnaire, including Likert scales and open-ended questions. Data were descriptively analysed, income/regional differences were assessed and free-text questions were thematically analysed. RESULTS: Seventy-three countries across income levels participated. During the COVID-19 pandemic, 67% reported limited ability to work with AMR partnerships; decreases in funding were frequently reported by low- and middle-income countries (LMICs; P < 0.01). Reduced availability of nursing, medical and public health staff for AMR was reported by 71%, 69% and 64%, respectively, whereas 67% reported stable cleaning staff availability. The majority (58%) reported reduced reagents/consumables, particularly LMICs (P < 0.01). Decreased numbers of cultures, elective procedures, chronically ill admissions and outpatients and increased ICU admissions reported could bias AMR data. Reported overall infection prevention and control (IPC) improvement could decrease AMR rates, whereas increases in selected inappropriate IPC practices and antimicrobial prescribing could increase rates. Most did not yet have complete data on changing AMR rates due to COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: This was the first survey to explore the global impact of COVID-19 on AMR among GLASS countries. Responses highlight important actions to help ensure that AMR remains a global health priority, including engaging with GLASS to facilitate reliable AMR surveillance data, seizing the opportunity to develop more sustainable IPC programmes, promoting integrated antibiotic stewardship guidance, leveraging increased laboratory capabilities and other system-strengthening efforts.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , COVID-19 , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
Front Public Health ; 9: 708694, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463523

ABSTRACT

Two COVID-19 outbreaks occurred in residential buildings with overcrowded housing conditions in the city of Göttingen in Germany during May and June 2020, when COVID-19 infection incidences were low across the rest of the country, with a national incidence of 2.6/100,000 population. The outbreaks increased the local incidence in the city of Göttingen to 123.5/100,000 in June 2020. Many of the affected residents were living in precarious conditions and experienced language barriers. The outbreaks were characterized by high case numbers and attack rates among the residents, many asymptomatic cases, a comparatively young population, and substantial outbreak control measures implemented by local authorities. We analyzed national and local surveillance data, calculated age-, and gender-specific attack rates and performed whole genome sequencing analysis to describe the outbreak and characteristics of the infected population. The authorities' infection control measures included voluntary and compulsory testing of all residents and mass quarantine. Public health measures, such as the general closure of schools and a public space as well as the prohibition of team sports at local level, were also implemented in the district to limit the outbreaks locally. The outbreaks were under control by the end of June 2020. We describe the measures to contain the outbreaks, the challenges experienced and lessons learned. We discuss how public health measures can be planned and implemented through consideration of the needs and vulnerabilities of affected populations. In order to avoid coercive measures, barrier-free communication, with language translation when needed, and consideration of socio-economic circumstances of affected populations are crucial for controlling infectious disease transmission in an outbreak effectively and in a timely way.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disease Outbreaks , Germany/epidemiology , Housing , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(11): 3045-3058, 2021 10 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1393279

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a substantial impact on health systems. The WHO Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) Surveillance and Quality Assessment Collaborating Centres Network conducted a survey to assess the effects of COVID-19 on AMR surveillance, prevention and control. METHODS: From October to December 2020, WHO Global Antimicrobial Resistance and Use Surveillance System (GLASS) national focal points completed a questionnaire, including Likert scales and open-ended questions. Data were descriptively analysed, income/regional differences were assessed and free-text questions were thematically analysed. RESULTS: Seventy-three countries across income levels participated. During the COVID-19 pandemic, 67% reported limited ability to work with AMR partnerships; decreases in funding were frequently reported by low- and middle-income countries (LMICs; P < 0.01). Reduced availability of nursing, medical and public health staff for AMR was reported by 71%, 69% and 64%, respectively, whereas 67% reported stable cleaning staff availability. The majority (58%) reported reduced reagents/consumables, particularly LMICs (P < 0.01). Decreased numbers of cultures, elective procedures, chronically ill admissions and outpatients and increased ICU admissions reported could bias AMR data. Reported overall infection prevention and control (IPC) improvement could decrease AMR rates, whereas increases in selected inappropriate IPC practices and antimicrobial prescribing could increase rates. Most did not yet have complete data on changing AMR rates due to COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: This was the first survey to explore the global impact of COVID-19 on AMR among GLASS countries. Responses highlight important actions to help ensure that AMR remains a global health priority, including engaging with GLASS to facilitate reliable AMR surveillance data, seizing the opportunity to develop more sustainable IPC programmes, promoting integrated antibiotic stewardship guidance, leveraging increased laboratory capabilities and other system-strengthening efforts.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , COVID-19 , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(17)2021 09 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390639

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic in Germany has demanded a substantially larger public health workforce to perform contact tracing and contact management of COVID-19 cases, in line with recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO). In response, the Robert Koch Institute (RKI) established the national "Containment Scout Initiative" (CSI) to support the local health authorities with a short-term workforce solution. It is part of a range of measures for strengthening the public health system in order to limit the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in Germany. The CSI is an example of how solutions to address critical health system capacity issues can be implemented quickly. It also demonstrates that medical or health-related backgrounds may not be necessary to support health authorities with pandemic-specific tasks and fulfil accurate contact tracing. However, it is a short-term solution and cannot compensate for the lack of existing qualified staff as well as other deficits that exist within the public health sector in Germany. This article describes the structure and process of the first phase of this initiative in order to support health policymakers, public health practitioners, and researchers considering innovative and flexible approaches for addressing urgent workforce capacity issues.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Contact Tracing , Germany/epidemiology , Health Workforce , Humans , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Workforce
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 539, 2021 Jun 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261266

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa, acute respiratory infections (ARI), acute gastrointestinal infections (GI) and acute febrile disease of unknown cause (AFDUC) have a large disease burden, especially among children, while respective aetiologies often remain unresolved. The need for robust infectious disease surveillance to detect emerging pathogens along with common human pathogens has been highlighted by the ongoing novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The African Network for Improved Diagnostics, Epidemiology and Management of Common Infectious Agents (ANDEMIA) is a sentinel surveillance study on the aetiology and clinical characteristics of ARI, GI and AFDUC in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: ANDEMIA includes 12 urban and rural health care facilities in four African countries (Côte d'Ivoire, Burkina Faso, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Republic of South Africa). It was piloted in 2018 in Côte d'Ivoire and the initial phase will run from 2019 to 2021. Case definitions for ARI, GI and AFDUC were established, as well as syndrome-specific sampling algorithms including the collection of blood, naso- and oropharyngeal swabs and stool. Samples are tested using comprehensive diagnostic protocols, ranging from classic bacteriology and antimicrobial resistance screening to multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) systems and High Throughput Sequencing. In March 2020, PCR testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and analysis of full genomic information was included in the study. Standardised questionnaires collect relevant clinical, demographic, socio-economic and behavioural data for epidemiologic analyses. Controls are enrolled over a 12-month period for a nested case-control study. Data will be assessed descriptively and aetiologies will be evaluated using a latent class analysis among cases. Among cases and controls, an integrated analytic approach using logistic regression and Bayesian estimation will be employed to improve the assessment of aetiology and associated risk factors. DISCUSSION: ANDEMIA aims to expand our understanding of ARI, GI and AFDUC aetiologies in sub-Saharan Africa using a comprehensive laboratory diagnostics strategy. It will foster early detection of emerging threats and continued monitoring of important common pathogens. The network collaboration will be strengthened and site diagnostic capacities will be reinforced to improve quality management and patient care.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Mass Screening , Sentinel Surveillance , Bayes Theorem , Burkina Faso , Case-Control Studies , Cote d'Ivoire , Democratic Republic of the Congo , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/microbiology , Humans , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , South Africa
11.
Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz ; 64(4): 403-411, 2021 Apr.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196567

ABSTRACT

The collection of data on SARS-CoV­2 tests is central to the assessment of the infection rate in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. At the Robert Koch Institute (RKI), data collected from various laboratory data recording systems are consolidated. First, this article aims to exemplify significant aspects regarding test procedures. Subsequently the different systems for recording laboratory tests are described and test numbers from the RKI test laboratory query and the laboratory-based SARS-CoV­2 surveillance as well as accounting data from the Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians for SARS-CoV­2 laboratory tests are shown.Early in the pandemic, the RKI test laboratory query and the laboratory-based SARS-CoV­2 surveillance became available and able to evaluate data on performed tests and test capacities. By recording the positive and negative test results, statements about the total number of tests and the proportion of positive test rates can be made. While the aggregate test numbers are largely representative nationwide, they are not always representative at the state and district level. The billing data of the Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians can complement the laboratory data afterwards. In addition, it can provide a retrospective assessment of the total number of SARS-CoV­2 numbers in Germany, because the services provided by statutory health insurers (around 85% of the population in Germany) are included. The various laboratory data recording systems complement one another and the evaluations flow into the recommended measures for the pandemic response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19 Testing , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz ; 64(4): 435-445, 2021 Apr.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196566

ABSTRACT

When the emerging novel SARS-CoV­2 virus first appeared in December 2019, neither specific therapeutic options nor vaccinations were available. The role of nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) became of central importance. At the Robert Koch Institute, a multilayer strategy consisting of population-based and individual preventive measures to control the pandemic was developed, which built upon existing influenza pandemic plans as well as generic plans. This paper explains the recommended NPIs and illustrates the pharmaceutical approaches developed in parallel.Among others, general contact bans, providing material for infection prevention and control, ban of events, closing educational institutions, and restricting travel are counted among population-based measures. Additional individual preventive measures are necessary, e.g., keeping a minimum distance, reducing contacts, and wearing a mouth-nose covering as well as quarantine and isolation. Measures within the health system are based on recommendations of the Commission on Hospital Hygiene and Infection Protection (Kommission für Krankenhaushygiene und Infektionsprävention (KRINKO)) and specified and implemented by professional societies. Since November 2020, an antiviral therapy with remdesivir and treatment with the glucocorticoid dexamethasone have been available as pharmaceutical interventions. Monoclonal antibodies are at this time not approved. Therapeutic anticoagulation is recommended.Recommendations are constantly adapted to the increasing knowledge on the pathogen and its means of transmission. A challenge is to strengthen the trust of the population. Many measures have to be applied on an individual basis in order to work together.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Germany , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz ; 64(4): 403-411, 2021 Apr.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1184643

ABSTRACT

The collection of data on SARS-CoV­2 tests is central to the assessment of the infection rate in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. At the Robert Koch Institute (RKI), data collected from various laboratory data recording systems are consolidated. First, this article aims to exemplify significant aspects regarding test procedures. Subsequently the different systems for recording laboratory tests are described and test numbers from the RKI test laboratory query and the laboratory-based SARS-CoV­2 surveillance as well as accounting data from the Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians for SARS-CoV­2 laboratory tests are shown.Early in the pandemic, the RKI test laboratory query and the laboratory-based SARS-CoV­2 surveillance became available and able to evaluate data on performed tests and test capacities. By recording the positive and negative test results, statements about the total number of tests and the proportion of positive test rates can be made. While the aggregate test numbers are largely representative nationwide, they are not always representative at the state and district level. The billing data of the Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians can complement the laboratory data afterwards. In addition, it can provide a retrospective assessment of the total number of SARS-CoV­2 numbers in Germany, because the services provided by statutory health insurers (around 85% of the population in Germany) are included. The various laboratory data recording systems complement one another and the evaluations flow into the recommended measures for the pandemic response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19 Testing , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Genome Med ; 12(1): 113, 2020 12 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-964565

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Antibiotic-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae are a major cause of hospital- and community-acquired infections, including sepsis, liver abscess, and pneumonia, driven mainly by the emergence of successful high-risk clonal lineages. The K. pneumoniae sequence type (ST) 307 lineage has appeared in several different parts of the world after first being described in Europe in 2008. From June to October 2019, we recorded an outbreak of an extensively drug-resistant ST307 lineage in four medical facilities in north-eastern Germany. METHODS: Here, we investigated these isolates and those from subsequent cases in the same facilities. We performed whole-genome sequencing to study phylogenetics, microevolution, and plasmid transmission, as well as phenotypic experiments including growth curves, hypermucoviscosity, siderophore secretion, biofilm formation, desiccation resilience, serum survival, and heavy metal resistance for an in-depth characterization of this outbreak clone. RESULTS: Phylogenetics suggest a homogenous phylogram with several sub-clades containing either isolates from only one patient or isolates originating from different patients, suggesting inter-patient transmission. We identified three large resistance plasmids, carrying either NDM-1, CTX-M-15, or OXA-48, which K. pneumoniae ST307 likely donated to other K. pneumoniae isolates of different STs and even other bacterial species (e.g., Enterobacter cloacae) within the clinical settings. Several chromosomally and plasmid-encoded, hypervirulence-associated virulence factors (e.g., yersiniabactin, metabolite transporter, aerobactin, and heavy metal resistance genes) were identified in addition. While growth, biofilm formation, desiccation resilience, serum survival, and heavy metal resistance were comparable to several control strains, results from siderophore secretion and hypermucoviscosity experiments revealed superiority of the ST307 clone, similar to an archetypical, hypervirulent K. pneumoniae strain (hvKP1). CONCLUSIONS: The combination of extensive drug resistance and virulence, partly conferred through a "mosaic" plasmid carrying both antibiotic resistance and hypervirulence-associated features, demonstrates serious public health implications.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Iron/metabolism , Klebsiella Infections/microbiology , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Biofilms/growth & development , Disease Outbreaks , Genes, Bacterial/genetics , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Klebsiella Infections/epidemiology , Klebsiella pneumoniae/classification , Klebsiella pneumoniae/growth & development , Phylogeny , Plasmids , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Virulence/drug effects , Virulence/genetics , Virulence Factors/genetics , Whole Genome Sequencing
15.
Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz ; 64(4): 435-445, 2021 Apr.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1159627

ABSTRACT

When the emerging novel SARS-CoV­2 virus first appeared in December 2019, neither specific therapeutic options nor vaccinations were available. The role of nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) became of central importance. At the Robert Koch Institute, a multilayer strategy consisting of population-based and individual preventive measures to control the pandemic was developed, which built upon existing influenza pandemic plans as well as generic plans. This paper explains the recommended NPIs and illustrates the pharmaceutical approaches developed in parallel.Among others, general contact bans, providing material for infection prevention and control, ban of events, closing educational institutions, and restricting travel are counted among population-based measures. Additional individual preventive measures are necessary, e.g., keeping a minimum distance, reducing contacts, and wearing a mouth-nose covering as well as quarantine and isolation. Measures within the health system are based on recommendations of the Commission on Hospital Hygiene and Infection Protection (Kommission für Krankenhaushygiene und Infektionsprävention (KRINKO)) and specified and implemented by professional societies. Since November 2020, an antiviral therapy with remdesivir and treatment with the glucocorticoid dexamethasone have been available as pharmaceutical interventions. Monoclonal antibodies are at this time not approved. Therapeutic anticoagulation is recommended.Recommendations are constantly adapted to the increasing knowledge on the pathogen and its means of transmission. A challenge is to strengthen the trust of the population. Many measures have to be applied on an individual basis in order to work together.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Germany , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Euro Surveill ; 25(22)2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-525953

ABSTRACT

Residents in long-term care facilities (LTCF) are a vulnerable population group. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19)-related deaths in LTCF residents represent 30-60% of all COVID-19 deaths in many European countries. This situation demands that countries implement local and national testing, infection prevention and control, and monitoring programmes for COVID-19 in LTCF in order to identify clusters early, decrease the spread within and between facilities and reduce the size and severity of outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Disease Outbreaks , Long-Term Care , Nursing Homes , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vulnerable Populations
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