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1.
Acute Med Surg ; 9(1): e789, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2074909

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), an infectious disease caused by the novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has spread worldwide since early 2020, and there are still no signs of resolution. The Japanese Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock (J-SSCG) 2020 Special Committee created the Japanese Rapid/Living recommendations on drug management for COVID-19 using the experience of creating the J-SSCG. Methods: The Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach was used to determine the certainty of the evidence and strength of recommendations. The first edition of this guideline was released on September 9, 2020, and this is the revised edition (version 5.0; released on July 15, 2022). Clinical questions (CQs) were set for the following 10 drugs: favipiravir (CQ1), remdesivir (CQ2), corticosteroids (CQ4), tocilizumab (CQ5), anticoagulants (CQ7), baricitinib (CQ8), casirivimab/imdevimab (CQ9-1), sotrovimab (CQ9-2), molnupiravir (CQ10), and nirmatrelvir/ritonavir (CQ11). Recommendations: Favipiravir is not suggested for all patients with COVID-19 (GRADE 2C). Remdesivir is suggested for patients with mild COVID-19 who do not require oxygen, and patients with moderate COVID-19 requiring supplemental oxygen/hospitalization (both GRADE 2B). Corticosteroids are recommended for moderate and severe COVID-19 (GRADE 1B, 1A). However, their administration is not recommended for mild COVID-19 (GRADE 1B). Tocilizumab is suggested for moderate and severe COVID-19 (GRADE 2B, 2C). Anticoagulant administration is recommended for moderate and severe COVID-19 (Good Practice Statement). Baricitinib is suggested for moderate and severe COVID-19 (both GRADE 2C). Casirivimab/imdevimab and sotrovimab are recommended for mild COVID-19 (both GRADE 2C). Molnupiravir and nirmatrelvir/ritonavir are recommended for mild COVID-19 (both GRADE 2C). SARS-CoV-2 mutant strains emerge occasionally, and each time, the treatment policy at clinics is forced to change drastically. We ask health-care professionals in the field to refer to the recommendations in these guidelines and use these to keep up to date with COVID-19 epidemiological information.

2.
Acute Med Surg ; 8(1): e706, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1530099

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread worldwide since early 2020, and there are still no signs of resolution. The Japanese Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock (J-SSCG) 2020 Special Committee created the Japanese rapid/living recommendations on drug management for COVID-19 using the experience of creating the J-SSCG. METHODS: The Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach was used to determine the certainty of the evidence and strength of the recommendations. The first edition of this guideline was released on September 9, 2020, and this document is the revised edition (version 4.0; released on September 9, 2021). Clinical questions (CQs) were set for the following seven drugs: favipiravir (CQ1), remdesivir (CQ2), corticosteroids (CQ4), tocilizumab (CQ5), anticoagulants (CQ7), baricitinib (CQ8), and casirivimab/imdevimab (CQ9). Two CQs (hydroxychloroquine [CQ3] and ciclesonide [CQ6]) were retrieved in this updated version. RECOMMENDATIONS: Favipiravir is not suggested for all patients with COVID-19 (GRADE 2C). Remdesivir is suggested for patients with moderate COVID-19 requiring supplemental oxygen/hospitalization (GRADE 2B). Corticosteroids are recommended for patients with moderate COVID-19 requiring supplemental oxygen/hospitalization (GRADE 1B) and for patients with severe COVID-19 requiring mechanical ventilation/intensive care (GRADE 1A); however, their administration is not recommended for patients with mild COVID-19 not requiring supplemental oxygen (GRADE 1B). Tocilizumab is suggested for patients with moderate COVID-19 requiring supplemental oxygen/hospitalization (GRADE 2B). Anticoagulant administration is recommended for patients with moderate COVID-19 requiring supplemental oxygen/hospitalization and patients with severe COVID-19 requiring mechanical ventilation/intensive care (good practice statement). Baricitinib is suggested for patients with moderate COVID-19 requiring supplemental oxygen/hospitalization (GRADE 2C). Casirivimab/imdevimab is recommended for patients with mild COVID-19 not requiring supplemental oxygen (GRADE 1B). We hope that these updated clinical practice guidelines will help medical professionals involved in the care of patients with COVID-19.

3.
J Intensive Care ; 9(1): 60, 2021 Oct 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456012

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Asia has more critically ill people than any other part of our planet. The aim of this article is to review the development of critical care as a specialty, critical care societies and education and research, the epidemiology of critical illness as well as epidemics and pandemics, accessibility and cost and quality of critical care, culture and end-of-life care, and future directions for critical care in Asia. MAIN BODY: Although the first Asian intensive care units (ICUs) surfaced in the 1960s and the 1970s and specialisation started in the 1990s, multiple challenges still exist, including the lack of intensivists, critical care nurses, and respiratory therapists in many countries. This is aggravated by the brain drain of skilled ICU staff to high-income countries. Critical care societies have been integral to the development of the discipline and have increasingly contributed to critical care education, although critical care research is only just starting to take off through collaboration across groups. Sepsis, increasingly aggravated by multidrug resistance, contributes to a significant burden of critical illness, while epidemics and pandemics continue to haunt the continent intermittently. In particular, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has highlighted the central role of critical care in pandemic response. Accessibility to critical care is affected by lack of ICU beds and high costs, and quality of critical care is affected by limited capability for investigations and treatment in low- and middle-income countries. Meanwhile, there are clear cultural differences across countries, with considerable variations in end-of-life care. Demand for critical care will rise across the continent due to ageing populations and rising comorbidity burdens. Even as countries respond by increasing critical care capacity, the critical care community must continue to focus on training for ICU healthcare workers, processes anchored on evidence-based medicine, technology guided by feasibility and impact, research applicable to Asian and local settings, and rallying of governments for support for the specialty. CONCLUSIONS: Critical care in Asia has progressed through the years, but multiple challenges remain. These challenges should be addressed through a collaborative approach across disciplines, ICUs, hospitals, societies, governments, and countries.

4.
JMA J ; 4(2): 148-162, 2021 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226034

ABSTRACT

In 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic has had unprecedented impacts on various aspects of the world. Each academic society has published a guide and/or guidelines on how to cope with COVID-19 separately. As the one and only nationwide association of academic societies that represent medical science in Japan, JMSF has decided to publish the expert opinion to help patients and care providers find specifically what they want. This expert opinion is a summary of recommendations by many academic societies and will be updated when necessary. Patients that each academic society targets differ even though they suffer from the same COVID-19, and recommendations can be different in a context-dependent manner. Readers are supposed to be flexible and adjustable when they use this expert opinion.

5.
Acute Med Surg ; 8(1): e664, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1222595

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has spread worldwide since early 2020, and there are still no signs of resolution. The Japanese Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock (J-SSCG) 2020 Special Committee created the Japanese rapid/living recommendations on drug management for COVID-19 using the experience of creating the J-SSCGs. The Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach was used to determine the certainty of the evidence and strength of the recommendations. The first edition of this guideline was released on 9 September, 2020, and this document is the revised edition (version 3.1) (released 30 March, 2021). Clinical questions (CQs) were set for the following seven drugs: favipiravir (CQ1), remdesivir (CQ2), hydroxychloroquine (CQ3), corticosteroids (CQ4), tocilizumab (CQ5), ciclesonide (CQ6), and anticoagulants (CQ7). Favipiravir is recommended for patients with mild COVID-19 not requiring supplemental oxygen (GRADE 2C); remdesivir for moderate COVID-19 patients requiring supplemental oxygen/hospitalization (GRADE 2B). Hydroxychloroquine is not recommended for all COVID-19 patients (GRADE 1B). Corticosteroids are recommended for moderate COVID-19 patients requiring supplemental oxygen/hospitalization (GRADE 1B) and severe COVID-19 patients requiring ventilator management/intensive care (GRADE 1A); however, their use is not recommended for mild COVID-19 patients not requiring supplemental oxygen (GRADE 1B). Tocilizumab is recommended for moderate COVID-19 patients requiring supplemental oxygen/hospitalization (GRADE 2B). Anticoagulant therapy is recommended for moderate COVID-19 patients requiring supplemental oxygen/hospitalization and severe COVID-19 patients requiring ventilator management/intensive care (GRADE 2C). We hope that these clinical practice guidelines will aid medical professionals involved in the care of COVID-19 patients.

6.
Lancet Respir Med ; 8(5): 506-517, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-35108

ABSTRACT

As coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) spreads across the world, the intensive care unit (ICU) community must prepare for the challenges associated with this pandemic. Streamlining of workflows for rapid diagnosis and isolation, clinical management, and infection prevention will matter not only to patients with COVID-19, but also to health-care workers and other patients who are at risk from nosocomial transmission. Management of acute respiratory failure and haemodynamics is key. ICU practitioners, hospital administrators, governments, and policy makers must prepare for a substantial increase in critical care bed capacity, with a focus not just on infrastructure and supplies, but also on staff management. Critical care triage to allow the rationing of scarce ICU resources might be needed. Researchers must address unanswered questions, including the role of repurposed and experimental therapies. Collaboration at the local, regional, national, and international level offers the best chance of survival for the critically ill.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Critical Care/methods , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
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