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1.
Am J Prev Cardiol ; 12: 100424, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2068631

ABSTRACT

Regular moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (PA) and increased levels of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) or aerobic capacity are widely promoted as cardioprotective measures in the primary and secondary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular (CV) disease (CVD). Nevertheless, physical inactivity and sedentary behaviors remain a worldwide concern. The continuing coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has been especially devastating to patients with known or occult CVD since sitting time and recreational PA have been reported to increase and decrease by 28% and 33%, respectively. Herein, in this first of a 2-part series, we discuss foundational factors in exercise programming, with specific reference to energy metabolism, contemporary PA recommendations, the dose-response relationship of exercise as medicine, the benefits of regular exercise training, including the exercise preconditioning cardioprotective phenotype, as well as the CV risks of PA. Finally, we discuss the 'extreme exercise hypothesis,' specifically the potential maladaptations resulting from high-volume, high-intensity training programs, including accelerated coronary artery calcification and incident atrial fibrillation. The latter is commonly depicted by a reverse J-shaped or U-shaped curve. On the other hand, longevity data argue against this relationship, as elite endurance athletes live 3-6 years longer than the general population.

2.
Cardiovasc Res ; 118(10): 2253-2266, 2022 Jul 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2032022

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular (CV) disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of major morbidity and CVD- and all-cause mortality in most of the world. It is now clear that regular physical activity (PA) and exercise training (ET) induces a wide range of direct and indirect physiologic adaptations and pleiotropic benefits for human general and CV health. Generally, higher levels of PA, ET, and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are correlated with reduced risk of CVD, including myocardial infarction, CVD-related death, and all-cause mortality. Although exact details regarding the ideal doses of ET, including resistance and, especially, aerobic ET, as well as the potential adverse effects of extreme levels of ET, continue to be investigated, there is no question that most of the world's population have insufficient levels of PA/ET, and many also have lower than ideal levels of CRF. Therefore, assessment and promotion of PA, ET, and efforts to improve levels of CRF should be integrated into all health professionals' practices worldwide. In this state-of-the-art review, we discuss the exercise effects on many areas related to CVD, from basic aspects to clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Cardiorespiratory Fitness , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cardiorespiratory Fitness/physiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Exercise/physiology , Humans , Risk Factors
3.
Temperature: Multidisciplinary Biomedical Journal ; 9(1):103-113, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1870816

ABSTRACT

Cooling vests alleviate heat strain. We quantified the perceptual and physiological heat strain and assessed the effects of wearing a 21°C phase change material cooling vest on these measures during work shifts of COVID-19 nurses wearing personal protective equipment (PPE). Seventeen nurses were monitored on two working days, consisting of a control (PPE only) and a cooling vest day (PPE + cooling vest). Sub-PPE air temperature, gastrointestinal temperature (Tgi), and heart rate (HR) were measured continuously. Thermal comfort (2 [1–4] versus 1 [1–2], pcondtition < 0.001) and thermal sensation (5 [4–7] versus 4 [2–7], pcondition < 0.001) improved in the cooling vest versus control condition. Only 18% of nurses reported thermal discomfort and 36% a (slightly) warm thermal sensation in the cooling vest condition versus 81% and 94% in the control condition (OR (95%CI) 0.05 (0.01–0.29) and 0.04 (<0.01–0.35), respectively). Accordingly, perceptual strain index was lower in the cooling vest versus control condition (5.7 ± 1.5 versus 4.3 ± 1.7, pcondition < 0.001, respectively). No differences were observed for the physiological heat strain index Tgi and rating of perceived exertion across conditions. Average HR was slightly lower in the cooling vest versus the control condition (85 ± 12 versus 87 ± 11, pcondition = 0.025). Although the physiological heat strain among nurses using PPE was limited, substantial perceptual heat strain was experienced. A 21°C phase change material cooling vest can successfully alleviate the perceptual heat strain encountered by nurses wearing PPE.

5.
J Clin Med ; 11(4)2022 Feb 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700148

ABSTRACT

Many patients with COVID-19 experience severe and even fatal disease. Survivors may have long-term health consequences, but data on physical activity and sedentary behaviour are scarce. Therefore, we objectively assessed physical activity (PA) patterns among post-hospitalised patients with COVID-19 and explored associations with patient characteristics, disease severity and cardiac dysfunction. We objectively assessed PA, sedentary behaviour and sleep duration for 24 h/day during 8 days at 3-6 months after COVID-19 hospitalisation. PA and sedentary time were compared across pre-defined subgroups based on patient and disease characteristics, cardiac biomarker release during hospitalisation, abnormal transthoracic echocardiogram at 3-6 months post-hospitalisation and persistence of symptoms post-discharge. PA and sedentary behaviour were assessed in 37 patients (60 ± 10 years old; 78% male). Patients spent 4.2 [3.2; 5.3] h/day light-intensity PA and 1.0 [0.8; 1.4] h/day moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA. Time spent sitting was 9.8 [8.7; 11.2] h/day, which was accumulated in 6 [5; 7] prolonged sitting bouts (≥30 min) and 41 [32; 48] short sitting bouts (<30 min). No differences in PA and sedentary behaviour were found across subgroups, but sleep duration was higher in patients with versus without persistent symptoms (9.1 vs. 8.3 h/day, p = 0.02). Taken together, high levels of sedentary time are common at 3-6 months after COVID-19 hospitalisation, whilst PA and sedentary behaviour are not impacted by patient or disease characteristics.

6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(3)2022 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686762

ABSTRACT

The combination of an exacerbated workload and impermeable nature of the personal protective equipment (PPE) worn by COVID-19 healthcare workers increases heat strain. We aimed to compare the prevalence of heat strain symptoms before (routine care without PPE) versus during the COVID-19 pandemic (COVID-19 care with PPE), identify risk factors associated with experiencing heat strain, and evaluate the access to and use of heat mitigation strategies. Dutch healthcare workers (n = 791) working at COVID-19 wards for ≥1 week, completed an online questionnaire to assess personal characteristics, heat strain symptoms before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, and the access to and use of heat mitigation strategies. Healthcare workers experienced ~25× more often heat strain symptoms during medical duties with PPE (93% of healthcare workers) compared to without PPE (30% of healthcare workers; OR = 25.57 (95% CI = 18.17-35.98)). Female healthcare workers and those with an age <40 years were most affected by heat strain, whereas exposure time and sports activity level were not significantly associated with heat strain prevalence. Cold drinks and ice slurry ingestion were the most frequently used heat mitigation strategies and were available in 63.5% and 30.1% of participants, respectively. Our findings indicate that heat strain is a major challenge for COVID-19 healthcare workers, and heat mitigations strategies are often used to counteract heat strain.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Personal Protective Equipment , Adult , Female , Health Personnel , Hot Temperature , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
7.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 147, 2022 01 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643142

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Identification of characteristics of individuals that are related to decreases in physical activity (PA) levels during lockdown is needed to develop targeted-interventions. This study aims to evaluate changes in domain-specific (i.e. leisure time, transportation, occupational, and household) and total PA due to the Dutch COVID-19 lockdown, which started on March 15 2020. Furthermore, we aim to identify demographic, health-related, and psychological correlates of these changes. METHODS: Individuals who participated in the Nijmegen Exercise Study during 2017-2019 were invited to this study, which was conducted between April 16 and May 12 2020. Participant characteristics (i.e. age, sex, body mass index (BMI), marital status, education, household composition, and occupation status), living environment (i.e. housing type and degree of urbanization), psychological characteristics (i.e. resilience, outcome expectations, vitality, and mental health), and medical history were collected via an online questionnaire. Short Questionnaire to Assess Health-enhancing physical activity was used to assess PA behavior before and during lockdown. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare PA levels, in metabolic equivalent of task (MET)-minutes per week (min/wk), before and during lockdown. Multivariable linear regression analyses were performed to examine correlates of PA changes. RESULTS: 4033 participants (57% male; 59 ± 13 years) were included. PA decreased significantly during lockdown with mean ± SD changes of 393 ± 2735 MET-min/wk for total, 133 ± 785 MET-min/wk for transportation, 137 ± 1469 MET-min/wk for occupation, and 136 ± 1942 MET-min/wk for leisure time PA. Household PA did not change significantly. Unemployment, COVID-19-related occupational changes, higher BMI, and living in an apartment or semi-detached/terraced house were significantly related to larger decreases in total and domain-specific PA. Higher vitality was related to smaller decreases in total and domain-specific PA. Higher age was significantly associated with a larger decrease in leisure time PA. Lower education was associated with smaller decreases in transportation and occupational PA compared to higher education. CONCLUSION: PA levels significantly reduced during lockdown compared to before lockdown. Declines were observed during transportation and occupation, but were not compensated by an increase in leisure time PA. We identified subgroups that were more susceptible to reductions in domain-specific or total PA levels and should therefore be encouraged to increase their PA levels during lockdown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Communicable Disease Control , Exercise , Female , Humans , Male , Policy , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(22)2021 11 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512360

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 lockdown has been associated with physical inactivity. We prospectively evaluated changes in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary time (ST) among 1565 cardiovascular disease (CVD) patients using validated questionnaires at 5 weeks after lockdown initiation (i.e., baseline, April 2020) and at every 4 subsequent weeks, until July 2020. Multivariate mixed model analyses were performed to identify whether age, sex, CVD-subtype, lockdown adherence and mental health factors impacted changes in physical (in)activity. Patients were 67 (interquartile range: 60-73) years and primarily diagnosed with coronary artery disease. Time spent in MVPA was 143 min/day (95% confidence interval (CI) 137; 148) at baseline. Female sex, heart-failure, fear of COVID-19 infection and limited possibilities for physical activity were independently associated with lower levels of MVPA across time. After adjusting for confounders, overall MVPA did not change. ST was 567 (95% CI 555; 578) min/day at baseline. Lack of social contact, limited possibilities for physical activity and younger age were independently associated with higher levels of ST. After adjusting for confounders, ST progressively increased following 8 (Δ+19.7 (95% CI 0.4; 39.0)) and 12 weeks (Δ+25.2 (95% CI 5.4; 47.1) min/day) of lockdown. Despite a phased relaxation of the lockdown, CVD patients progressively increased ST and reported no change in MVPA. This highlights the need to target physical inactivity during and beyond the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Accelerometry , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Exercise , Female , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sedentary Behavior
10.
Temperature (Austin) ; 9(1): 103-113, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-990478

ABSTRACT

Cooling vests alleviate heat strain. We quantified the perceptual and physiological heat strain and assessed the effects of wearing a 21°C phase change material cooling vest on these measures during work shifts of COVID-19 nurses wearing personal protective equipment (PPE). Seventeen nurses were monitored on two working days, consisting of a control (PPE only) and a cooling vest day (PPE + cooling vest). Sub-PPE air temperature, gastrointestinal temperature (Tgi), and heart rate (HR) were measured continuously. Thermal comfort (2 [1-4] versus 1 [1-2], pcondtition < 0.001) and thermal sensation (5 [4-7] versus 4 [2-7], pcondition < 0.001) improved in the cooling vest versus control condition. Only 18% of nurses reported thermal discomfort and 36% a (slightly) warm thermal sensation in the cooling vest condition versus 81% and 94% in the control condition (OR (95%CI) 0.05 (0.01-0.29) and 0.04 (<0.01-0.35), respectively). Accordingly, perceptual strain index was lower in the cooling vest versus control condition (5.7 ± 1.5 versus 4.3 ± 1.7, pcondition < 0.001, respectively). No differences were observed for the physiological heat strain index Tgi and rating of perceived exertion across conditions. Average HR was slightly lower in the cooling vest versus the control condition (85 ± 12 versus 87 ± 11, pcondition = 0.025). Although the physiological heat strain among nurses using PPE was limited, substantial perceptual heat strain was experienced. A 21°C phase change material cooling vest can successfully alleviate the perceptual heat strain encountered by nurses wearing PPE.

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