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Public Health Rep ; 137(3): 564-572, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704879


OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a devastating impact on older adults residing in skilled nursing facilities. This study examined the pathways through which community and facility factors may have affected COVID-19 cases and deaths in skilled nursing facilities. METHODS: We used structural equation modeling to examine the number of COVID-19 cases and deaths in skilled nursing facilities in Cook County, Illinois, from January 1 through September 30, 2020. We used data from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, the Illinois Department of Public Health, and the Cook County Medical Examiner's Office to determine the number of resident COVID-19 cases and deaths, number of staff cases, facility-level characteristics, and community-level factors. RESULTS: Poorer facility quality ratings and higher numbers of staff COVID-19 cases were associated with increased numbers of resident COVID-19 cases and deaths. For-profit ownership was associated with larger facilities and higher resident-to-staff ratios, which increased the number of staff COVID-19 cases. Furthermore, skilled nursing facilities with a greater percentage of White residents were in areas with lower levels of social vulnerability and were less likely to be for-profit and, thus, were associated with higher quality. CONCLUSIONS: For-profit ownership was associated with lower facility quality ratings and increases in the number of staff COVID-19 cases, leading to increased resident COVID-19 cases and deaths. Establishing enforceable regulations to ensure quality standards in for-profit skilled nursing facilities is critical to prevent future outbreaks and reduce health disparities in facilities serving racial and ethnic minority populations.

COVID-19 , Skilled Nursing Facilities , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Ethnicity , Humans , Illinois/epidemiology , Medicare , Minority Groups , Pandemics , United States/epidemiology
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(22)2021 11 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512344


Active transportation (AT) is widely viewed as an important target for increasing participation in aerobic physical activity and improving health, while simultaneously addressing pollution and climate change through reductions in motor vehicular emissions. In recent years, progress in increasing AT has stalled in some countries and, furthermore, the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has created new AT opportunities while also exposing the barriers and health inequities related to AT for some populations. This paper describes the results of the December 2019 Conference on Health and Active Transportation (CHAT) which brought together leaders from the transportation and health disciplines. Attendees charted a course for the future around three themes: Reflecting on Innovative Practices, Building Strategic Institutional Relationships, and Identifying Research Needs and Opportunities. This paper focuses on conclusions of the Research Needs and Opportunities theme. We present a conceptual model derived from the conference sessions that considers how economic and systems analysis, evaluation of emerging technologies and policies, efforts to address inclusivity, disparities and equity along with renewed attention to messaging and communication could contribute to overcoming barriers to development and use of AT infrastructure. Specific research gaps concerning these themes are presented. We further discuss the relevance of these themes considering the pandemic. Renewed efforts at research, dissemination and implementation are needed to achieve the potential health and environmental benefits of AT and to preserve positive changes associated with the pandemic while mitigating negative ones.

COVID-19 , Exercise , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Transportation