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Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research ; 46:55A, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1937880


The COVID-19 pandemic represents a “perfect storm” as far as risk for intimate partner violence (IPV). Further, abusive partners may engage in novel forms of coercive control during the pandemic, such as pressuring their partners to engage in behaviors that place them at risk for COVID-19 infection (e.g., not wearing a mask, attending a social gathering). Individuals already at elevated risk for IPV, such as LGBQ+ individuals, are also likely more vulnerable to experiencing these novel forms of IPV. Further, experiences of IPV are likely to be associated with several negative health outcomes, including hazardous drinking. The current study examined the frequency of experiencing five forms of COVID-specific IPV, and the association of COVID-specific IPV with hazardous drinking among a sample of 500 dating/partnered LGBQ+ college students attending eight US universities. Participants completed an online survey in the fall of 2020 as part of a larger study on IPV among LGBQ+ college students. Most participants were women (72.4%), followed by men (13.6%), and trans or gender diverse (TGD;12.8%). Most described their sexual orientation as bisexual/pansexual (66.8%), followed by lesbian (9.4%), asexual (8.4%), gay (6.8%), or another sexual identity (e.g., demisexual, queer;8.6%). Additionally, most were White and non-Latinx (65.7%) followed by Latinx (14.4%), multiracial/multiethnic (7.2%), and Asian/Asian American (5.8%). A total of 19.4% of participants reported experiencing at least one form of COVID-specific IPV from their partners, including being pressured to not socially distance (9.6%), to attend a large gathering (9.4%), to not wear a mask (7.2%), to see their partner when their partner may have been exposed to COVID-19 (7.2%), and to engage in sexual activity with their partner when their partner may have been exposed to COVID-19 (3.2%). Individuals who had experienced COVID-specific IPV were significantly more likely to report past six-month hazardous drinking on the AUDIT-5 than those who had not experienced COVID-specific IPV (34.2% versus 20.1%). Future work should evaluate the role of IPV, including novel forms of coercive control during the COVID-19 pandemic, on negative health outcomes, including alcohol use, particularly among already vulnerable and marginalized populations. Tailored interventions may be necessary to adequately address the health needs of these populations during the pandemic.

Alcoholism-Clinical and Experimental Research ; 46:55A-55A, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1894093
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-329535


Hong Kong utilized an elimination strategy with intermittent use of public health and social measures and increasingly stringent travel regulations to control SARS-CoV-2 transmission. By analyzing >1700 genome sequences representing 17% of confirmed cases from 23-January-2020 to 26-January-2021, we reveal the effects of fluctuating control measures on the evolution and epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 lineages in Hong Kong. Despite numerous importations, only three introductions were responsible for 90% of locally-acquired cases, two of which circulated cryptically for weeks while less stringent measures were in place. We found that SARS-CoV-2 within-host diversity was most similar among transmission pairs and epidemiological clusters due to a strong transmission bottleneck through which similar genetic background generates similar within-host diversity. One sentence summary: Out of the 170 detected introductions of SARS-CoV-2 in Hong Kong during 2020, three introductions caused 90% of community cases.

PUBMED; 2021.
Preprint in English | PUBMED | ID: ppcovidwho-293068


BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has greatly impacted school operations. To better understand the role of schools in COVID-19 transmission, we evaluated infections at two independent schools in Nashville, TN during the 2020-2021 school year. METHODS: The cumulative incidence of COVID-19 within each school, age group, and exposure setting were estimated and compared to local incidence. Primary attack rates were estimated among students quarantined for in-school close contact. RESULTS: Among 1401 students who attended school during the study period, 98 cases of COVID-19 were reported, corresponding to cumulative incidence of 7.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 5.7-8.5). Most cases were linked to household (58%) or community (31%) transmission, with few linked to in-school transmission (11%). Overall, 619 students were quarantined, corresponding to >5000 person-days of missed school, among whom only 5 tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 during quarantine (primary attack rate: 0.8%, 95% CI: 0.3, 1.9). Weekly case rates at school were not correlated with community transmission. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that transmission of COVID-19 in schools is minimal when strict mitigation measures are used, even during periods of extensive community transmission. Strict quarantine of contacts may lead to unnecessary missed school days with minimal benefit to in-school transmission.