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Yakut Medical Journal ; - (3):56-59, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2238859


Gastrointestinal tract damage is a part of the course of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MVS-D) associated with the new COVID-19 coronavirus infection. According to the results of a retrospective study, gastrointestinal tract damage was detected in 77% of patients with MVS-D and is represented by signs such as abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea and peritoneal symptoms. In children with gastrointestinal tract lesions, significant differences were noted in the frequency of occurrence of the following signs: hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, hypotension/shock, as well as conjunctivitis and facial swelling. Among laboratory abnormalities, hypoalbuminemia is more characteristic, but the level of CRP and troponin is higher. The article shows that gastrointestinal tract damage is an important early predictor of the severity of MVS-D.

Pediatriya - Zhurnal im G.N ; Speranskogo. 101(5):50-62, 2022.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2081376


The pathogenetic basis for Pediatric Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome (PMIS) associated with SARS-CoV-2 is systemic vasculitis resulting from hyperproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines associated with dysregulation of the immune response. Clinical manifestations of PMIS include fever with features of Kawasaki Syndrome (KS) and multi-organ dysfunction coupled with frequent unusual heart involvement, ranging from mild with minimal ECG changes or elevated troponin to fulminant myocarditis or Takotsubo syndrome (TTS). The purpose of the research was to study the characteristics of cardiovascular disorders in Kawasaki-like multisystem inflammatory syndrome associated with COVID-19 in children observed in the East Siberian area of Russia. A single-center retrospective cohort study was carried out on the basis of the Irkutsk Oblast Regional Children's Clinical Hospital (Irkutsk, Russia): 36 patients with PMIS associated with COVID-19 in Nov. 18, 2020 - Dec. 31, 2021, including 21 boys (M/F ratio 1.4:1) at the average age of 7.5 years old (1.5 months to 17 years old). The diagnostic signs of KS were observed in 34 (94%) children, including the complete set of diagnostic signs in 21 (58%). Refractory fever and a sharp increase in inflammatory biomarkers were detected in all 36 (100%) children;multiorgan dysfunction in 31 (86%);thrombocytopenia in 24 (67%);gastrointestinal syndrome in 25 (69%);cerebral dysfunction in 24 (66)%;various cardiovascular disorders in 30 (83%), including: dilatation of the left ventricle (LV) and a decrease in myocardial contractility in 3 (8%);moderate coronary dilatation in 5 (14%);thickening of the posterior LV walls in diastole in 5 (13%);thickening of the interventricular septum in diastole in 6 (16%). According to the MRI results performed in 15 children the signs of myocardial damage were found in 6 (40%). LV dilatation and decreased myocardial contractility were noted in 3 (8%) children, clinically apparent thrombotic complications in 3 (8%) children as well, and severe neurological deficit in one patient (3%). An increase in the level of D-dimer was observed in 26 (72%) patients, thrombocytopenia in 24 (67%), a statistically significant correlation between thrombocytopenia and myocardial damage was found (R=-0.506, p=0.001). The treatment measures were given as follows: inotropic support (dobutrex/dobutamine) was received by 8 (22%), artificial lung ventilation - by 8 (22%), intravenous human immunoglobulin 1.5-2.0 g/kg/course - by 28 (77%), dexamethasone - by 24 (67%), tocilizumab - by 2 (5%) patients. All 36 (100%) patients have survived. Conclusion(s): the Kawasaki-like multisystem inflammatory syndrome associated with COVID-19 was accompanied by the cardiovascular disorders (pericarditis, arrhythmias, abnormal ECG changes, elevated troponin and/or natriuretic peptide, LV thickening on echocardiography, coronary dilatation) in most patients, although LV dilatation and decreased myocardial contractility were observed in a few cases only. A negative correlation between thrombocytopenia and myocardial damage was found, which may indicate the involvement of thrombotic microvascular inflammation in the genesis of myocardial disorders. Copyright © 2022, Pediatria Ltd. All rights reserved.

Pediatriya. Zhurnal im. G.N. Speranskogo ; 99(6):209-219, 2020.
Article in Russian | Russian Science Citation Index | ID: covidwho-1094699


During the COVD-19 pandemic, some pediatric patients in many countries around the world experienced a syndrome resembling a severe Kawasaki disease (KD), often accompanied by shock. Due to the incomplete signs of the classic KD in the era before the present pandemic, in many publications from European countries and the United States, this condition was called «multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children - MIS-C» or «hyperinflammatory shock» or «Kawasaki-like syndrome». This syndrome with a new coronavirus infection is characterized by refractory fever, frequent gastrointestinal symptoms, heart damage (including coronary dilation in some patients, and acute left ventricular failure in the majority), increased ESR and CRP levels, neutrophilia, extremely high troponin levels, increased ferritin, AST, ALT, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine phosphate kinase, interleukin-6 and interleukin-10, coagulopathy with an increase in D-dimer and fibrinogen, thrombocytopenia, sometimes procalcitonin increase. The manifestations of a cytokine storm may meet the criteria for secondary hemophagocytic syndrome. The mechanism of myocardial damage remains unclear. Treatment with high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin is effective, and in the presence of signs of hemophagocytic syndrome, dexamethasone or methylprednisolone. Further research is needed to understand the pathogenesis, resemblance and differences of this syndrome with classic KD, understanding of heart injuiry and early recognition for the need of urgent care. В ходе пандемии COVD-19 у части пациентов детского возраста во многих странах мира отмечен синдром, напоминающий тяжелый вариант болезни Кавасаки (БК), часто сопровождаемый шоком. Ввиду неполного его соответствия классической БК в эру до настоящей пандемии во многих публикациях из европейских стран и США это состояние получило название «мультисистемный воспалительный синдром», либо «гипервоспалительный шок», либо «Кавасаки-подобный синдром». Для данного синдрома при новой коронавирусной инфекции характерны рефрактерная лихорадка, частые гастроинтестинальные симптомы, поражение сердца (включая коронарную дилатацию у части больных и острую левожелудочковую недостаточность у большинства), повышение уровня СОЭ и СРБ, нейтрофилез, экстремально высокий уровень тропонина, рост ферритина, АСТ, АЛТ, лактатдегидрогеназы, креатинфосфаткиназы, интерлейкина-6 и интерлейкина-10, коагулопатия с увеличением Д-димера и фибриногена, тромбоцитопения, иногда рост прокальцитонина. Проявления цитокинового шторма могут отвечать критериям вторичного гемофагоцитарного синдрома (ГФС). Механизм поражения миокарда остается неясным. Эффективно лечение высокодозным внутривенным иммуноглобулином, при наличии признаков ГФС - дексаметазоном либо метилпреднизолоном. Дальнейшие исследования необходимы для понимания патогенеза, сходства и различия данного синдрома с классической БК, механизма поражения сердца, раннего распознавания для оказания ургентной помощи.