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1.
Exp Ther Med ; 24(5): 705, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099951

ABSTRACT

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a widespread impact on individuals' mental health through indirect psychological and social mechanisms, related to factors such as fear of infection or death, social isolation, lack of social support and financial instability. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has also been associated with the development or recurrence of neuropsychiatric symptoms, both during the acute phase, as well as during the post-acute 'long-COVID' phase. In addition to the COVID-19 survivors with a mental health history that are at a high risk of experiencing a range of neuropsychiatric symptoms following resolution of acute COVID-19, there is accumulating evidence that a diagnosis of COVID-19 may also be associated with new-onset neuropsychiatric morbidity among survivors without pre-existing mental health disorders. In particular, studies investigating the incidence of post-acute neuropsychiatric sequelae, based mostly on retrospective cohort study designs and data from national health registries, have reported the development of new-onset manifestations, including depression, anxiety, psychotic symptoms, sleep disturbances and fatigue. Nevertheless, when COVID-19 survivors were compared with SARS-CoV-2-negative controls and especially survivors of other disorders (such as influenza), the findings regarding the risk of incident neuropsychiatric manifestations varied among studies. While there is evidence of an association between SARS-CoV-2 infection and the subsequent occurrence of new-onset neuropsychiatric symptoms, especially among patients with increased disease severity, further research using methodological approaches less susceptible to confounding bias is required to establish causal relationships.

2.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 73: 103175, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850579

ABSTRACT

This longitudinal study aimed to examine the within-person changes in suicidal ideation, depression, and anxiety between the first wave of COVID-19 pandemic and the third wave (i.e., one year later), while nationwide lockdowns were in effect. Among 720 respondents, 4.72% presented suicidal ideation, which appeared unaltered one-year post-pandemic onset, while both depression (21.25% versus 28.06%) and anxiety (12.08% versus 18.47%) increased significantly, adjusting for gender, age, and mental health history. Suicidal ideation, depression, and anxiety during the third pandemic wave were independently associated with crucial socio-demographic, clinical, psychological and psychopathological variables, in the stepwise regression analyses performed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Suicidal Ideation
3.
Exp Ther Med ; 23(5): 363, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1780105

ABSTRACT

There is accumulating evidence in the literature indicating that a number of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may experience a range of neuropsychiatric symptoms, persisting or even presenting following the resolution of acute COVID-19. Among the neuropsychiatric manifestations more frequently associated with 'long COVID' are depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, sleep disturbances, fatigue and cognitive deficits, that can potentially be debilitating and negatively affect patients' wellbeing, albeit in the majority of cases symptoms tend to improve over time. Despite variations in results obtained from studies using different methodological approaches to define 'long COVID' syndrome, the most widely accepted factors associated with a higher risk of developing neuropsychiatric manifestations include the severity of foregoing COVID-19, the female sex, the presence of comorbidities, a history of mental health disease and an elevation in the levels of inflammatory markers, albeit further research is required to establish causal associations. To date, the pathophysiological mechanisms implicated in neuropsychiatric manifestations of 'long COVID' remain only partially elucidated, while the role of the indirect effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, such as social isolation and uncertainty concerning social, financial and health recovery post-COVID, have also been highlighted. Given the alarming effects of 'long-COVID', interdisciplinary cooperation for the early identification of patients who are at a high risk of persistent neuropsychiatric presentations, beyond COVID-19 recovery, is crucial to ensure that appropriate integrated physical and mental health support is provided, with the aim of mitigating the risks of long-term disability at a societal and individual level.

4.
Journal of Affective Disorders Reports ; : 100339, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1739843

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the mental health among 187 final-year-senior-high-school students during the six-months pandemic-related lockdown. Above the thresholds on GAD-7 for severe anxiety (≥17) and PHQ-9 for severe depressive symptoms (≥20) scored 20.3% and 20.7% respectively. Higher levels of experienced lockdown distress and increased conflicts with parents were associated with higher anxiety and depression levels;COVID-related worry was associated only with anxiety, whereas having any family health problem with depression only. Thematic analysis of the open-ended survey item provided a means of gaining students’ perspective regarding the challenges aggravated by the pandemic during the process of preparing for the exams. The findings call to action aiming at mitigating mental health risks of the on-going pandemic on youth's mental health.

5.
Exp Ther Med ; 23(1): 107, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580300

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, there has been widespread concern that social isolation, financial stress, depression, limited or variable access to health care services and other pandemic-related stressors may contribute to an increase in suicidal behaviors. In patients who have recovered from COVID-19, an increased risk of developing suicidal behaviors may be noted, while post-COVID syndrome comprises another potential risk factor contributing to increased suicidal behaviors. Despite the initial alarming predictions for an increase in suicide rates due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the majority of published studies to date suggest that experienced difficulties and distress do not inevitably translate into an increased number of suicide-related deaths, at least not in the short-term. Nevertheless, the long-term mental health effects of the COVID-19 pandemic have yet to be unfolded and are likely to remain for a long period of time. Suicide prevention and measures aiming at promoting well-being and mitigating the effects of COVID-19 on mental health, particularly among vulnerable groups, should thus be a priority for healthcare professionals and policymakers amidst the evolving COVID-19 pandemic.

6.
Psychiatriki ; 32(4): 267-270, 2021 Dec 20.
Article in Greek, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1552029

ABSTRACT

More than a year has passed since World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 as a pandemic, and during this period over 237 million cases and more than 4.8 million deaths have occurred worldwide due to COVID-19.1 This unprecedented pandemic not only has burdened health systems but it also constitutes a major stressful event both due to the threat of illness and death that it poses, and to the drastic impact on human relations, financial activity, access to health services, etc. Additional factors that may contribute to stress include the protection measures against COVID-19, social distancing, and mobility restrictions. The impact of the pandemic on suicidal behavior, especially on the Greek population, is of critical importance, due to the increase in suicidality during the recent financial crisis in the country.2 The impressive decline in the GDP during the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic (-9% of GDP),3 unemployment, isolation, reduced social contacts, problems in accessing mental health services, and also the limitations in terms of psychological support may increase the risk of suicidal behavior.4 With a view to investigating the psychosocial effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, an online questionnaire was developed in March 2020 by the Second Department of Psychiatry of the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens (NKUA) and the Postgraduate Program "Liaison Psychiatry: Integrated Care of Physical and Mental Health" of NKUA. This questionnaire included items regarding demographic characteristics, physical and mental health data, and issues related to the pandemic and the imposed restriction measures, such as perceived changes in participants' biorhythms, habits, and relationships with their colleagues, friends, and family. In addition, participants were asked to complete psychometric scales with regard to anxiety, depression and suicidal ideation, family functioning, anger and resilience. During the first national lockdown in Greece (April 7 to May 3) a total of 5,748 adults from the community participated in the survey by anonymously completing the aforementioned questionnaire on a secure website of NKUA. A considerable effort was devoted to make the sample as representative as possible and to include members of the community who do not usually participate in such surveys, as individuals of older age or individuals with health conditions. The 5.20% two-week prevalence of suicidal ideation found in our study is an intermediate rate with respect to the 2.4% one-month prevalence in 2008, the 6.7% in 2011 and the 2.6% prevalence in 2013.5 Among the respondents, 14.1% were potential cases of anxiety, while 26.5% of depression. Independent risk factors for suicidal ideation included anxiety, depression, impaired family functioning, being unmarried or divorced, having a mental health history, as well as a poor perceived quality of physical health. In contrast, higher resilience, positive feelings with regard to the lockdown measures, relationship with friends, and faith in a Supreme Being emerged as protective factors for suicidal ideation.6 Investigating the risk and protective factors for suicidal ideation is especially important during this difficult period of the pandemic. There was an additional significant finding in this study: individuals who completed the questionnaire during the last two weeks of the first lockdown reported statistically significantly higher suicidal ideation, depression, and anxiety than those who completed it in the previous two weeks, while a similar finding was revealed in a study from USA.7 Therefore, we were looking forward to the results of our survey conducted during the second lockdown.8 From the 5,116 individuals who had fully completed our questionnaire with respect to suicidal ideation during the first lockdown, 811 fully completed it for the second time from November 22 to December 21, 2020. Suicidal ideation was not found significantly different compared to the first lockdown. Independent risk factors for suicidal ideation during the second lockdown were depression, anxiety, living with a person with frail health and vulnerable for COVID-19 and suicidal ideation during the first lockdown. It is noted that during the second lockdown the rates of potential depression cases remained unchanged, whereas anxiety rates increased. Greater accessibility to health services, state financial support and increased mobility might have contributed to the stability of suicidal ideation despite the greater severity of the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. The aforementioned studies determined the prevalence of suicidal ideation and its association with various demographic, clinical, social, familial, and psychopathological factors in a cohort context at different stages of the COVID-19 pandemic, with the relevant literature being rather poor. We consider that the provision of such data is critical for the plans of health system in pandemic conditions, while this longitudinal study is in progress during the subsequent waves of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Suicidal Ideation , Aged , Anxiety , Communicable Disease Control , Depression , Greece/epidemiology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Psychiatry Res ; 301: 113990, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1237855

ABSTRACT

This longitudinal study aimed to investigate the predictive factors of suicidal ideation during the second lockdown in Greece. The respondents presented a 4.32% suicidal ideation in the second lockdown, which did not differ significantly to the initial 4.81%. Anxiety, depression, suicidal ideation during the first lockdown and living with a person with frail health and vulnerable for COVID-19 severe infection emerged as significant risk factors for suicidal ideation during the second lockdown, after controlling for gender, age, and mental health history. Depression was found as the only significant prognostic factor for suicidal ideation incidence of the second lockdown.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/psychology , Stress, Psychological , Suicidal Ideation , Suicide, Attempted/psychology , Suicide/psychology , Adult , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Depression/epidemiology , Greece/epidemiology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Suicide/statistics & numerical data , Suicide, Attempted/statistics & numerical data
8.
Psychiatry Res ; 297: 113713, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1009811

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of suicidal ideation in the community as well as the risk and protective factors of suicidal ideation during restriction measures in Greece, after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. Α web-based anonymous survey was conducted during the first lockdown period. Participants completed the Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-2), the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2), the Systemic Clinical Outcome and Routine Evaluation (SCORE-15), the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISK-2), and a self-report questionnaire for COVID-19 pandemic-related data. From a total of 5,116 adults included in the study, 5.20% reported suicidal thoughts, 14.17% were potential clinical cases of anxiety, and 26.51% of depression. Participants presented significantly higher suicidal ideation rates during the last two weeks of the lockdown compared to its previous two weeks. Unmarried or divorced marital status, mental health history, poor perceived quality of physical health, impaired family functioning, anxiety and depression symptoms were independently associated with higher odds of suicidal ideation, whereas higher resilience, positive feelings with regard to the lockdown measures, relationship with friends, and faith in a Supreme Being were associated with lower suicidal ideation odds. According to the findings, suicidal ideation prevalence might be considered elevated and its increase during the lockdown period alarming. The risk and protective factors identified in the study offer valuable information for the development of preventive strategies against suicidal ideation, especially in times of crisis.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Resilience, Psychological , Suicidal Ideation , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , Communicable Disease Control , Depression/psychology , Female , Greece/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prevalence , Protective Factors , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
Psychiatry Res ; 295: 113560, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-912542

ABSTRACT

The two-year preparation for the National university entrance exams in Greece is one of the most trying periods in a young person's life, physically and emotionally. The present study reports the results from 442 last year senior high school students who completed an online survey (16-30 April 2020) concerning the lockdown impact on their mental health. Overall, the rate of positive screen for depression (PHQ-9 score ≥ 11) significantly increased from 48.5% to 63.8% and of those scoring within severe depression range (PHQ-9 ≥20) from 10% to 27%; for anxiety (GAD-7 score ≥ 11) increased from 23.8% to 49.5% and of those scoring within severe anxiety range (GAD-7≥17) from 3.8% to 20.5%. After taking sex and baseline (one month prior to the lockdown) levels of depression and anxiety into account, the level of lockdown experienced distress was predictive of depression and anxiety levels in time of home confinement, accounting for about 30% of variance in symptoms severity scores. Although our results may be subject to sampling and recall bias, the unexpectedly high rates of anxiety and depression warrant an urgent call to action aiming at mitigating and managing mental health risks of senior high school students in future waves of pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Depression/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Students/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Greece/epidemiology , Humans , Male
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