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2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 May 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1831050

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccination may control the COVID-19 pandemic, including in nursing homes where many high-risk people live. We conducted extensive outbreak investigations. METHODS: We studied an outbreak at a nursing home in Switzerland where vaccination uptake of mRNA vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 was 82% among residents as of Jan 21/2021. After a vaccinated symptomatic HCW was diagnosed with COVID-19 on Feb 22, we did an outbreak investigations in house A (47 residents, 37 HCWs) using SARS-CoV-2-specific PCR in nasopharyngeal swabs. We performed whole-genome sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 and serological analyses. RESULTS: We identified 17 individuals with positive PCR tests; ten residents (five vaccinated) and seven HCWs (three vaccinated). Median age among residents was 86 years (interquartile range [IQR] 70-90) and 49 years (IQR 29-59) among HCWs. Among the five vaccinated residents, 60% had mild disease and had 40% no symptoms, whereas all five unvaccinated residents had mild to severe disease and two died. The vaccine effectiveness for the prevention of infection among the residents was 73.0% (95% Cl 24.7-90.1). The 12 available genomes were all alpha variants. Neutralizing titers were significantly higher in vaccinated individuals upon re-exposure (>1 week after diagnosis) than in vaccinated, unexposed HCWs (p=0.012). Transmission networks indicated four likely or possible transmissions from vaccinated to other individuals, and 12 transmission events from unvaccinated individuals. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 outbreaks can occur in nursing homes, including transmission from vaccinated persons to others. Outbreaks might occur silently, underlining the need for continued testing and basic infection control measures in these high-risk settings.

3.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 164, 2022 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1808370

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Increasing age, male sex, and pre-existing comorbidities are associated with lower survival from SARS-CoV-2 infection. The interplay between different comorbidities, age, and sex is not fully understood, and it remains unclear if survival decreases linearly with higher ICU occupancy or if there is a threshold beyond which survival falls. METHOD: This national population-based study included 22,648 people who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection and were hospitalized in Switzerland between February 24, 2020, and March 01, 2021. Bayesian survival models were used to estimate survival after positive SARS-CoV-2 test among people hospitalized with COVID-19 by epidemic wave, age, sex, comorbidities, and ICU occupancy. Two-way interactions between age, sex, and comorbidities were included to assess the differential risk of death across strata. ICU occupancy was modeled using restricted cubic splines to allow for a non-linear association with survival. RESULTS: Of 22,648 people hospitalized with COVID-19, 4785 (21.1%) died. The survival was lower during the first epidemic wave than in the second (predicted survival at 40 days after positive test 76.1 versus 80.5%). During the second epidemic wave, occupancy among all available ICU beds in Switzerland varied between 51.7 and 78.8%. The estimated survival was stable at approximately 81.5% when ICU occupancy was below 70%, but worse when ICU occupancy exceeded this threshold (survival at 80% ICU occupancy: 78.2%; 95% credible interval [CrI] 76.1 to 80.1%). Periods with higher ICU occupancy (>70 vs 70%) were associated with an estimated number of 137 (95% CrI 27 to 242) excess deaths. Comorbid conditions reduced survival more in younger people than in older people. Among comorbid conditions, hypertension and obesity were not associated with poorer survival. Hypertension appeared to decrease survival in combination with cardiovascular disease. CONCLUSIONS: Survival after hospitalization with COVID-19 has improved over time, consistent with improved management of severe COVID-19. The decreased survival above 70% national ICU occupancy supports the need to introduce measures for prevention and control of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in the population well before ICUs are full.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Aged , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Switzerland/epidemiology
4.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-333126

ABSTRACT

Aims: In March 2020, South Africa introduced a lockdown in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, entailing the suspension of all non-essential activities and a complete ban of tobacco and alcohol sales. We studied the effect of the lockdown on mental health care utilisation rates in private-sector care in South Africa. Methods We did an interrupted time series analysis using insurance claims from January 1, 2017, to June 1, 2020 of beneficiaries 18 years or older from a large private sector medical aid scheme. We calculated weekly outpatient consultation and hospital admission rates for organic mental disorders, substance use disorders, serious mental disorders, depression, anxiety, other mental disorders, any mental disorder, and alcohol withdrawal syndrome. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (OR) for the effect of the lockdown on weekly outpatient consultation and hospital admission rates and the weekly change in rates during the lockdown until June 1, 2020. Results 710,367 persons were followed up for a median of 153 weeks. Hospital admission rates (OR 0.38;95% CI 0.33-0.44) and outpatient consultation rates (OR 0.74;95% CI 0.63-0.87) for any mental disorder decreased substantially after the lockdown and did not recover to pre-lockdown levels until June 1, 2020. Health care utilisation rates for alcohol withdrawal syndrome doubled after the introduction of the lockdown, but the statistical uncertainty around the estimates was large (OR 2.24;95% CI 0.69-7.24). Conclusions Reduced mental health care contact rates during the COVID-19 lockdown likely reflect a substantial unmet need for mental health services with potential long-term consequences for mental health patients and their families. Steps to ensure access and continuity of mental health services during future lockdowns should be considered.

5.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 8(4)2022 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785786

ABSTRACT

First reports of cases and case series of COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) emerged during the first months of the pandemic. Prevalence rates varied widely due to the fact that CAPA was, and still remains, challenging to diagnose in patients with COVID-19-associated acute respiratory failure (ARF). The clinical picture and radiological findings of CAPA are unspecific and can resemble those of severe COVID-19. Hence, mycological evidence became a key component in establishing a diagnosis. However, blood tests lack sensitivity in early treatable phases of CAPA and once positive, mortality has been shown to exceed 80% despite systemic antifungal therapy. The primarily airway invasive growth in non-neutropenic patients and the late occurrence of angioinvasion in the course of disease may mainly account for these diagnostic obstacles. Testing of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is therefore crucial in the diagnostic process, but was rarely performed during the early phase of the pandemic, which potentially interfered with the accuracy of reported prevalence. Current guidelines recommend treatment of CAPA during its early airway invasive phase, which may result in some overtreatment (i.e., treatment in patients that may not develop angioinvasive infection) and adverse drug events, yet there is no viable alternative approach. Timely treatment of cases needs to be ensured for patients with mycological evidence of CAPA in the lower respiratory tract given the independent contribution of CAPA to devastating mortality rates of around 50% that have been shown in multiple studies. Here, we review the evolution of reported CAPA prevalence and the role of CAPA as an important opportunistic infection affecting COVID-19 patients in intensive care units (ICUs).

6.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 151: w30061, 2021 09 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1687284

ABSTRACT

AIMS OF THE STUDY: Vaccination is regarded as the most promising response to the COVID-19 pandemic. We assessed opinions about COVID-19 vaccination, willingness to be vaccinated, and reasons for vaccination hesitancy among healthcare workers. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional, web-based survey among 3,793 healthcare workers in December 2020 in the Canton of Solothurn, Switzerland, before the start of the national COVID-19 vaccination campaign. RESULTS: Median age was 43 years (interquartile range [IQR] 31-53), 2,841 were female (74.9%). A total of 1,511 healthcare workers (39.8%) reported willingness to accept vaccination, whereas 1,114 (29.4%) were unsure and 1,168 (30.8%) would decline vaccination. Among medical doctors, 76.1% were willing, whereas only 27.8% of nurses expressed willingness. Among the 1,168 healthcare workers who would decline vaccination, 1,073 (91.9%) expressed concerns about vaccine safety and side effects. The willingness of healthcare workers to be vaccinated was associated with older age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.97, 95% confidence interval [Cl] 1.71-2.27) and having been vaccinated for influenza this year (aOR 2.70, 95% Cl 2.20-3.31). Healthcare workers who reported a lack of confidence in government were less likely to be willing to be vaccinated (aOR 0.58, 95% Cl 0.40-0.84), and women were less willing to be vaccinated than men (OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.28-0.38). CONCLUSION: Less than half of healthcare workers reported willingness to be vaccinated before the campaign start, but proportions varied greatly depending on profession and workplace. Strategies with clear and objective messages that particularly address the concerns of healthcare workers are needed if their willingness to be vaccinated against COVID-19 is to be further increased.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Switzerland , Vaccination
7.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 482, 2022 01 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1655580

ABSTRACT

The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on excess mortality from all causes in 2020 varied across and within European countries. Using data for 2015-2019, we applied Bayesian spatio-temporal models to quantify the expected weekly deaths at the regional level had the pandemic not occurred in England, Greece, Italy, Spain, and Switzerland. With around 30%, Madrid, Castile-La Mancha, Castile-Leon (Spain) and Lombardia (Italy) were the regions with the highest excess mortality. In England, Greece and Switzerland, the regions most affected were Outer London and the West Midlands (England), Eastern, Western and Central Macedonia (Greece), and Ticino (Switzerland), with 15-20% excess mortality in 2020. Our study highlights the importance of the large transportation hubs for establishing community transmission in the first stages of the pandemic. Here, we show that acting promptly to limit transmission around these hubs is essential to prevent spread to other regions and countries.


Subject(s)
Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/mortality , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cause of Death , England/epidemiology , Female , Geography , Greece/epidemiology , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spain/epidemiology , Survival Rate , Switzerland/epidemiology
8.
J Clin Microbiol ; 60(1): e0168921, 2022 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1630019

ABSTRACT

This multicenter study evaluated the IMMY Aspergillus Galactomannan Lateral Flow Assay (LFA) with automated reader for diagnosis of pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with COVID-19-associated acute respiratory failure (ARF) requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission between 03/2020 and 04/2021. A total of 196 respiratory samples and 148 serum samples (n = 344) from 238 patients were retrospectively included, with a maximum of one of each sample type per patient. Cases were retrospectively classified for COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) status following the 2020 consensus criteria, with the exclusion of LFA results as a mycological criterion. At the 1.0 cutoff, sensitivity of LFA for CAPA (proven/probable/possible) was 52%, 80% and 81%, and specificity was 98%, 88% and 67%, for bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), nondirected bronchoalveolar lavage (NBL), and tracheal aspiration (TA), respectively. At the 0.5 manufacturer's cutoff, sensitivity was 72%, 90% and 100%, and specificity was 79%, 83% and 44%, for BALF, NBL and TA, respectively. When combining all respiratory samples, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area under the curve (AUC) was 0.823, versus 0.754, 0.890 and 0.814 for BALF, NBL and TA, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of serum LFA were 20% and 93%, respectively, at the 0.5 ODI cutoff. Overall, the Aspergillus Galactomannan LFA showed good performances for CAPA diagnosis, when used from respiratory samples at the 1.0 cutoff, while sensitivity from serum was limited, linked to weak invasiveness during CAPA. As some false-positive results can occur, isolated results slightly above the recommended cutoff should lead to further mycological investigations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Aspergillus , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Mannans , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
9.
Drugs ; 81(15): 1703-1729, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1491481

ABSTRACT

The epidemiology of invasive fungal infections is changing, with new populations at risk and the emergence of resistance caused by the selective pressure from increased usage of antifungal agents in prophylaxis, empiric therapy, and agriculture. Limited antifungal therapeutic options are further challenged by drug-drug interactions, toxicity, and constraints in administration routes. Despite the need for more antifungal drug options, no new classes of antifungal drugs have become available over the last 2 decades, and only one single new agent from a known antifungal class has been approved in the last decade. Nevertheless, there is hope on the horizon, with a number of new antifungal classes in late-stage clinical development. In this review, we describe the mechanisms of drug resistance employed by fungi and extensively discuss the most promising drugs in development, including fosmanogepix (a novel Gwt1 enzyme inhibitor), ibrexafungerp (a first-in-class triterpenoid), olorofim (a novel dihyroorotate dehydrogenase enzyme inhibitor), opelconazole (a novel triazole optimized for inhalation), and rezafungin (an echinocandin designed to be dosed once weekly). We focus on the mechanism of action and pharmacokinetics, as well as the spectrum of activity and stages of clinical development. We also highlight the potential future role of these drugs and unmet needs.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Fungi/drug effects , Invasive Fungal Infections/drug therapy , Animals , Antifungal Agents/adverse effects , Antifungal Agents/classification , Drug Development , Drug Interactions , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Humans , Invasive Fungal Infections/microbiology
10.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 151: w30061, 2021 09 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1431028

ABSTRACT

AIMS OF THE STUDY: Vaccination is regarded as the most promising response to the COVID-19 pandemic. We assessed opinions about COVID-19 vaccination, willingness to be vaccinated, and reasons for vaccination hesitancy among healthcare workers. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional, web-based survey among 3,793 healthcare workers in December 2020 in the Canton of Solothurn, Switzerland, before the start of the national COVID-19 vaccination campaign. RESULTS: Median age was 43 years (interquartile range [IQR] 31-53), 2,841 were female (74.9%). A total of 1,511 healthcare workers (39.8%) reported willingness to accept vaccination, whereas 1,114 (29.4%) were unsure and 1,168 (30.8%) would decline vaccination. Among medical doctors, 76.1% were willing, whereas only 27.8% of nurses expressed willingness. Among the 1,168 healthcare workers who would decline vaccination, 1,073 (91.9%) expressed concerns about vaccine safety and side effects. The willingness of healthcare workers to be vaccinated was associated with older age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.97, 95% confidence interval [Cl] 1.71-2.27) and having been vaccinated for influenza this year (aOR 2.70, 95% Cl 2.20-3.31). Healthcare workers who reported a lack of confidence in government were less likely to be willing to be vaccinated (aOR 0.58, 95% Cl 0.40-0.84), and women were less willing to be vaccinated than men (OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.28-0.38). CONCLUSION: Less than half of healthcare workers reported willingness to be vaccinated before the campaign start, but proportions varied greatly depending on profession and workplace. Strategies with clear and objective messages that particularly address the concerns of healthcare workers are needed if their willingness to be vaccinated against COVID-19 is to be further increased.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Switzerland , Vaccination
11.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 151: w30021, 2021 08 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1399510

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers are more frequently exposed to SARS-CoV-2 than the general population. Little is known about healthcare settings outside of hospitals. We studied the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 among healthcare workers in outpatient facilities and retirement or nursing homes in the Canton of Solothurn, Switzerland in the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Longitudinal seroprevalence study among healthcare workers with examinations at baseline and 2 months between June and September 2020. The Abbott SARS-CoV-2 IgG and Liaison/Diasorin SARS-CoV-2 S1/S2 IgG assay were used to detect antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. All participants provided demographic information. We report descriptive statistics and calculated the seroprevalence with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: We included 357 healthcare workers; their median age was 43 years (interquartile range 29-54), and 315 (88.2%) were female. Forty-nine (13.7%) were physicians, 87 (24.4%) practice assistants and 221 (61.9%) nurses. Overall seroprevalence among healthcare workers in outpatient facilities and retirement or nursing homes was 3.4% (12/357). The 12 seropositive healthcare workers were all nurses (12/221, 5.5%); 11 worked at retirement or nursing homes and one at the hospital's outpatient clinic. Symptoms such as loss of smell or taste, shortness of breath, and fever were more prevalent among seropositive healthcare workers than seronegative healthcare workers. No close contact had detectable antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSIONS: Seroprevalence among healthcare workers was low, but higher among nursing staff of retirement or nursing homes. Healthcare workers at private practices were able to protect themselves well during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Nursing Homes , Outpatients , Pandemics , Retirement , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Switzerland/epidemiology
12.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e049824, 2021 07 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365197

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To examine the proportion of people living with HIV who screen positive for common mental disorders (CMD) and the associations between CMD and self-reported adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). SETTING: Sixteen government-funded health facilities in the rural Bikita district of Zimbabwe. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: HIV-positive non-pregnant adults, aged 18 years or older, who lived in Bikita district and had received ART for at least 6 months. OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was the proportion of participants screening positive for CMD defined as a Shona Symptoms Questionnaire score of 9 or greater. Secondary outcomes were the proportion of participants reporting suicidal ideation, perceptual symptoms and suboptimal ART adherence and adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) for factors associated with CMD, suicidal ideation, perceptual symptoms and suboptimal ART adherence. RESULTS: Out of 3480 adults, 18.8% (95% CI 14.8% to 23.7%) screened positive for CMD, 2.7% (95% CI 1.5% to 4.7%) reported suicidal ideations, and 1.5% (95% CI 0.9% to 2.6%) reported perceptual symptoms. Positive CMD screens were more common in women (aPR 1.67, 95% CI 1.19 to 2.35) than in men and were more common in adults aged 40-49 years (aPR 1.47, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.85) or aged 50-59 years (aPR 1.51, 95% CI 1.05 to 2.17) than in those 60 years or older. Positive CMD screen was associated with suboptimal adherence (aPR 1.53; 95% CI 1.37 to 1.70). CONCLUSIONS: A substantial proportion of people living with HIV in rural Zimbabwe are affected by CMD. There is a need to integrate mental health services and HIV programmes in rural Zimbabwe. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03704805.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Mental Disorders , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Mental Disorders/drug therapy , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Prevalence , Rural Population , Zimbabwe/epidemiology
13.
Mycoses ; 64(10): 1197-1202, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305495

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Detection of galactomannan (GM) from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) or serum is broadly used for diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA), although the sensitivity of GM from serum is lower in non-neutropenic patients. We evaluated the Aspergillus galactomannan Lateral Flow assay (LFA) with digital readout from serum in a mixed cohort of patients. METHODS: We performed a retrospective two-centre study evaluating the LFA from serum of patients with clinical suspicion of IA obtained between 2015 and 2021 at the University of California San Diego and the Medical University of Graz. The sensitivity and specificity was calculated for proven/probable aspergillosis versus no aspergillosis. Correlation with same-sample GM was calculated using Spearman correlation analysis and kappa statistics. RESULTS: In total, 122 serum samples from 122 patients were analysed, including proven IA (n = 1), probable IA or coronavirus-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) (n = 27), and no IA/CAPA/non-classifiable (n = 94). At a 0.5 ODI cut-off, the sensitivity and specificity of the LFA was 78.6% and 80.5%. Spearman correlation analysis showed a strong correlation between serum LFA ODI and serum GM ODI (ρ 0.459, p < .0001). Kappa was 0.611 when both LFA and GM were used with a 0.5 ODI cut-off, showing substantial agreement (p < .001). DISCUSSION: The LFA with digital read out from serum showed good performance for the diagnosis of probable/proven aspergillosis, with substantial agreement to GM from serum. Like the LFA from BALF, the LFA from serum may serve as a more rapid test compared to conventional GM, particularly in settings where GM is not readily available.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Fungal/blood , Immunoassay/methods , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Mannans/blood , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aspergillus/isolation & purification , Automation, Laboratory , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/chemistry , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/methods , Female , Galactose/analogs & derivatives , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Young Adult
14.
Lancet Public Health ; 6(9): e683-e691, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305339

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The inverse care law states that disadvantaged populations need more health care than advantaged populations but receive less. Gaps in COVID-19-related health care and infection control are not well understood. We aimed to examine inequalities in health in the care cascade from testing for SARS-CoV-2 to COVID-19-related hospitalisation, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and death in Switzerland, a wealthy country strongly affected by the pandemic. METHODS: We analysed surveillance data reported to the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health from March 1, 2020, to April 16, 2021, and 2018 population data. We geocoded residential addresses of notifications to identify the Swiss neighbourhood index of socioeconomic position (Swiss-SEP). The index describes 1·27 million small neighbourhoods of approximately 50 households each on the basis of rent per m2, education and occupation of household heads, and crowding. We used negative binomial regression models to calculate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) with 95% credible intervals (CrIs) of the association between ten groups of the Swiss-SEP index defined by deciles (1=lowest, 10=highest) and outcomes. Models were adjusted for sex, age, canton, and wave of the epidemic (before or after June 8, 2020). We used three different denominators: the general population, the number of tests, and the number of positive tests. FINDINGS: Analyses were based on 4 129 636 tests, 609 782 positive tests, 26 143 hospitalisations, 2432 ICU admissions, 9383 deaths, and 8 221 406 residents. Comparing the highest with the lowest Swiss-SEP group and using the general population as the denominator, more tests were done among people living in neighbourhoods of highest SEP compared with lowest SEP (adjusted IRR 1·18 [95% CrI 1·02-1·36]). Among tested people, test positivity was lower (0·75 [0·69-0·81]) in neighbourhoods of highest SEP than of lowest SEP. Among people testing positive, the adjusted IRR was 0·68 (0·62-0·74) for hospitalisation, was 0·54 (0·43-0·70) for ICU admission, and 0·86 (0·76-0·99) for death. The associations between neighbourhood SEP and outcomes were stronger in younger age groups and we found heterogeneity between areas. INTERPRETATION: The inverse care law and socioeconomic inequalities were evident in Switzerland during the COVID-19 epidemic. People living in neighbourhoods of low SEP were less likely to be tested but more likely to test positive, be admitted to hospital, or die, compared with those in areas of high SEP. It is essential to continue to monitor testing for SARS-CoV-2, access and uptake of COVID-19 vaccination and outcomes of COVID-19. Governments and health-care systems should address this pandemic of inequality by taking measures to reduce health inequalities in response to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. FUNDING: Swiss Federal Office of Public Health, Swiss National Science Foundation, EU Horizon 2020, Branco Weiss Foundation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Social Class , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Switzerland/epidemiology , Young Adult
16.
BMJ Open ; 11(2): e041354, 2021 02 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1075974

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We studied time trends in seasonal influenza vaccination and associations with socioeconomic and health-related determinants in Switzerland, overall and in people aged ≥65 years. DESIGN: Three cross-sectional surveys. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals who participated in the Swiss Health Surveys 2007, 2012 and 2017. We calculated the proportion reporting influenza vaccination in the last 12 months, and performed multivariable logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: We included 51 582 individuals in this analysis. The median age was 49 years (IQR 25-64), and 27 518 were women (53.3%). The proportion of reporting a history of influenza vaccination overall was 31.9% (95% CI 31.4 to 32.4); and dropped from 34.5% in 2007 to 28.8% in 2017. The uptake of vaccination within the past 12 months was 16% in 2007 and similar in 2012 and 2017 (around 14%). In people with chronic disease, uptake dropped from 43.8% in 2007 to 37.1% in 2012 and to 31.6% in 2017 (p<0.001). In people aged ≥65 years, uptake dropped from 47.8% in 2007 to 38.5% in 2012 to 36.2% in 2017 (p<0.001). In logistic regression, self-reported vaccination coverage decreased in the 65-75 years old (adjusted OR (aOR) 0.56, 95% CI 0.48 to 0.66 between 2007 and 2012; aOR 0.89, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.03 between 2012 and 2017). Uptake was positively associated with the ≥65 age group, living in French-speaking and urban areas, history of smoking, bad self-reported health status, private/semiprivate health insurance, having a medical profession and having any underlying chronic disease. CONCLUSION: Influenza vaccination coverage was low in older and chronically ill persons. Significant efforts are required in preparing for the influenza season 2020/2021 to reduce the double burden of COVID-19 and seasonal influenza. These efforts should include campaigns but also novel approaches using social media.


Subject(s)
Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Influenza, Human , Self Report , Vaccination/trends , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Male , Middle Aged , Pregnancy , Switzerland , Young Adult
18.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 150: w20225, 2020 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-13013

ABSTRACT

Switzerland is among the countries with the highest number of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) cases per capita in the world. There are likely many people with undetected SARS-CoV-2 infection because testing efforts are currently not detecting all infected people, including some with clinical disease compatible with COVID-19. Testing on its own will not stop the spread of SARS-CoV-2. Testing is part of a strategy. The World Health Organization recommends a combination of measures: rapid diagnosis and immediate isolation of cases, rigorous tracking and precautionary self-isolation of close contacts. In this article, we explain why the testing strategy in Switzerland should be strengthened urgently, as a core component of a combination approach to control COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Contact Tracing , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Patient Isolation , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Public Health Surveillance , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Mass Screening , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , Switzerland/epidemiology
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