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1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-332905

ABSTRACT

Objectives: It has been widely reported that the COVID-19 pandemic may have a psychological influence on people. Thus, it could be important to note how workplace infection prevention and control (IPC) measures for COVID-19 contribute to positive mental health among workers. We hypothesized that if workplace IPC measures are adequately implemented, they would have a positive effect on employees' work engagement. Methods: We conducted an internet-based prospective cohort study from December 2020 (baseline) to December 2021 (follow-up after one year) using self-administered questionnaires. At baseline, 27,036 workers completed the questionnaires, while 18,560 (68.7%) participated in the one-year follow-up. After excluding the 6,578 participants who changed jobs or retired during the survey period, or telecommuted more than four days per week, 11,982 participants were analyzed. We asked participants about the implementation of workplace IPC measures at baseline and conducted a nine-item version of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES–9) at follow-up. Results: Four groups were created according to the number of workplace IPC measures implemented. The mean (SD) UWES–9 score of the "0–2" group was the lowest at 18.3 (13.2), while that of the "8" group was the highest at 22.6 (12.6). The scores of the "3–5," "6–7," and "8" groups were significantly higher than that of the "0–2" group (all, p<0.001). The p trend of the four groups was also significant (p<0.001). Conclusions: Promoting workplace IPC measures improves workers' work engagement, and a dose-response relationship exists between workplace IPC measures and work engagement.

2.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-330126

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Limited information is available about the association between workplace psychosocial factors and general mental health status among workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study examined how working from home affected the association between job demands and psychological distress (PD). Method A cross-sectional online survey was conducted in December 2020 (N=27,036). The dependent variable (PD) was assessed using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale. Job demands were assessed using the Job Content Questionnaire. Working from home was determined by participants' responses to the question: Do you currently work from home? We used a two-level regression analysis adjusted for prefecture;each individual-level variable at level 1 was nested into each prefecture at level 2, stratified by working from home or not. Results Overall, 21.3% of participants worked from home. The interaction between working from home and job demands was significant. Job demands were positively associated with PD. The stratified analysis showed the associations were weaker among employees who worked from home compared with those who did not. Conclusion The association between job demands and PD may be weakened by working from home.

3.
Front Sports Act Living ; 4: 809465, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742282

ABSTRACT

Background: Studies have determined that exercise and physical activity positively affect physical and mental health, and that healthy workers contribute to increased work performance. The relationship between the time spent on exercise during leisure time and physical activity, including work, with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in workers is unclear, with variations observed between occupational types. This cross-sectional study examined these associations among Japanese workers from various occupations during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: An Internet-based national health survey-Collaborative Online Research on Novel-coronavirus and Work-study (CORoNaWork study)-was conducted among 33,087 Japanese workers in December 2020. After excluding invalid responses, 27,036 participants were categorized into four and five groups according to exercise and physical activity time, respectively. Each group's scores were compared on each of the four questions on the Japanese version of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Health-Related Quality of Life (CDC HRQOL-4) using generalized linear models. Age-sex adjusted and multivariate models were used to compare each index of the CDC HRQOL-4. Results: Compared to the reference category (almost never), any level of exercise (ORs 0.56-0.77) and physical activity (ORs 0.93-0.88) were associated with better self-rated health in the multivariate model. Any exercise was also associated with significantly reduced odds for physically or mentally unhealthy days; however, high levels of physical activity (≥120 min/day) were associated with significantly increased odds for these outcomes (ORs = 1.11 and 1.16, respectively). Conclusions: The results suggest that exercise habits are more critical to workers' HRQOL than physical activity. Interventions that encourage daily exercise even for a short time are likely to be associated with better workers' health and work performance.

4.
J Occup Health ; 63(1): e12302, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560883

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Many companies in Japan have been increasingly interested in "health and productivity management (H&PM)." In terms of H&PM, we hypothesized that companies can enhance their employees' perceived workplace health support (PWHS) by supporting workers' lively working and healthy living. This could then improve their health-related quality of life (HRQOL) by increasing PWHS. Consequently, this study explored the relationship between PWHS and HRQOL. METHODS: In December 2020, during the COVID-19 pandemic, we conducted an Internet-based nationwide health survey of Japanese workers (CORoNaWork study). A database of 27 036 participants was created. The intensity of PWHS was measured using a four-point Likert scale. We used multilevel ordered logistic regression to analyze the relationship between PWHS intensity and the four domains of the Centers for Disease Control's HRQOL-4 (self-rated health, number of poor physical health days, number of poor mental health days, and activity limitation days during the past 30 days). RESULTS: In the sex- and age-adjusted and multivariate models, the intensity of PWHS significantly affected self-rated health and the three domains of unhealthy days (physical, mental, and activity limitation). There was also a trend toward worse HRQOL scores as the PWHS decreased. CONCLUSIONS: We found that the higher the PWHS of Japanese workers, the higher their self-rated health and the fewer their unhealthy days. Companies need to assess workers' PWHS and HRQOL and promote H&PM. H&PM is also necessary to maintain and promote the health of workers during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Occupational Health , Pandemics , Quality of Life , Workplace , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Workplace/psychology
5.
Arch Public Health ; 79(1): 222, 2021 Dec 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1562298

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To prevent the spread of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), it is important to avoid 3Cs (closed spaces, crowded places, and close-contact settings). However, the risk of contact with an unspecified number of people is inevitable while commuting to and from work. In this study, we investigated the relationship between commuting, and the risk of COVID-19 and COVID-19-induced anxiety. METHODS: An internet-based questionnaire survey was conducted to obtain a dataset from 27,036 respondents. One-way commuting time was evaluated using a five-case method. The commuting distance was estimated using zip codes of the home and workplace. Logistic regression analysis was performed with the following outcomes: COVID-19 risk, close contact, infection anxiety, and infection anxiety due to commuting. Commuting distance and commuting time were analyzed separately in the model. We excluded participants with incalculable commuting distance, commuting distance exceeding 300 km, commuting distance of 0 km, or who telecommuted at least once a week. RESULTS: The total number of participants included in the analysis was 14,038. The adjusted odds ratios (aORs) of using public transportation for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection were 4.17 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.51-6.93) (commuting time) and 5.18 (95% CI: 3.06-8.78) (commuting distance). The aOR of COVID-19 diagnosis decreased significantly with increasing commuting distance. The aORs of using public transportation to infection anxiety were 1.44 (95% CI: 1.31-1.59) (commuting time) and 1.45 (95% CI: 1.32-1.60) (commuting distance). The longer the commuting time, the more the aOR increased. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 risk, close contact, and infection anxiety were all associated with the use of public transportation during commuting. Both commuting distance and time were associated with infection anxiety due to commuting, and the strength of the association increased with increase in commuting time distance. Since transportation by commuting is associated with COVID-19 risk and anxiety, we recommend the use of telecommuting and other means of work.

6.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-296383

ABSTRACT

Objectives This study examined the relationship between the status of infection control efforts against COVID-19 in the workplace and workers’ mental health using a large-scale Internet-based study. Methods This cross-sectional study was based on an Internet monitoring survey conducted during the third wave of the COVID-19 epidemic in Japan. Of the 33,302 people who participated in the survey, 27,036 were included in the analyses. Participants answered whether or not each of 10 different infection control measures were in place at their workplace (e.g. wearing masks at all times during working hours). A Kessler 6 (K6) score of ≥13 was defined as mild psychological distress. The odds ratios (ORs) of psychological distress associated with infection control measures at the workplace were estimated using a multilevel logistic model nested in the prefectures of residence. Results The OR of subjects working at facilities with 4 or 5 infection control measures for psychological distress was 1.19 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05-1.34, p=0.010), that in facilities with 2 or 3 infection control measures was 1.43 (95% CI: 1.25-1.64, p<0.001), and that in facilities with 1 or no infection control measures was 1.87 (95% CI: 1.63-2.14, p<0.001) compared to subjects whose workplaces had ≥6 infection control measures. Conclusion Our findings suggest that proactive COVID-19 infection control measures can influence the mental health of workers.

7.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295226

ABSTRACT

Objective Many companies in Japan have been increasingly interested in “health and productivity management (H&PM).” In terms of H&PM, we supposed that companies can enhance their employees’ perceived workplace health support (PWHS) by providing support for workers’ lively working and healthy living. This could then improve health-related QOL (HRQOL) by increasing PWHS. This study explored the relationship between PWHS and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Methods During the COVID-19 pandemic in December 2020, we conducted an Internet-based nationwide health survey of Japanese workers (CORoNaWork study). A database of 27,036 participants was created. The question regarding the intensity of PWHS was measured using a four-point Likert scale. We used a linear mixed model (LMM) to analyze the relationship between the intensity of PWHS and the four domains of CDC HRQOL-4 (self-rated health, number of poor physical health days, number of poor mental-health days, and activity limitation days during the past 30 days). Results In the sex- and age-adjusted and multivariate models, the intensity of PWHS had a main effect on self-rated health and the three domains of unhealthy days (physical, mental, activity limitation). There was also a trend toward worse HRQOL scores as the PWHS decreased. Conclusions This study aimed to document the relationship between PWHS and HRQOL. We found that the higher the PWHS of Japanese workers, the higher their self-rated health and the lower their unhealthy days. Companies need to assess workers’ PWHS and HRQOL and promote H&PM. H&PM is also necessary to maintain and promote the health of workers during the COVID-19 pandemic.

8.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-294166

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to examine the relationship between telecommuting and the regional cumulative COVID-19 incidence. This was a cross-sectional study analyzing 13,468 office workers. The participant groups, according to the level of cumulative COVID-19 incidence by prefecture, were used as the predictor variable, and telecommuting frequency and preference were used as outcomes. We employed an ordinal logistic regression analysis. In regions with a high cumulative COVID-19 incidence, the proportion of participants who telecommuted more than two days per week was 34.7%, which was approximately 20% higher than in other regions. Telecommuting preference was stronger in areas with higher COVID-19 influence. However, in other regions, the proportion of participants who did not want to telecommute was higher than that of those who wanted to telecommute. We found that telecommuting frequency and preference were higher in regions with high cumulative COVID-19 incidence.

9.
Front Public Health ; 9: 722071, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497171

ABSTRACT

Purpose: There is limited information about the association between workplace psychosocial factors and general worker mental health status during the COVID-19 pandemic. In the present study, we examined how anxiety about being infected by COVID-19 in the workplace affected the association between job demands and psychological distress (PD). Method: A cross-sectional online survey was conducted in December 2020. The final analyzed sample was 27,036. The dependent variable of PD was assessed using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6). Job demands were assessed using the Job Content Questionnaire. Feelings of anxiety were assessed by participants' responses to the following question: "Do you feel anxiety about being infected by COVID-19 in the workplace?" We used a two-level regression adjusting for prefectural level: each individual-level variable at level 1 was nested into each prefecture at level 2, stratified by presence of anxiety. Results: A total of 50.5% of participants felt anxious about being infected by COVID-19 in the workplace. The interaction between anxiety and job demands was significant. Job demands were positively associated with PD. In the stratified analysis, the associations were stronger among employees who experienced anxiety about COVID-19 infection in the workplace than among those who did not. Conclusion: The association between job demands and PD may be strengthened by anxiety about COVID-19 infection in the workplace.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Workplace
10.
J Occup Environ Med ; 63(9): e636-e640, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398175

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To examine how the mismatch between telecommuting preference and telecommuting frequency was associated with psychological distress during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Data from 33,302 workers throughout Japan were obtained using an Internet survey. Among 33,302 participants, 20,395 who telecommuted were included in the analysis. Participants' telecommuting preference and frequency during the COVID-19 pandemic were determined using a questionnaire. Psychological distress was assessed using Kessler 6 (K6). RESULTS: Among participants who did and did not prefer to telecommute, those who telecommuted four or more days per week had an OR of psychological distress of 0.67 (P < 0.001) and 1.87 (P = 0.001), respectively, compared with those who rarely telecommuted. CONCLUSIONS: The association between telecommuting and psychological distress differs depending on telecommuting preference.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Teleworking
11.
J Occup Environ Med ; 63(9): e631-e635, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398174

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study examined the relationship between worry about COVID-19 infection in the workplace and while commuting to work and psychological distress in Japan. METHODS: An internet monitor study was conducted. Out of a total of 33,302 participants, 26,841 people were included. The subjects were asked single-item questions about whether they were worried about COVID-19 infection in general, at work and while commuting to work. K6 was used to assess psychological distress. RESULTS: The OR was significantly higher in association with worry about infection in the workplace at 1.71 (95%CI 1.53 to 1.92) and worry about infection while commuting at 1.49 (95%CI 1.32 to 1.67). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests the need for psychological intervention to reduce worry about infection in response to public mental health challenges associated with the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Transportation
12.
J Occup Health ; 63(1): e12259, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340230

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study examined the relationship between the status of infection control efforts against COVID-19 in the workplace and workers' mental health using a large-scale Internet-based study. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was based on an Internet monitoring survey conducted during the third wave of the COVID-19 epidemic in Japan. Of the 33 302 people who participated in the survey, 27 036 were included in the analyses. Participants answered whether or not each of 10 different infection control measures was in place at their workplace (eg, wearing masks at all times during working hours). A Kessler 6 (K6) score of ≥13 was defined as mild psychological distress. The odds ratios (ORs) of psychological distress associated with infection control measures at the workplace were estimated using a multilevel logistic model nested in the prefectures of residence. RESULTS: The OR of subjects working at facilities with 4 or 5 infection control measures for psychological distress was 1.19 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05-1.34, P = .010), that in facilities with 2 or 3 infection control measures was 1.43 (95% CI: 1.25-1.64, P < .001), and that in facilities with 1 or no infection control measures was 1.87 (95% CI: 1.63-2.14, P < .001) compared to subjects whose workplaces had ≥6 infection control measures. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that proactive COVID-19 infection control measures can influence the mental health of workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Employment/psychology , Infection Control , Psychological Distress , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Japan , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
J UOEH ; 43(2): 217-225, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1257104

ABSTRACT

The ever-changing social implications of the COVID-19 pandemic have resulted in an urgent need to understand the working environments and health status of workers. We conducted a nationwide Internet-based health survey of Japanese workers in December 2020, in the midst the country's "third wave" of COVID-19 infection. Of 33,087 surveys collected, 6,051 were determined to have invalid responses. The 27,036 surveys included in the study were balanced in terms of geographical area, sex of participants, and type of work, according to the sampling plan. Men were more likely than women to have telecommuted, while women were more likely to have resigned since April 2020. Forty percent and 9.1% of respondents had a K6 score of 5 or higher and 13 or higher, respectively, and they did not exhibit extremely poor health. The present study describes the protocol used to conduct an Internet-based health survey of workers and a summary of its results during a period when COVID-19 was spreading rapidly in Japan. In the future, we plan to use this survey to examine the impact of COVID-19 on workers' work styles and health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Status , Health Surveys/methods , Internet , Occupational Health , Teleworking/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Female , Humans , Japan , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Sex Factors , Time Factors
14.
J Occup Health ; 63(1): e12232, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230187

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused interruptions to chronic disease and non-emergency treatment. The purpose of this study is to examine which socioeconomic status groups are most at risk of treatment interruption among Japanese workers. METHODS: This cross-sectional internet monitor study was conducted among Japanese workers on December 22-26, 2020. Out of a total of 33 302 participants in the survey, 9510 (5392 males and 4118 females) who responded that they required regular treatment or hospital visits were included in the analysis. A multilevel logistic model nested in the prefecture of residence was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) for treatment disruption. We examined separate multivariate models for socioeconomic factors, health factors, and lifestyle factors. RESULTS: During a period of rapid COVID-19 infection, about 11% of Japanese workers who required regular treatment experienced interruptions to their treatment. The OR of treatment interruption associated with not being married compared with being married was 1.44 (95%CI: 1.17-1.76); manual labor work compared with desk work was 1.30 (95%CI: 1.11-1.52); loss of employment when the COVID-19 pandemic started and continued unemployment compared with being employed over the entire pandemic period was 1.62 (95%CI: 1.13-2.31) and 2.57 (95%CI: 1.63-4.07), respectively; and feeling financially unstable was 2.92 (95%CI: 2.25-3.80). CONCLUSION: Treatment interruption is a new health inequality brought about by COVID-19 with possible medium- and long-term effects, including excess mortality, morbidity, and productivity loss due to increased presenteeism. Efforts are needed to reduce treatment interruptions among workers who require regular treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility , Occupational Health , Pandemics , Socioeconomic Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
J Occup Health ; 63(1): e12196, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064309

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Maternity harassment, known in English as pregnancy discrimination, remains prevalent in developed countries. However, research examining the mental health effects of maternity harassment is lacking. We aimed to examine the association between maternity harassment and depression during pregnancy in Japan. METHODS: A cross-sectional Internet survey was conducted on 359 pregnant employees (including women who were working at the time their pregnancy was confirmed) from May 22 to May 31, 2020, during which time a COVID-19 state of emergency was declared. Maternity harassment was defined as being subjected to any of the 16 adverse treatments prohibited by national guidelines. Depression was defined as a score of ≥9 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (Japanese version). Logistic regression analysis was performed. RESULTS: Overall, 24.8% of the pregnant employees had experienced maternity harassment by supervisors and/or colleagues. After adjusting for demographics, pregnancy status, work status, and fear of COVID-19, pregnant employees who experienced maternity harassment were more likely to have depression than those who did not (odds ratio 2.48, 95% confidential interval 1.34-4.60). This association was not influenced by whether they were teleworking or not as a COVID-19 measure. CONCLUSIONS: One quarter of pregnant employees experienced maternity harassment and had a higher prevalence of depression than those who did not. Being physically away from the office through teleworking may not reduce the effect of maternal harassment on depression. To protect the mental health and employment of pregnant women, employers should comply with the laws and take measures to prevent maternity harassment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Depression/complications , Pregnancy Complications/psychology , Pregnancy/psychology , Prejudice/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/etiology , Employment/psychology , Employment/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Prejudice/statistics & numerical data , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Surveys and Questionnaires
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