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Econ Lett ; 223: 110973, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2178203


During the COVID-19 pandemic, many countries used export and import policy as a tool to expand the availability of scarce critical medical products in the domestic market (scarcity nationalism). This paper assesses the direct and indirect (via trade in intermediates) increases in trade costs of critical medical goods resulting from these uncooperative policies. The results show that scarcity nationalism led to substantial increases in trade costs between February 2020 and December 2021 for most COVID-19 critical medical products, particularly garments (for example, face masks) and ventilators. The exception is vaccines, which saw a reduction in trade costs, which, however, was driven by the reduction in indirect trade costs for high-income countries, consistent with the view of a COVID-19 vaccine production club.

World Econ ; 45(2): 523-538, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1223551


The organisation of value chains within and between firms and even countries is an important reason for domestic as well as international travel. Hence, value chains create interdependencies which have to do with economic but also personal interactions between firms and places. The latter means value chains are a springboard for shocks-positive or negative-to travel and other related outcomes. This paper sheds light on how input-output relations in China as one human-interaction-intensive activity can help explain spreading patterns of COVID-19 in the first few months of 2020 in China. We document that COVID-19 at that time spread more intensively where input-output relations were stronger between cities in China, and this contributed to inducing direct and mediated, indirect effects on the stock market.