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1.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1084630, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2240883

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To describe SARS-CoV-2 infection outcome in unvaccinated children and young adults with inborn errors of immunity (IEI) and to compare their specific acute and long-term immune responses with a sex-, age-, and severity-matched healthy population (HC). Methods: Unvaccinated IEI patients up to 22 years old infected with SARS-CoV-2 were recruited along with a cohort of HC. SARS-CoV-2 serology and ELISpot were performed in the acute phase of infection (up to 6 weeks) and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Results: Twenty-five IEI patients (median age 14.3 years, min.-max. range 4.5-22.8; 15/25 males; syndromic combined immunodeficiencies: 48.0%, antibody deficiencies: 16.0%) and 17 HC (median age 15.3 years, min.-max. range 5.4-20.0; 6/17 males, 35.3%) were included. Pneumonia occurred in 4/25 IEI patients. In the acute phase SARS-CoV-2 specific immunoglobulins were positive in all HC but in only half of IEI in whom it could be measured (n=17/25): IgG+ 58.8% (10/17) (p=0.009); IgM+ 41.2% (7/17)(p<0.001); IgA+ 52.9% (9/17)(p=0.003). Quantitative response (index) was also lower compared with HC: IgG IEI (3.1 ± 4.4) vs. HC (3.5 ± 1.5)(p=0.06); IgM IEI (1.9 ± 2.4) vs. HC (3.9 ± 2.4)(p=0.007); IgA IEI (3.3 ± 4.7) vs. HC (4.6 ± 2.5)(p=0.04). ELISpots positivity was qualitatively lower in IEI vs. HC (S-ELISpot IEI: 3/11, 27.3% vs. HC: 10/11, 90.9%; p=0.008; N-ELISpot IEI: 3/9, 33.3% vs. HC: 11/11, 100%; p=0.002) and also quantitatively lower (S-ELISpot IEI: mean index 3.2 ± 5.0 vs. HC 21.2 ± 17.0; p=0.001; N-ELISpot IEI: mean index 9.3 ± 16.6 vs. HC: 39.1 ± 23.7; p=0.004). As for long term response, SARS-CoV-2-IgM+ at 6 months was qualitatively lower in IEI(3/8, 37.5% vs. 9/10 HC: 90.0%; p=0.043), and quantitatively lower in all serologies IgG, M, and A (IEI n=9, 1.1 ± 0.9 vs. HC n=10, 2.1 ± 0.9, p=0.03; IEI n=9, 1.3 ± 1.5 vs. HC n=10, 2.9 ± 2.8, p=0.02; and IEI n=9, 0.6 ± 0.5 vs. HC n=10, 1.7 ± 0.8, p=0.002 -respectively) but there were no differences at remaining time points. Conclusions: Our IEI pediatric cohort had a higher COVID-19 pneumonia rate than the general age-range population, with lower humoral and cellular responses in the acute phase (even lower compared to the reported IEI serological response after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination), and weaker humoral responses at 6 months after infection compared with HC.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases , Male , Humans , Child , Young Adult , Adolescent , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Immunoglobulin M , Immunity , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G
2.
Frontiers in immunology ; 14, 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2230234

ABSTRACT

Purpose To describe SARS-CoV-2 infection outcome in unvaccinated children and young adults with inborn errors of immunity (IEI) and to compare their specific acute and long-term immune responses with a sex-, age-, and severity-matched healthy population (HC). Methods Unvaccinated IEI patients up to 22 years old infected with SARS-CoV-2 were recruited along with a cohort of HC. SARS-CoV-2 serology and ELISpot were performed in the acute phase of infection (up to 6 weeks) and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Results Twenty-five IEI patients (median age 14.3 years, min.-max. range 4.5-22.8;15/25 males;syndromic combined immunodeficiencies: 48.0%, antibody deficiencies: 16.0%) and 17 HC (median age 15.3 years, min.-max. range 5.4-20.0;6/17 males, 35.3%) were included. Pneumonia occurred in 4/25 IEI patients. In the acute phase SARS-CoV-2 specific immunoglobulins were positive in all HC but in only half of IEI in whom it could be measured (n=17/25): IgG+ 58.8% (10/17) (p=0.009);IgM+ 41.2% (7/17)(p<0.001);IgA+ 52.9% (9/17)(p=0.003). Quantitative response (index) was also lower compared with HC: IgG IEI (3.1 ± 4.4) vs. HC (3.5 ± 1.5)(p=0.06);IgM IEI (1.9 ± 2.4) vs. HC (3.9 ± 2.4)(p=0.007);IgA IEI (3.3 ± 4.7) vs. HC (4.6 ± 2.5)(p=0.04). ELISpots positivity was qualitatively lower in IEI vs. HC (S-ELISpot IEI: 3/11, 27.3% vs. HC: 10/11, 90.9%;p=0.008;N-ELISpot IEI: 3/9, 33.3% vs. HC: 11/11, 100%;p=0.002) and also quantitatively lower (S-ELISpot IEI: mean index 3.2 ± 5.0 vs. HC 21.2 ± 17.0;p=0.001;N-ELISpot IEI: mean index 9.3 ± 16.6 vs. HC: 39.1 ± 23.7;p=0.004). As for long term response, SARS-CoV-2-IgM+ at 6 months was qualitatively lower in IEI(3/8, 37.5% vs. 9/10 HC: 90.0%;p=0.043), and quantitatively lower in all serologies IgG, M, and A (IEI n=9, 1.1 ± 0.9 vs. HC n=10, 2.1 ± 0.9, p=0.03;IEI n=9, 1.3 ± 1.5 vs. HC n=10, 2.9 ± 2.8, p=0.02;and IEI n=9, 0.6 ± 0.5 vs. HC n=10, 1.7 ± 0.8, p=0.002 –respectively) but there were no differences at remaining time points. Conclusions Our IEI pediatric cohort had a higher COVID-19 pneumonia rate than the general age-range population, with lower humoral and cellular responses in the acute phase (even lower compared to the reported IEI serological response after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination), and weaker humoral responses at 6 months after infection compared with HC. Graphical

3.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 2022 Oct 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2230459

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Prevalence estimates of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Africa are limited, particularly among pregnant women and in those living with HIV. This study assessed the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies among Mozambican HIV-infected pregnant women during the first year of the pandemic, before COVID-19 vaccines were deployed in the country. SETTING: The study was conducted in Manhiça district, a semi-rural area in southern Mozambique. METHODS: A prospective cohort study including pregnant women living with HIV was carried out from November 2019 to June 2021. Women were enrolled at the first antenatal care (ANC) clinic visit and followed until post-partum. HIV viral load (HIV-VL) and IgM/IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 were determined in blood samples at first ANC clinic visit and at delivery. Associations between SARS-CoV-2 serostatus and maternal characteristics at enrolment were analysed. RESULTS: A total of 397 women were enrolled. SARS-CoV-2 IgG/IgM antibodies were detected in 7.1% of women at enrolment and in 8.5% of women at delivery. Overall, SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were detected in 45 (11.3%; 95%CI 8.4-14.9%) women during the study period; the first seropositive sample was identified in September 2020. Having undetectable HIV-VL was associated with seropositivity of SARS-CoV-2 IgG/IgM (OR 3.35 [1.10-11.29]; p=0.039). CONCLUSION: Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in this cohort of Mozambican unvaccinated pregnant women was similar to reported global estimates of approximately 10% in pregnancy for 2021. Findings also suggest that pregnant women with high HIV- viral load may have an impaired immune response against SARS-CoV-2 and might need to be carefully managed in case of COVID-19.

4.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 2022 Oct 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087920

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Prevalence estimates of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Africa are limited, particularly among pregnant women and in those living with HIV. This study assessed the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies among Mozambican HIV-infected pregnant women during the first year of the pandemic, before COVID-19 vaccines were deployed in the country. SETTING: The study was conducted in Manhiça district, a semi-rural area in southern Mozambique. METHODS: A prospective cohort study including pregnant women living with HIV was carried out from November 2019 to June 2021. Women were enrolled at the first antenatal care (ANC) clinic visit and followed until post-partum. HIV viral load (HIV-VL) and IgM/IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 were determined in blood samples at first ANC clinic visit and at delivery. Associations between SARS-CoV-2 serostatus and maternal characteristics at enrolment were analysed. RESULTS: A total of 397 women were enrolled. SARS-CoV-2 IgG/IgM antibodies were detected in 7.1% of women at enrolment and in 8.5% of women at delivery. Overall, SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were detected in 45 (11.3%; 95%CI 8.4-14.9%) women during the study period; the first seropositive sample was identified in September 2020. Having undetectable HIV-VL was associated with seropositivity of SARS-CoV-2 IgG/IgM (OR 3.35 [1.10-11.29]; p=0.039). CONCLUSION: Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in this cohort of Mozambican unvaccinated pregnant women was similar to reported global estimates of approximately 10% in pregnancy for 2021. Findings also suggest that pregnant women with high HIV- viral load may have an impaired immune response against SARS-CoV-2 and might need to be carefully managed in case of COVID-19.

5.
J Clin Pathol ; 75(2): 104-111, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-975717

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Atypical lymphocytes circulating in blood have been reported in COVID-19 patients. This study aims to (1) analyse if patients with reactive lymphocytes (COVID-19 RL) show clinical or biological characteristics related to outcome; (2) develop an automatic system to recognise them in an objective way and (3) study their immunophenotype. METHODS: Clinical and laboratory findings in 36 COVID-19 patients were compared between those showing COVID-19 RL in blood (18) and those without (18). Blood samples were analysed in Advia2120i and stained with May Grünwald-Giemsa. Digital images were acquired in CellaVisionDM96. Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) were used to accurately recognise COVID-19 RL. Immunophenotypic study was performed throughflow cytometry. RESULTS: Neutrophils, D-dimer, procalcitonin, glomerular filtration rate and total protein values were higher in patients without COVID-19 RL (p<0.05) and four of these patients died. Haemoglobin and lymphocyte counts were higher (p<0.02) and no patients died in the group showing COVID-19 RL. COVID-19 RL showed a distinct deep blue cytoplasm with nucleus mostly in eccentric position. Through two sequential CNNs, they were automatically distinguished from normal lymphocytes and classical RL with sensitivity, specificity and overall accuracy values of 90.5%, 99.4% and 98.7%, respectively. Immunophenotypic analysis revealed COVID-19 RL are mostly activated effector memory CD4 and CD8 T cells. CONCLUSION: We found that COVID-19 RL are related to a better evolution and prognosis. They can be detected by morphology in the smear review, being the computerised approach proposed useful to enhance a more objective recognition. Their presence suggests an abundant production of virus-specific T cells, thus explaining the better outcome of patients showing these cells circulating in blood.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Memory T Cells/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Case-Control Studies , Clinical Decision Rules , Disease Progression , Female , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Immunophenotyping , Male , Memory T Cells/immunology , Middle Aged , Neural Networks, Computer , Prognosis , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spain/epidemiology
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