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Pilot Feasibility Stud ; 7(1): 76, 2021 Mar 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1143272


BACKGROUND: People with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) generally spend a large amount of time sitting. This increases their risk of cardiovascular disease, premature mortality, diabetes-related complications and mental health problems. There is a paucity of research that has evaluated interventions aimed at reducing and breaking up sitting in people with T2DM. The primary aim of this study is to assess the feasibility of delivering and evaluating a tailored intervention to reduce and break up sitting in ambulatory adults with T2DM. METHODS: This is a mixed-methods randomised controlled feasibility trial. Participants (n=70) with T2DM aged 18-85 years who sit ≥7 h/day and are able to ambulate independently will be randomly allocated to receive the REgulate your SItting Time (RESIT) intervention or usual care (control group) for 24 weeks. RESIT is a person-focused intervention that delivers a standardised set of behaviour change techniques to the participants, but the mode through which they are delivered can vary depending on the tools selected by each participant. The intervention includes an online education programme, health coach support, and a range of self-selected tools (smartphone apps, computer-prompt software, and wearable devices) that deliver behaviour change techniques such as self-monitoring of sitting and providing prompts to break up sitting. Measures will be taken at baseline, 12 and 24 weeks. Eligibility, recruitment, retention and data completion rates will be used to assess trial feasibility. Sitting, standing and stepping will be measured using a thigh-worn activity monitor. Cardiometabolic health, physical function, psychological well-being, sleep and musculoskeletal symptoms will also be assessed. A process evaluation will be conducted including evaluation of intervention acceptability and fidelity. DISCUSSION: This study will identify the feasibility of delivering a tailored intervention to reduce and break up sitting in ambulatory adults with T2DM and evaluating it through a randomised controlled trial (RCT) design. The findings will inform a fully powered RCT to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN, ISRCTN14832389 ; Registered 6 August 2020.

Diabet Med ; 38(10): e14549, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1109524


AIMS: Restrictions during the COVID-19 crisis will have impacted on opportunities to be active. We aimed to (a) quantify the impact of COVID-19 restrictions on accelerometer-assessed physical activity and sleep in people with type 2 diabetes and (b) identify predictors of physical activity during COVID-19 restrictions. METHODS: Participants were from the UK Chronotype of Patients with type 2 diabetes and Effect on Glycaemic Control (CODEC) observational study. Participants wore an accelerometer on their wrist for 8 days before and during COVID-19 restrictions. Accelerometer outcomes included the following: overall physical activity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), time spent inactive, days/week with ≥30-minute continuous MVPA and sleep. Predictors of change in physical activity taken pre-COVID included the following: age, sex, ethnicity, body mass index (BMI), socio-economic status and medical history. RESULTS: In all, 165 participants (age (mean±S.D = 64.2 ± 8.3 years, BMI=31.4 ± 5.4 kg/m2 , 45% women) were included. During restrictions, overall physical activity was lower by 1.7 mg (~800 steps/day) and inactive time 21.9 minutes/day higher, but time in MVPA and sleep did not statistically significantly change. In contrast, the percentage of people with ≥1 day/week with ≥30-minute continuous MVPA was higher (34% cf. 24%). Consistent predictors of lower physical activity and/or higher inactive time were higher BMI and/or being a woman. Being older and/or from ethnic minorities groups was associated with higher inactive time. CONCLUSIONS: Overall physical activity, but not MVPA, was lower in adults with type 2 diabetes during COVID-19 restrictions. Women and individuals who were heavier, older, inactive and/or from ethnic minority groups were most at risk of lower physical activity during restrictions.

COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Motor Activity/physiology , Sleep/physiology , Accelerometry , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Young Adult
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(1): 156-164, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065442


Behavioral lifestyle factors are associated with cardiometabolic disease and obesity, which are risk factors for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to investigate whether physical activity, and the timing and balance of physical activity and sleep/rest, were associated with SARS-CoV-2 positivity and COVID-19 severity. Data from 91,248 UK Biobank participants with accelerometer data and complete covariate and linked COVID-19 data to July 19, 2020, were included. The risk of SARS-CoV-2 positivity and COVID-19 severity-in relation to overall physical activity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), balance between activity and sleep/rest, and variability in timing of sleep/rest-was assessed with adjusted logistic regression. Of 207 individuals with a positive test result, 124 were classified as having a severe infection. Overall physical activity and MVPA were not associated with severe COVID-19, whereas a poor balance between activity and sleep/rest was (odds ratio [OR] per standard deviation: 0.71; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.62 to 0.81]). This finding was related to higher daytime activity being associated with lower risk (OR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.61 to 0.93) but higher movement during sleep/rest being associated with higher risk (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.12 to 1.42) of severe infection. Greater variability in timing of sleep/rest was also associated with increased risk (OR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.35). Results for testing positive were broadly consistent. In conclusion, these results highlight the importance of not just physical activity, but also quality sleep/rest and regular sleep/rest patterns, on risk of COVID-19. Our findings indicate the risk of COVID-19 was consistently approximately 1.2-fold greater per approximately 40-minute increase in variability in timing of proxy measures of sleep, indicative of irregular sleeping patterns.

COVID-19/epidemiology , Exercise , Rest , Sleep , Accelerometry , Aged , Biological Specimen Banks , Female , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , United Kingdom/epidemiology