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1.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(7)2022 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1988047

ABSTRACT

Essential agricultural workers work under occupational conditions that may increase the risk of SARS-CoV-2 exposure and transmission. Data from an agricultural worker cohort in Guatemala, and anti-SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid IgG (anti-N IgG) testing were used to estimate past infections and analyze risk factors associated with seropositivity at enrollment and association with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The stability of neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses were assessed in a subset of participants. The adjusted relative risk (aRR) for seroprevalence at enrollment was estimated accounting for correlations within worksites. At enrollment, 616 (46.2%) of 1334 (93.2%) participants had anti-N IgG results indicating prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. A cough ≤ 10 days prior to enrollment (aRR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.13-1.46) and working as a packer (aRR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.67-2.38) or packing manager within the plants (aRR = 1.82, 95% CI: 1.36-2.43) were associated with increased risk of seropositivity. COVID-19 incidence density among seronegative workers was 2.3/100 Person-Years (P-Y), higher than seropositive workers (0.4/100 P-Y). Most workers with follow-up NAb testing (65/77, 84%) exhibited a 95% average decrease in NAb titers in <6 months. While participants seropositive at baseline were less likely to experience a symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection during follow-up, NAb titers rapidly waned, underscoring the need for multipronged COVID-19 prevention strategies in the workplace, including vaccination.

2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(9): 1691-1695, 2022 05 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1831048

ABSTRACT

Despite the challenges of the pandemic, there has been substantial progress with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) therapies. Pivotal COVID-19 trials like SOLIDARITY, RECOVERY, and ACCT-1 were rapidly conducted and data disseminated to support effective therapies. However, critical shortcomings remain on trial conduct, dissemination and interpretation of study results, and regulatory guidance in pandemic settings. The lessons that we learned have implications for both the current pandemic and future emerging infectious diseases. There is a need for establishing and standardizing clinical meaningful outcomes in therapeutic trials and for targeting defined populations and phenotypes that will most benefit from specific therapies. Standardized processes should be established for rapid and critical data review and dissemination to ensure scientific integrity. Clarity around the evidence standards needed for issuance of both emergency use authorization (EUA) and biologic license application (BLA) should be established and an infrastructure for executing rapid trials in epidemic settings maintained.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases, Emerging , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Ann Intern Med ; 175(4): 513-522, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1811218

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS) is a potentially life-threatening condition associated with adenoviral-vectored COVID-19 vaccination. It presents similarly to spontaneous heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Twelve cases of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis after vaccination with the Ad26.COV2.S COVID-19 vaccine (Janssen/Johnson & Johnson) have previously been described. OBJECTIVE: To describe surveillance data and reporting rates of all reported TTS cases after COVID-19 vaccination in the United States. DESIGN: Case series. SETTING: United States. PATIENTS: Case patients receiving a COVID-19 vaccine from 14 December 2020 through 31 August 2021 with thrombocytopenia and thrombosis (excluding isolated ischemic stroke or myocardial infarction) reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System. If thrombosis was only in an extremity vein or pulmonary embolism, a positive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for antiplatelet factor 4 antibodies or functional heparin-induced thrombocytopenia platelet test result was required. MEASUREMENTS: Reporting rates (cases per million vaccine doses) and descriptive epidemiology. RESULTS: A total of 57 TTS cases were confirmed after vaccination with Ad26.COV2.S (n = 54) or a messenger RNA (mRNA)-based COVID-19 vaccine (n = 3). Reporting rates for TTS were 3.83 per million vaccine doses (Ad26.COV2.S) and 0.00855 per million vaccine doses (mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines). The median age of patients with TTS after Ad26.COV2.S vaccination was 44.5 years (range, 18 to 70 years), and 69% of patients were women. Of the TTS cases after mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccination, 2 occurred in men older than 50 years and 1 in a woman aged 50 to 59 years. All cases after Ad26.COV2.S vaccination involved hospitalization, including 36 (67%) with intensive care unit admission. Outcomes of hospitalizations after Ad26.COV2.S vaccination included death (15%), discharge to postacute care (17%), and discharge home (68%). LIMITATIONS: Underreporting and incomplete case follow-up. CONCLUSION: Thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome is a rare but serious adverse event associated with Ad26.COV2.S vaccination. The different demographic characteristics of the 3 cases reported after mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines and the much lower reporting rate suggest that these cases represent a background rate. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Vaccines , /adverse effects , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Messenger , Syndrome , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombocytopenia/epidemiology , Thrombosis/chemically induced , Thrombosis/etiology , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccines/adverse effects , Young Adult
4.
Nat Med ; 28(5): 903-904, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773988

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 6(5): 303-312, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713046

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a hyperinflammatory condition associated with antecedent SARS-CoV-2 infection. In the USA, reporting of MIS-C after vaccination is required under COVID-19 vaccine emergency use authorisations. We aimed to investigate reports of individuals aged 12-20 years with MIS-C after COVID-19 vaccination reported to passive surveillance systems or through clinician outreach to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). METHODS: In this surveillance activity, we investigated potential cases of MIS-C after COVID-19 vaccination reported to CDC's MIS-C national surveillance system, the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (co-administered by CDC and the US Food and Drug Administration), and CDC's Clinical Immunization Safety Assessment Project. A multidisciplinary team adjudicated cases by use of the CDC MIS-C definition. Any positive SARS-CoV-2 serology test satisfied case criteria; although anti-nucleocapsid antibodies indicate previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, anti-spike protein antibodies indicate either past or recent infection or COVID-19 vaccination. We describe the demographic and clinical features of cases, stratified by laboratory evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection. To calculate the reporting rate of MIS-C, we divided the count of all individuals meeting the MIS-C case definition, and of those without evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection, by the number of individuals aged 12-20 years in the USA who received one or more COVID-19 vaccine doses up to Aug 31, 2021, obtained from CDC national vaccine surveillance data. FINDINGS: Using surveillance results from Dec 14, 2020, to Aug 31, 2021, we identified 21 individuals with MIS-C after COVID-19 vaccination. Of these 21 individuals, median age was 16 years (range 12-20); 13 (62%) were male and eight (38%) were female. All 21 were hospitalised: 12 (57%) were admitted to an intensive care unit and all were discharged home. 15 (71%) of 21 individuals had laboratory evidence of past or recent SARS-CoV-2 infection, and six (29%) did not. As of Aug 31, 2021, 21 335 331 individuals aged 12-20 years had received one or more doses of a COVID-19 vaccine, making the overall reporting rate for MIS-C after vaccination 1·0 case per million individuals receiving one or more doses in this age group. The reporting rate in only those without evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection was 0·3 cases per million vaccinated individuals. INTERPRETATION: Here, we describe a small number of individuals with MIS-C who had received one or more doses of a COVID-19 vaccine before illness onset; the contribution of vaccination to these illnesses is unknown. Our findings suggest that MIS-C after COVID-19 vaccination is rare. Continued reporting of potential cases and surveillance for MIS-C illnesses after COVID-19 vaccination is warranted. FUNDING: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Child , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
6.
The Lancet. Child & adolescent health ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1695114

ABSTRACT

Background Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a hyperinflammatory condition associated with antecedent SARS-CoV-2 infection. In the USA, reporting of MIS-C after vaccination is required under COVID-19 vaccine emergency use authorisations. We aimed to investigate reports of individuals aged 12–20 years with MIS-C after COVID-19 vaccination reported to passive surveillance systems or through clinician outreach to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Methods In this surveillance activity, we investigated potential cases of MIS-C after COVID-19 vaccination reported to CDC's MIS-C national surveillance system, the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (co-administered by CDC and the US Food and Drug Administration), and CDC's Clinical Immunization Safety Assessment Project. A multidisciplinary team adjudicated cases by use of the CDC MIS-C definition. Any positive SARS-CoV-2 serology test satisfied case criteria;although anti-nucleocapsid antibodies indicate previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, anti-spike protein antibodies indicate either past or recent infection or COVID-19 vaccination. We describe the demographic and clinical features of cases, stratified by laboratory evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection. To calculate the reporting rate of MIS-C, we divided the count of all individuals meeting the MIS-C case definition, and of those without evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection, by the number of individuals aged 12–20 years in the USA who received one or more COVID-19 vaccine doses up to Aug 31, 2021, obtained from CDC national vaccine surveillance data. Findings Using surveillance results from Dec 14, 2020, to Aug 31, 2021, we identified 21 individuals with MIS-C after COVID-19 vaccination. Of these 21 individuals, median age was 16 years (range 12–20);13 (62%) were male and eight (38%) were female. All 21 were hospitalised: 12 (57%) were admitted to an intensive care unit and all were discharged home. 15 (71%) of 21 individuals had laboratory evidence of past or recent SARS-CoV-2 infection, and six (29%) did not. As of Aug 31, 2021, 21 335 331 individuals aged 12–20 years had received one or more doses of a COVID-19 vaccine, making the overall reporting rate for MIS-C after vaccination 1·0 case per million individuals receiving one or more doses in this age group. The reporting rate in only those without evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection was 0·3 cases per million vaccinated individuals. Interpretation Here, we describe a small number of individuals with MIS-C who had received one or more doses of a COVID-19 vaccine before illness onset;the contribution of vaccination to these illnesses is unknown. Our findings suggest that MIS-C after COVID-19 vaccination is rare. Continued reporting of potential cases and surveillance for MIS-C illnesses after COVID-19 vaccination is warranted. Funding US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

7.
8.
N Engl J Med ; 386(8): 789-790, 2022 02 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621310
9.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 17(12): 4761-4798, 2021 12 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541479

ABSTRACT

Vaccination intent is foundational for effective COVID-19 vaccine campaigns. To understand factors and attitudes influencing COVID-19 vaccination intent in Black and White adults in the US south, we conducted a mixed-methods cross-sectional survey of 4512 adults enrolled in the Southern Community Cohort Study (SCCS), an ongoing study of racial and economic health disparities. Vaccination intent was measured as "If a vaccine to prevent COVID-19 became available to you, how likely are you to choose to get the COVID-19 vaccination?" with options of "very unlikely," "somewhat unlikely," "neither unlikely nor likely," "somewhat likely," and "very likely." Reasons for intent, socio-demographic factors, preventive behaviors, and other factors were collected. 46% of participants had uncertain or low intent. Lower intent was associated with female gender, younger age, Black race, more spiritual/religious, lower perceived COVID-19 susceptibility, living in a greater deprivation area, lower reading ability, and lack of confidence in childhood vaccine safety or COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness or safety (p < .05 for all). Most factors were present in all racial/gender groups. Contextual influences, vaccine/vaccination specific issues, and personal/group influences were identified as reasons for low intent. Reasons for higher intent included preventing serious illness, life returning to normal, and recommendation of trusted messengers. Hesitancy was complex, suggesting tailored interventions may be required to address low intent.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Southeastern United States , Vaccination
10.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(9): 1686-1690, 2022 05 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475781

ABSTRACT

Given the urgent need for treatments during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, the US Food and Drug Administration issued emergency use authorizations (EUAs) for multiple therapies. In several instances, however, these EUAs were issued before sufficient evidence of a given therapy's efficacy and safety were available, potentially promoting ineffective or even harmful therapies and undermining the generation of definitive evidence. We describe the strengths and weaknesses of the different therapeutic EUAs issued during this pandemic. We also contrast them to the vaccine EUAs and suggest a framework and criteria for an evidence-based, trustworthy, and publicly transparent therapeutic EUA process for future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , United States/epidemiology , United States Food and Drug Administration
12.
J Pediatr ; 237: 302-306.e1, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1272582

ABSTRACT

There is concern that in-person schooling during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic will facilitate disease transmission. Through asymptomatic surveillance and contact tracing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), we found low rates of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection and little in-school transmission of COVID-19 when physical distancing and masking strategies were enforced despite a high community prevalence of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Schools/organization & administration , Adolescent , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Contact Tracing/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools/statistics & numerical data , Tennessee/epidemiology
13.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 147(6): 2075-2082.e2, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1185028

ABSTRACT

Anaphylaxis to vaccines is historically a rare event. The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic drove the need for rapid vaccine production applying a novel antigen delivery system: messenger RNA vaccines packaged in lipid nanoparticles. Unexpectedly, public vaccine administration led to a small number of severe allergic reactions, with resultant substantial public concern, especially within atopic individuals. We reviewed the constituents of the messenger RNA lipid nanoparticle vaccine and considered several contributors to these reactions: (1) contact system activation by nucleic acid, (2) complement recognition of the vaccine-activating allergic effector cells, (3) preexisting antibody recognition of polyethylene glycol, a lipid nanoparticle surface hydrophilic polymer, and (4) direct mast cell activation, coupled with potential genetic or environmental predispositions to hypersensitivity. Unfortunately, measurement of anti-polyethylene glycol antibodies in vitro is not clinically available, and the predictive value of skin testing to polyethylene glycol components as a coronavirus disease 2019 messenger RNA vaccine-specific anaphylaxis marker is unknown. Even less is known regarding the applicability of vaccine use for testing (in vitro/vivo) to ascertain pathogenesis or predict reactivity risk. Expedient and thorough research-based evaluation of patients who have suffered anaphylactic vaccine reactions and prospective clinical trials in putative at-risk individuals are needed to address these concerns during a public health crisis.


Subject(s)
Anaphylaxis/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/immunology , Drug Hypersensitivity/immunology , Lipids/adverse effects , Nanoparticles/adverse effects , RNA, Messenger/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Anaphylaxis/chemically induced , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Drug Hypersensitivity/pathology , Humans , Lipids/immunology , Lipids/therapeutic use , Mast Cells/immunology , Mast Cells/pathology , Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , RNA, Messenger/immunology , RNA, Messenger/therapeutic use , Risk Factors
14.
Vaccine ; 39(22): 3028-3036, 2021 05 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1051979

ABSTRACT

This is a Brighton Collaboration Case Definition of the term "Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome - ARDS" to be utilized in the evaluation of adverse events following immunization. The Case Definition was developed by a group of experts convened by the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI) in the context of active development of vaccines for SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and other emerging pathogens. The case definition format of the Brighton Collaboration was followed to develop a consensus definition and defined levels of certainty, after an exhaustive review of the literature and expert consultation. The document underwent peer review by the Brighton Collaboration Network and by selected Expert Reviewers prior to submission. The comments of the reviewers were taken into consideration and edits incorporated in this final manuscript.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , COVID-19 Vaccines , Data Collection , Humans , Immunization/adverse effects , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(12): 2225-2240, 2021 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-889502

ABSTRACT

In this article, the editors of Clinical Infectious Diseases review some of the most important lessons they have learned about the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection and identify essential questions about COVID-19 that remain to be answered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Annu Rev Virol ; 7(1): 475-494, 2020 09 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-865856

ABSTRACT

The conduct of clinical trials during the West Africa Ebola outbreak in 2014 highlighted many ethical challenges. How these challenges were addressed, what clinical studies were conducted during that outbreak, and the lessons learned for dealing with future outbreaks were the subject of a National Academy of Medicine committee report titled Integrating Clinical Research into Epidemic Response: The Ebola Experience. This report suggested improvements for research during subsequent emerging or re-emerging outbreaks and is summarized in this review. We also discuss the current Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and highlight how the dialogue has changed and how successful clinical trials have been implemented. We conclude with a description of productive efforts to include pregnant women and children in therapeutic and vaccine trials during outbreaks that are currently ongoing.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research/ethics , Clinical Trials as Topic/ethics , Disease Outbreaks , Ebolavirus/pathogenicity , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/epidemiology , Patient Selection/ethics , Adult , Africa, Western/epidemiology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biomedical Research/organization & administration , Child , Clinical Trials as Topic/organization & administration , Ebola Vaccines/administration & dosage , Female , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/immunology , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/mortality , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/prevention & control , Humans , International Cooperation , Male , Pregnancy , Survival Analysis
19.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Apr 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-125368

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are many pharmacologic therapies that are being used or considered for treatment of COVID-19. There is a need for frequently updated practice guidelines on their use, based on critical evaluation of rapidly emerging literature. OBJECTIVE: Develop evidence-based rapid guidelines intended to support patients, clinicians and other health-care professionals in their decisions about treatment and management of patients with COVID-19. METHODS: IDSA formed a multidisciplinary guideline panel of infectious disease clinicians, pharmacists, and methodologists with varied areas of expertise. Process followed a rapid recommendation checklist. The panel prioritized questions and outcomes. Then a systematic review of the peer-reviewed and grey literature was conducted. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach was used to assess the certainty of evidence and make recommendations. RESULTS: The IDSA guideline panel agreed on 7 treatment recommendations and provided narrative summaries of other treatments undergoing evaluations. CONCLUSIONS: The panel expressed the overarching goal that patients be recruited into ongoing trials, which would provide much needed evidence on the efficacy and safety of various therapies for COVID-19, given that we could not make a determination whether the benefits outweigh harms for most treatments.

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