Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 36
Filter
1.
Cell Rep ; 39(13): 111009, 2022 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1944463

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron BA.2 sub-lineage has gained in proportion relative to BA.1. Because spike (S) protein variations may underlie differences in their pathobiology, here we determine cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures of the BA.2 S ectodomain and compare these with previously determined BA.1 S structures. BA.2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) mutations induce remodeling of the RBD structure, resulting in tighter packing and improved thermostability. Interprotomer RBD interactions are enhanced in the closed (or 3-RBD-down) BA.2 S, while the fusion peptide is less accessible to antibodies than in BA.1. Binding and pseudovirus neutralization assays reveal extensive immune evasion while defining epitopes of two outer RBD face-binding antibodies, DH1044 and DH1193, that neutralize both BA.1 and BA.2. Taken together, our results indicate that stabilization of the closed state through interprotomer RBD-RBD packing is a hallmark of the Omicron variant and show differences in key functional regions in the BA.1 and BA.2 S proteins.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Humans , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
2.
Mol Cell ; 82(11): 2050-2068.e6, 2022 06 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937002

ABSTRACT

Aided by extensive spike protein mutation, the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant overtook the previously dominant Delta variant. Spike conformation plays an essential role in SARS-CoV-2 evolution via changes in receptor-binding domain (RBD) and neutralizing antibody epitope presentation, affecting virus transmissibility and immune evasion. Here, we determine cryo-EM structures of the Omicron and Delta spikes to understand the conformational impacts of mutations in each. The Omicron spike structure revealed an unusually tightly packed RBD organization with long range impacts that were not observed in the Delta spike. Binding and crystallography revealed increased flexibility at the functionally critical fusion peptide site in the Omicron spike. These results reveal a highly evolved Omicron spike architecture with possible impacts on its high levels of immune evasion and transmissibility.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Humans , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
3.
BMC Womens Health ; 22(1): 267, 2022 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910308

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic has strongly influenced psychological and physical health worldwide. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of the pandemic on women with fibromyalgia. METHODS: This mixed methods pilot study explored measures of pain severity and interference, as well as pain catastrophizing and level of fibromyalgia impact among women with fibromyalgia before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in the USA. Fibromyalgia patients completed demographic, pain-related, and other validated psychosocial questionnaires prior to the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, and then were re-assessed with those questionnaires, as well as a pandemic-related questionnaire assessing the impact of the pandemic on the patients' life, during the pandemic. RESULTS: When comparing data reported before the pandemic to data collected 3-6 months into the pandemic, women with fibromyalgia reported a general worsening of their pain and pain-related symptoms. During the pandemic, pain catastrophizing (p ≤ 0.05) and fibromyalgia impact (p ≤ 0.05) increased significantly compared to before the pandemic. The increase in pain catastrophizing scores was highly correlated with the impact of the pandemic on the participants' ability to cope with pain and on their mental health. Qualitative analysis corroborated the significant impact of the pandemic on patients' mental health, with the vast majority reporting a worsening of their mood. Other impacted domains included anxiety, level of activity and sleep. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, the pandemic appears to have produced a substantive worsening of pain-related symptomatology among women with fibromyalgia, which should be addressed by targeted interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fibromyalgia , Female , Fibromyalgia/diagnosis , Fibromyalgia/epidemiology , Fibromyalgia/psychology , Humans , Pain/psychology , Pandemics , Pilot Projects , Quality of Life/psychology
4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Feb 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1886372

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We studied humoral responses after COVID-19 vaccination across varying causes of immunodeficiency. METHODS: Prospective study of fully-vaccinated immunocompromised adults (solid organ transplant (SOT), hematologic malignancy, solid cancers, autoimmune conditions, HIV infection) versus non-immunocompromised healthcare-workers (HCW). The primary outcome was the proportion with a reactive test (seropositive) for IgG to SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain. Secondary outcomes were comparisons of antibody levels and their correlation with pseudovirus neutralization titers. Stepwise logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with seropositivity. RESULTS: 1271 participants enrolled: 1,099 immunocompromised and 172 HCW. Compared to HCW (92.4% seropositive), seropositivity was lower among participants with SOT (30.7%), hematological malignancies (50.0%), autoimmune conditions (79.1%), solid tumors (78.7%), and HIV (79.8%) (p<0.01). Factors associated with poor seropositivity included age, greater immunosuppression, time since vaccination, anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies, and vaccination with BNT162b2 (Pfizer) or adenovirus vector vaccines versus mRNA-1273 (Moderna). mRNA-1273 was associated with higher antibody levels than BNT162b2 or adenovirus vector vaccines, after adjusting for time since vaccination, age, and underlying condition. Antibody levels were strongly correlated with pseudovirus neutralization titers (Spearman r=0.89, p<0.0001), but in seropositive participants with intermediate antibody levels, neutralization titers were significantly lower in immunocompromised individuals versus HCW. CONCLUSION: Antibody responses to COVID-19 vaccines were lowest among SOT and anti-CD20 monoclonal recipients, and recipients of vaccines other than mRNA-1273. Among those with intermediate antibody levels, pseudovirus neutralization titers were lower in immunocompromised patients than HCW. Additional SARS-CoV-2 preventive approaches are needed for immunocompromised persons, which may need to be tailored to the cause of immunodeficiency.

5.
Cell Rep ; 39(11): 110938, 2022 Jun 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1866955

ABSTRACT

While severe coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with immune activation at the maternal-fetal interface, responses to asymptomatic/mild severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection during pregnancy remain unknown. Here, we assess immunological adaptations in blood and term decidua in response to asymptomatic/mild disease in pregnant women. We report attenuated antigen presentation and type I interferon (IFN) signaling pathways, loss of tissue-resident decidual macrophages, and upregulated cytokine/chemokine signaling in monocyte-derived decidual macrophages. Furthermore, we describe increased frequencies of activated tissue-resident T cells and decreased abundance of regulatory T cells with infection while frequencies of cytotoxic CD4/CD8 T cells are increased in the blood. In contrast to decidual macrophages, type I IFN signaling is higher in decidual T cells. Finally, infection leads to a narrowing of T cell receptor diversity in both blood and decidua. Collectively, these observations indicate that asymptomatic/mild COVID-19 during pregnancy results in remodeling of the immunological landscape of the maternal-fetal interface, with a potential for long-term adverse outcomes for the offspring.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Decidua , Female , Humans , Placenta/metabolism , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Analysis, RNA
6.
Pain Med ; 2022 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1853156

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Individuals experience chronic pain differently, not only based on different clinical diagnosis, but also on differing degrees of influence by biopsychosocial pain modulators. We aimed to cluster chronic pain patients into distinct subgroups based on psychosocial characteristics and pain intensity, and subsequently examined group differences in pain-related interference approximately one year later. METHODS: In this observational, longitudinal study, patients with chronic pain (N = 94) completed validated assessments of psychosocial characteristics and pain intensity at the beginning of COVID-related social distancing (April-June, 2020). One year later (May-June, 2021), patients completed a follow-up survey with assessments of pain interference, loneliness, social support, mindfulness, and optimism. RESULTS: A cluster analysis, using psychosocial factors and pain intensity, empirically produced three patient groups: 1) PsychoSocial Predominant (PSP), characterized by high psychosocial distress and average pain intensity; 2) Pain Intensity Predominant (PIP), characterized by average psychosocial distress and high pain intensity; and 3) Less Elevated Symptoms (LES), characterized by low psychosocial distress and low pain intensity. At the 1-year follow-up, patients in the PSP and PIP clusters suffered greater pain interference compared to the LES cluster, while the PSP cluster also reported greater loneliness, and lower mindfulness and optimism. CONCLUSIONS: An empiric psychosocial-based clustering of patients identified three distinct groups, which differed in pain interference. Patients with high psychosocial modulation of pain at the onset of social distancing (PSP cluster) suffered not only greater pain interference, but also greater loneliness and lower levels of mindfulness and optimism, suggesting some potential behavioral targets for this group in the future.

7.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-333084

ABSTRACT

Summary The BA.2 lineage of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant has gained in proportion relative to BA.1. As differences in their spike (S) proteins may underlie differences in their pathobiology, here we determined cryo-EM structures of a BA.2 S protein ectodomain and compared these to previously determined BA.1 S structures. BA.2 Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) mutations induced remodeling of the internal RBD structure resulting in its improved thermostability and tighter packing within the 3-RBD-down spike. In the S2 subunit, the fusion peptide in the BA.2 was less accessible to antibodies than in BA.1. Pseudovirus neutralization and spike binding assays revealed extensive immune evasion while defining epitopes of two RBD-directed antibodies, DH1044 and DH1193, that bound the outer RBD face to neutralize both BA.1 and BA.2. Taken together, our results indicate that stabilization of the 3-RBD-down state through interprotomer RBD-RBD packing is a hallmark of the Omicron lineages, and reveal differences in key functional regions in the BA.1 and BA.2 S proteins.

8.
Cell Rep ; 38(11): 110514, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739598

ABSTRACT

The success of nucleoside-modified mRNAs in lipid nanoparticles (mRNA-LNP) as COVID-19 vaccines heralded a new era of vaccine development. For HIV-1, multivalent envelope (Env) trimer protein nanoparticles are superior immunogens compared with trimers alone for priming of broadly neutralizing antibody (bnAb) B cell lineages. The successful expression of complex multivalent nanoparticle immunogens with mRNAs has not been demonstrated. Here, we show that mRNAs can encode antigenic Env trimers on ferritin nanoparticles that initiate bnAb precursor B cell expansion and induce serum autologous tier 2 neutralizing activity in bnAb precursor VH + VL knock-in mice. Next-generation sequencing demonstrates acquisition of critical mutations, and monoclonal antibodies that neutralize heterologous HIV-1 isolates are isolated. Thus, mRNA-LNP can encode complex immunogens and may be of use in design of germline-targeting and sequential boosting immunogens for HIV-1 vaccine development.


Subject(s)
AIDS Vaccines , COVID-19 , HIV-1 , Nanoparticles , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Epitopes , Ferritins/genetics , HIV Antibodies , Humans , Liposomes , Mice , RNA, Messenger , env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/genetics
9.
J Virol ; 96(4): e0196921, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702819

ABSTRACT

Unlike SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV, infection with SARS-CoV-2, the viral pathogen responsible for COVID-19, is often associated with neurologic symptoms that range from mild to severe, yet increasing evidence argues the virus does not exhibit extensive neuroinvasive properties. We demonstrate SARS-CoV-2 can infect and replicate in human iPSC-derived neurons and that infection shows limited antiviral and inflammatory responses but increased activation of EIF2 signaling following infection as determined by RNA sequencing. Intranasal infection of K18 human ACE2 transgenic mice (K18-hACE2) with SARS-CoV-2 resulted in lung pathology associated with viral replication and immune cell infiltration. In addition, ∼50% of infected mice exhibited CNS infection characterized by wide-spread viral replication in neurons accompanied by increased expression of chemokine (Cxcl9, Cxcl10, Ccl2, Ccl5 and Ccl19) and cytokine (Ifn-λ and Tnf-α) transcripts associated with microgliosis and a neuroinflammatory response consisting primarily of monocytes/macrophages. Microglia depletion via administration of colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor inhibitor, PLX5622, in SARS-CoV-2 infected mice did not affect survival or viral replication but did result in dampened expression of proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine transcripts and a reduction in monocyte/macrophage infiltration. These results argue that microglia are dispensable in terms of controlling SARS-CoV-2 replication in in the K18-hACE2 model but do contribute to an inflammatory response through expression of pro-inflammatory genes. Collectively, these findings contribute to previous work demonstrating the ability of SARS-CoV-2 to infect neurons as well as emphasizing the potential use of the K18-hACE2 model to study immunological and neuropathological aspects related to SARS-CoV-2-induced neurologic disease. IMPORTANCE Understanding the immunological mechanisms contributing to both host defense and disease following viral infection of the CNS is of critical importance given the increasing number of viruses that are capable of infecting and replicating within the nervous system. With this in mind, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the role of microglia in aiding in host defense following experimental infection of the central nervous system (CNS) of K18-hACE2 with SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19. Neurologic symptoms that range in severity are common in COVID-19 patients and understanding immune responses that contribute to restricting neurologic disease can provide important insight into better understanding consequences associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection of the CNS.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Central Nervous System Viral Diseases/immunology , Microglia/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , Central Nervous System/immunology , Central Nervous System/virology , Central Nervous System Viral Diseases/genetics , Central Nervous System Viral Diseases/virology , Chemokines/genetics , Chemokines/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Microglia/virology , Neurons/immunology , Neurons/virology , Virus Replication/genetics
10.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311277

ABSTRACT

Background: Early evaluations of healthcare professional (HCP) COVID-19 risk occurred during insufficient personal protective equipment and disproportionate testing, contributing to perceptions of high patient-care related HCP risk. We evaluated HCP COVID-19 seropositivity after accounting for community factors and coworker outbreaks. Methods: : Prior to universal masking, we conducted a single-center retrospective cohort plus cross-sectional study. All HCP 1) seen by Occupational Health for COVID-like symptoms (regardless of test result) or assigned to 2) dedicated COVID-19 units, 3) units with a COVID-19 HCP outbreak, or 4) control units from 01/01/2020-04/15/2020 were offered serologic testing by an FDA-authorized assay plus a research assay against 67 respiratory viruses, including 11 SARS-CoV-2 antigens. Multivariable models assessed the association of demographics, job role, comorbidities, care of a COVID-19 patient, and geocoded socioeconomic status with positive serology. Results: : Of 654 participants, 87 (13.3%) were seropositive;among these 60.8% (N=52) had never cared for a COVID-19 patient. Being male (OR 1.79, CI 1.05-3.04, p=0.03), working in a HCP-outbreak unit (OR 2.21, CI 1.28-3.81, p<0.01), living in a community with low owner-occupied housing (OR=1.63, CI=1.00-2.64, p=0.05), and ethnically Latino (OR 2.10, CI 1.12-3.96, p=0.02) were positively-associated with COVID-19 seropositivity, while working in dedicated COVID-19 units was negatively-associated (OR 0.53, CI=0.30-0.94, p=0.03). The research assay identified 25 additional seropositive individuals (78 [12%] vs. 53 [8%], p<0.01). Conclusions: : Prior to universal masking, HCP COVID-19 risk was dominated by workplace and community exposures while working in a dedicated COVID-19 unit was protective, suggesting that infection prevention protocols prevent patient-to-HCP transmission.

11.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327271

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2-specific memory T cells that cross-react with common cold coronaviruses (CCCs) are present in both healthy donors and COVID-19 patients. However, whether these cross-reactive T cells play a role in COVID-19 pathogenesis versus protection remain to be fully elucidated. In this study, we characterized cross-reactive SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, targeting genome-wide conserved epitopes in a cohort of 147 non-vaccinated COVID-19 patients, divided into six groups based on the degrees of disease severity. We compared the frequency, phenotype, and function of these SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells between severely ill and asymptomatic COVID-19 patients and correlated this with alpha-CCCs and beta-CCCs co-infection status. Compared with asymptomatic COVID-19 patients, the severely ill COVID-19 patients and patients with fatal outcomes: (i) Presented a broad leukocytosis and a broad CD4+ and CD8+ T cell lymphopenia;(ii) Developed low frequencies of functional IFN-gamma-producing CD134+CD138+CD4+ and CD134+CD138+CD8+ T cells directed toward conserved epitopes from structural, non-structural and regulatory SARS-CoV-2 proteins;(iii) Displayed high frequencies of SARS-CoV-2-specific functionally exhausted PD-1+TIM3+TIGIT+CTLA4+CD4+ and PD-1+TIM3+TIGIT+CTLA4+CD8+ T cells;and (iv) Displayed similar frequencies of co-infections with beta-CCCs strains but significantly fewer co-infections with alpha-CCCs strains. Interestingly, the cross-reactive SARS-CoV-2 epitopes that recalled the strongest CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses in unexposed healthy donors (HD) were the most strongly associated with better disease outcome seen in asymptomatic COVID-19 patients. Our results demonstrate that, the critically ill COVID-19 patients displayed fewer co-infection with alpha-CCCs strain, presented broad T cell lymphopenia and higher frequencies of cross reactive exhausted SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. In contrast, the asymptomatic COVID-19 patients, appeared to present more co-infections with alpha-CCCs strains, associated with higher frequencies of functional cross-reactive SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. These findings support the development of broadly protective, T-cell-based, multi-antigen universal pan-Coronavirus vaccines.

12.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327163

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus vaccines that are highly effective against SARS-CoV-2 variants are needed to control the current pandemic. We previously reported a receptor-binding domain (RBD) sortase A-conjugated ferritin nanoparticle (RBD-scNP) vaccine that induced neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and pre-emergent sarbecoviruses and protected monkeys from SARS-CoV-2 WA-1 infection. Here, we demonstrate SARS-CoV-2 RBD-scNP immunization induces potent neutralizing antibodies against all eight SARS-CoV-2 variants tested including the Beta, Delta, and Omicron variants in non-human primates (NHPs). The Omicron variant was neutralized by RBD-scNP-induced serum antibodies with a mean of 4.3-fold reduction of ID50 titers compared to SARS-CoV-2 D614G. Immunization with RBD-scNPs protected NHPs from SARS-CoV-2 WA-1, Beta, and Delta variant challenge, and protected mice from challenges of SARS-CoV-2 Beta variant and two other heterologous sarbecoviruses. These results demonstrate the ability of RBD-scNPs to induce broad neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 variants and to protect NHPs and mice from multiple different SARS-related viruses. Such a vaccine could provide the needed immunity to slow the spread of and reduce disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 variants such as Delta and Omicron.

13.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327134

ABSTRACT

Aided by extensive spike protein mutation, the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant overtook the previously dominant Delta variant. Spike conformation plays an essential role in SARS-CoV-2 evolution via changes in receptor binding domain (RBD) and neutralizing antibody epitope presentation affecting virus transmissibility and immune evasion. Here, we determine cryo-EM structures of the Omicron and Delta spikes to understand the conformational impacts of mutations in each. The Omicron spike structure revealed an unusually tightly packed RBD organization with long range impacts that were not observed in the Delta spike. Binding and crystallography revealed increased flexibility at the functionally critical fusion peptide site in the Omicron spike. These results reveal a highly evolved Omicron spike architecture with possible impacts on its high levels of immune evasion and transmissibility.

14.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 111: 106619, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574060

ABSTRACT

Characterizing the impacts of disruption attributable to the COVID-19 pandemic on clinical research is important, especially in pain research where psychological, social, and economic stressors attributable to the COVID-19 pandemic may greatly impact treatment effects. The National Institutes of Health - Department of Defense - Department of Veterans Affairs Pain Management Collaboratory (PMC) is a collective effort supporting 11 pragmatic clinical trials studying nonpharmacological approaches and innovative integrated care models for pain management in veteran and military health systems. The PMC rapidly developed a brief pandemic impacts measure for use across its pragmatic trials studying pain while remaining broadly applicable to other areas of clinical research. Through open discussion and consensus building by the PMC's Phenotypes and Outcomes Work Group, the PMC Coronavirus Pandemic (COVID-19) Measure was iteratively developed. The measure assesses the following domains (one item/domain): access to healthcare, social support, finances, ability to meet basic needs, and mental or emotional health. Two additional items assess infection status (personal and household) and hospitalization. The measure uses structured responses with a three-point scale for COVID-19 infection status and four-point ordinal rank response for all other domains. We recommend individualized adaptation as appropriate by clinical research teams using this measure to survey the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on study participants. This can also help maintain utility of the measure beyond the COVID-19 pandemic to characterize impacts during future public health emergencies that may require mitigation strategies such as periods of quarantine and isolation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pragmatic Clinical Trials as Topic , Humans , Pandemics , Quarantine , Social Support , United States/epidemiology
15.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295545

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY The success of nucleoside-modified mRNAs in lipid nanoparticles (mRNA-LNP) as COVID-19 vaccines heralded a new era of vaccine development. For HIV-1, multivalent envelope (Env) trimer protein nanoparticles are superior immunogens compared to trimers alone for priming of broadly neutralizing antibody (bnAb) B cell lineages. The successful expression of complex multivalent nanoparticle immunogens with mRNAs has not been demonstrated. Here we show that mRNAs can encode antigenic Env trimers on ferritin nanoparticles that initiate bnAb precursor B cell expansion and induce serum autologous tier 2 neutralizing activity in bnAb precursor VH + VL knock-in mice. Next generation sequencing demonstrated acquisition of critical mutations, and monoclonal antibodies that neutralized heterologous HIV-1 isolates were isolated. Thus, mRNA- LNP can encode complex immunogens and are of use in design of germline-targeting and sequential boosting immunogens for HIV-1 vaccine development.

16.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-293059

ABSTRACT

Unlike SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV, infection with SARS-CoV-2, the viral pathogen responsible for COVID-19, is often associated with neurologic symptoms that range from mild to severe, yet increasing evidence argues the virus does not exhibit extensive neuroinvasive properties. We demonstrate SARS-CoV-2 can infect and replicate in human iPSC-derived neurons and that infection shows limited anti-viral and inflammatory responses but increased activation of EIF2 signaling following infection as determined by RNA sequencing. Intranasal infection of K18 human ACE2 transgenic mice (K18-hACE2) with SARS-CoV-2 resulted in lung pathology associated with viral replication and immune cell infiltration. In addition, ~50% of infected mice exhibited CNS infection characterized by wide-spread viral replication in neurons accompanied by increased expression of chemokine (Cxcl9, Cxcl10, Ccl2, Ccl5 and Ccl19) and cytokine (Ifn-λ and Tnf-α) transcripts associated with microgliosis and a neuroinflammatory response consisting primarily of monocytes/macrophages. Microglia depletion via administration of colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor inhibitor, PLX5622, in SARS-CoV-2 infected mice did not affect survival or viral replication but did result in dampened expression of proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine transcripts and a reduction in monocyte/macrophage infiltration. These results argue that microglia are dispensable in terms of controlling SARS-CoV-2 replication in in the K18-hACE2 model but do contribute to an inflammatory response through expression of pro-inflammatory genes. Collectively, these findings contribute to previous work demonstrating the ability of SARS-CoV-2 to infect neurons as well as emphasizing the potential use of the K18-hACE2 model to study immunological and neuropathological aspects related to SARS-CoV-2-induced neurologic disease.

17.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 10(1): 163, 2021 11 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528697

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early evaluations of healthcare professional (HCP) COVID-19 risk occurred during insufficient personal protective equipment and disproportionate testing, contributing to perceptions of high patient-care related HCP risk. We evaluated HCP COVID-19 seropositivity after accounting for community factors and coworker outbreaks. METHODS: Prior to universal masking, we conducted a single-center retrospective cohort plus cross-sectional study. All HCP (1) seen by Occupational Health for COVID-like symptoms (regardless of test result) or assigned to (2) dedicated COVID-19 units, (3) units with a COVID-19 HCP outbreak, or (4) control units from 01/01/2020 to 04/15/2020 were offered serologic testing by an FDA-authorized assay plus a research assay against 67 respiratory viruses, including 11 SARS-CoV-2 antigens. Multivariable models assessed the association of demographics, job role, comorbidities, care of a COVID-19 patient, and geocoded socioeconomic status with positive serology. RESULTS: Of 654 participants, 87 (13.3%) were seropositive; among these 60.8% (N = 52) had never cared for a COVID-19 patient. Being male (OR 1.79, CI 1.05-3.04, p = 0.03), working in a unit with a HCP-outbreak unit (OR 2.21, CI 1.28-3.81, p < 0.01), living in a community with low owner-occupied housing (OR = 1.63, CI = 1.00-2.64, p = 0.05), and ethnically Latino (OR 2.10, CI 1.12-3.96, p = 0.02) were positively-associated with COVID-19 seropositivity, while working in dedicated COVID-19 units was negatively-associated (OR 0.53, CI = 0.30-0.94, p = 0.03). The research assay identified 25 additional seropositive individuals (78 [12%] vs. 53 [8%], p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Prior to universal masking, HCP COVID-19 risk was dominated by workplace and community exposures while working in a dedicated COVID-19 unit was protective, suggesting that infection prevention protocols prevent patient-to-HCP transmission. Prior to universal masking, HCP COVID-19 risk was dominated by workplace and community exposures while working in a dedicated COVID-19 unit was protective, suggesting that infection prevention protocols prevent patient-to-HCP transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Infection Control , Academic Medical Centers , Adult , California/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Regression Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
18.
Non-conventional in English | [Unspecified Source], Grey literature | ID: grc-750472

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has escalated into a global crisis. The spike (S) protein that mediates cell entry and membrane fusion is the current focus of vaccine and therapeutic antibody development efforts. The S protein, like many other viral fusion proteins such as HIV-1 envelope (Env) and influenza hemagglutinin, is glycosylated with both complex and high mannose glycans. Here we demonstrate binding to the SARS-CoV-2 S protein by a category of Fab-dimerized glycan-reactive (FDG) HIV-1-induced broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs). A 3.1 A resolution cryo-EM structure of the S protein ectodomain bound to glycan-dependent HIV-1 bnAb 2G12 revealed a quaternary glycan epitope on the spike S2 domain involving multiple protomers. These data reveal a new epitope on the SARS-CoV-2 spike that can be targeted for vaccine design. Highlights: Fab-dimerized, glycan-reactive (FDG) HIV-1 bnAbs cross-react with SARS-CoV-2 spike.3.1 A resolution cryo-EM structure reveals quaternary S2 epitope for HIV-1 bnAb 2G12.2G12 targets glycans, at positions 709, 717 and 801, in the SARS-CoV-2 spike.Our studies suggest a common epitope for FDG antibodies centered around glycan 709.

19.
Non-conventional in English | MEDLINE, Grey literature | ID: grc-750460

ABSTRACT

The glycan shield of the beta-coronavirus (ß-CoV) Spike (S) glycoprotein provides protection from host immune responses, acting as a steric block to potentially neutralizing antibody responses. The conformationally dynamic S-protein is the primary immunogenic target of vaccine design owing to its role in host-cell fusion, displaying multiple receptor binding domain (RBD) 'up' and 'down' state configurations. Here, we investigated the potential for RBD adjacent, N-terminal domain (NTD) glycans to influence the conformational equilibrium of these RBD states. Using a combination of antigenic screens and high-resolution cryo-EM structure determination, we show that an N-glycan deletion at position 234 results in a dramatically reduced population of the 'up' state RBD position. Conversely, glycan deletion at position N165 results in a discernable increase in 'up' state RBDs. This indicates the glycan shield acts not only as a passive hinderance to antibody meditated immunity but also as a conformational control element. Together, our results demonstrate this highly dynamic conformational machine is responsive to glycan modification with implications in viral escape and vaccine design.

20.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 111: 106619, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1509630

ABSTRACT

Characterizing the impacts of disruption attributable to the COVID-19 pandemic on clinical research is important, especially in pain research where psychological, social, and economic stressors attributable to the COVID-19 pandemic may greatly impact treatment effects. The National Institutes of Health - Department of Defense - Department of Veterans Affairs Pain Management Collaboratory (PMC) is a collective effort supporting 11 pragmatic clinical trials studying nonpharmacological approaches and innovative integrated care models for pain management in veteran and military health systems. The PMC rapidly developed a brief pandemic impacts measure for use across its pragmatic trials studying pain while remaining broadly applicable to other areas of clinical research. Through open discussion and consensus building by the PMC's Phenotypes and Outcomes Work Group, the PMC Coronavirus Pandemic (COVID-19) Measure was iteratively developed. The measure assesses the following domains (one item/domain): access to healthcare, social support, finances, ability to meet basic needs, and mental or emotional health. Two additional items assess infection status (personal and household) and hospitalization. The measure uses structured responses with a three-point scale for COVID-19 infection status and four-point ordinal rank response for all other domains. We recommend individualized adaptation as appropriate by clinical research teams using this measure to survey the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on study participants. This can also help maintain utility of the measure beyond the COVID-19 pandemic to characterize impacts during future public health emergencies that may require mitigation strategies such as periods of quarantine and isolation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pragmatic Clinical Trials as Topic , Humans , Pandemics , Quarantine , Social Support , United States/epidemiology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL