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1.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-313102

ABSTRACT

Background: Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, several SARS-CoV-2 variants have sequentially emerged. In France, most cases were due to spike D641G-harbouring viruses that descended initially from the Wuhan strain, then by variant of B.1.160 lineage we called Marseille-4 since the summer of 2020, which was followed by the alpha (UK) and beta (South African) variants in early 2021, then delta (Indian) now.Methods and Findings. We determined the neutralizing antibody (nAb) titres in sera from convalescent individuals previously infected by these 4 major local variants and from vaccine recipients to the original Wuhan strain and 9 variants, including two recent circulating delta (Indian) isolates. The results show high inter-individual heterogeneity in nAbs, especially according to the variant tested. Unexpectedly, the major variations among nAbs are based on the genotype responsible for the infection. Patients previously infected with the beta and B.1.160 variants had the lowest nAb titres. We show that this heterogeneity is well explained by spike protein mutants modelling using in silico approaches. The highest titres were observed in patients vaccinated with the Pfizer/BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine, even against the delta variant.Conclusions. Immunity acquired naturally after infection is highly dependent on the infecting variant and unexpectedly mRNA-based vaccine efficacy is shown to be often better than natural immunity in eliciting neutralizing antibodies.

2.
Viruses ; 13(11)2021 10 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488758

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, several SARS-CoV-2 variants have sequentially emerged. In France, most cases were due to spike D641G-harbouring viruses that descended initially from the Wuhan strain, then by the variant of B.1.160 lineage we called Marseille-4 since the summer of 2020, which was followed by the Alpha and Beta variants in early 2021, then the Delta variant currently. METHODS: We determined the neutralising antibody (nAb) titres in sera from convalescent individuals previously infected by these four major local variants and from vaccine recipients to the original Wuhan strain and nine variants, including two recent circulating Delta isolates. RESULTS: The results show high inter-individual heterogeneity in nAbs, especially according to the variant tested. The major variations among nAbs are based on the genotype responsible for the infection. Patients previously infected with the beta and B.1.160 variants had the lowest nAb titres. We show that this heterogeneity is well explained by spike protein mutants modelling using in silico approaches. The highest titres were observed in individuals vaccinated with the Pfizer/BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine, even against the delta variant. CONCLUSIONS: Immunity acquired naturally after infection is highly dependent on the infecting variant, and, unexpectedly, mRNA-based vaccine efficacy was shown to be often better than natural immunity in eliciting neutralising antibodies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cohort Studies , Female , France , Genotype , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Molecular , Mutation , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Vero Cells , Young Adult
3.
Rev Cardiovasc Med ; 22(3): 1063-1072, 2021 09 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1439023

ABSTRACT

We evaluated the age-specific mortality of unselected adult outpatients infected with SARS-CoV-2 treated early in a dedicated COVID-19 day hospital and we assessed whether the use of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) + azithromycin (AZ) was associated with improved survival in this cohort. A retrospective monocentric cohort study was conducted in the day hospital of our center from March to December 2020 in adults with PCR-proven infection who were treated as outpatients with a standardized protocol. The primary endpoint was 6-week mortality, and secondary endpoints were transfer to the intensive care unit and hospitalization rate. Among 10,429 patients (median age, 45 [IQR 32-57] years; 5597 [53.7%] women), 16 died (0.15%). The infection fatality rate was 0.06% among the 8315 patients treated with HCQ+AZ. No deaths occurred among the 8414 patients younger than 60 years. Older age and male sex were associated with a higher risk of death, ICU transfer, and hospitalization. Treatment with HCQ+AZ (0.17 [0.06-0.48]) was associated with a lower risk of death, independently of age, sex and epidemic period. Meta-analysis evidenced consistency with 4 previous outpatient studies (32,124 patients-Odds ratio 0.31 [0.20-0.47], I2 = 0%). Early ambulatory treatment of COVID-19 with HCQ+AZ as a standard of care is associated with very low mortality, and HCQ+AZ improve COVID-19 survival compared to other regimens.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Early Medical Intervention , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Azithromycin/adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , France , Hospitalization , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Outpatients , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
4.
J Clin Med ; 10(12)2021 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273466

ABSTRACT

The Méditerranée Infection University Hospital Institute (IHU) is located in a recent building, which includes experts on a wide range of infectious disease. The IHU strategy is to develop innovative tools, including epidemiological monitoring, point-of-care laboratories, and the ability to mass screen the population. In this study, we review the strategy and guidelines proposed by the IHU and its application to the COVID-19 pandemic and summarise the various challenges it raises. Early diagnosis enables contagious patients to be isolated and treatment to be initiated at an early stage to reduce the microbial load and contagiousness. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, we had to deal with a shortage of personal protective equipment and reagents and a massive influx of patients. Between 27 January 2020 and 5 January 2021, 434,925 nasopharyngeal samples were tested for the presence of SARS-CoV-2. Of them, 12,055 patients with COVID-19 were followed up in our out-patient clinic, and 1888 patients were hospitalised in the Institute. By constantly adapting our strategy to the ongoing situation, the IHU has succeeded in expanding and upgrading its equipment and improving circuits and flows to better manage infected patients.

5.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 40(6): 1309-1317, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1116613

ABSTRACT

ELISA and chemiluminescence serological assays for COVID-19 are currently incorporating only one or two SARS-CoV-2 antigens. We developed an automated Western immunoblotting as a complementary serologic assay for COVID-19. The JessTM Simple Western system, an automated capillary-based assay, was used, incorporating an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 lineage 20a strain as the source of antigen, and total immunoglobulins (IgG, IgM, IgA) detection. In total, 602 sera were tested including 223 from RT-PCR-confirmed COVID-19 patients, 76 from patients diagnosed with seasonal HCoVs and 303 from coronavirus-negative control sera. We also compared this assay with the EUROIMMUN® SARS-CoV-2 IgG ELISA kit. Among 223 sera obtained from RT-PCR-confirmed COVID-19 patients, 180/223 (81%) exhibited reactivity against the nucleocapsid and 70/223 (31%) against the spike protein. Nucleocapsid reactivity was further detected in 9/76 (14%) samples collected from patients diagnosed with seasonal HCoVs and in 15/303 (5%) coronavirus-negative control samples. In the subset of sera collected more than 2 weeks after the onset of symptoms, the sensitivity was 94% and the specificity 93%, the latter value probably reflecting cross-reactivity of SARS-CoV-2 with other coronaviruses. The automated Western immunoblotting presented a substantial agreement (90%) with the compared ELISA (Cohen's Kappa=0.64). Automated Western immunoblotting may be used as a second line test to monitor exposure of people to HCoVs including SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , Blotting, Western , COVID-19/diagnosis , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Automation, Laboratory , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Cross Reactions , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Phosphoproteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
6.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 597529, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1000110

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 outbreak has emerged at the end of 2019. Aside from the detection of viral genome with specific RT-PCR, there is a growing need for reliable determination of the serological status. We aimed at evaluating five SARS-CoV-2 serology assays. METHODS: An in-house immunofluorescence assay (IFA), two ELISA kits (EUROIMMUN® ELISA SARS-CoV-2 IgG and NovaLisa® SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgM) and two lateral flow assays (T-Tek® SARS-CoV-2 IgG/IgM Antibody Test Kit and Sure Bio-tech® SARS-CoV-2 IgM/IgG Antibody Rapid Test) were compared on 40 serums from RT-PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infected patients and 10 SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR negative subjects as controls. RESULTS: Control subjects tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies with all five systems. Estimated sensitivities varied from 35.5 to 71.0% for IgG detection and from 19.4 to 64.5% for IgM detection. For IgG, in-house IFA, EuroImmun, T-Tek and NovaLisa displayed 50-72.5% agreement with other systems except IFA vs EuroImmun and T-Tek vs NovaLisa. Intermethod agreement for IgM determination was between 30 and 72.5%. DISCUSSION: The overall intermethod agreement was moderate. This inconsistency could be explained by the diversity of assay methods, antigens used and immunoglobulin isotype tested. Estimated sensitivities were low, highlighting the limited value of antibody detection in CoVID-19. CONCLUSION: Comparison of five systems for SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgM antibodies showed limited sensitivity and overall concordance. The place and indications of serological status assessment with currently available tools in the CoVID-19 pandemic need further evaluations.

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