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Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(8)2022 Jul 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1969528


INTRODUCTION: Since the development of COVID-19 vaccines, more than 4.8 billion people have been immunized worldwide. Soon after vaccinations were initiated, reports on cases of myocarditis following the second vaccine dose emerged. This study aimed to report our experience with adolescent and young adults who developed post-COVID-19 vaccine myocarditis and to compare these patients to a cohort of patients who acquired pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome (PIMS/PIMS-TS) post-COVID-19 infection. METHODS: We collected reported cases of patients who developed myocarditis following COVID-19 vaccination (Pfizer mRNA BNT162b2) from all pediatric rheumatology centers in Israel and compared them to a cohort of patients with PIMS. RESULTS: Nine patients with post-vaccination myocarditis were identified and compared to 78 patients diagnosed with PIMS. All patients with post-vaccination myocarditis were males who developed symptoms following their second dose of the vaccine. Patients with post-vaccination myocarditis had a shorter duration of stay in the hospital (mean 4.4 ± 1.9 vs. 8.7 ± 4.7 days) and less myocardial dysfunction (11.1% vs. 61.5%), and all had excellent outcomes as compared to the chronic changes among 9.2% of the patients with PIMS. CONCLUSION: The clinical course of vaccine-associated myocarditis appears favorable, with resolution of the symptoms in all the patients in our cohort.

Front Immunol ; 13: 841126, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775675


The antibody profile against autoantigens previously associated with autoimmune diseases and other human proteins in patients with COVID-19 or multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) remains poorly defined. Here we show that 30% of adults with COVID-19 had autoantibodies against the lung antigen KCNRG, and 34% had antibodies to the SLE-associated Smith-D3 protein. Children with COVID-19 rarely had autoantibodies; one of 59 children had GAD65 autoantibodies associated with acute onset of insulin-dependent diabetes. While autoantibodies associated with SLE/Sjögren's syndrome (Ro52, Ro60, and La) and/or autoimmune gastritis (gastric ATPase) were detected in 74% (40/54) of MIS-C patients, further analysis of these patients and of children with Kawasaki disease (KD), showed that the administration of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) was largely responsible for detection of these autoantibodies in both groups of patients. Monitoring in vivo decay of the autoantibodies in MIS-C children showed that the IVIG-derived Ro52, Ro60, and La autoantibodies declined to undetectable levels by 45-60 days, but gastric ATPase autoantibodies declined more slowly requiring >100 days until undetectable. Further testing of IgG and/or IgA antibodies against a subset of potential targets identified by published autoantigen array studies of MIS-C failed to detect autoantibodies against most (16/18) of these proteins in patients with MIS-C who had not received IVIG. However, Troponin C2 and KLHL12 autoantibodies were detected in 2 of 20 and 1 of 20 patients with MIS-C, respectively. Overall, these results suggest that IVIG therapy may be a confounding factor in autoantibody measurements in MIS-C and that antibodies against antigens associated with autoimmune diseases or other human proteins are uncommon in MIS-C.

Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing , Adenosine Triphosphatases , Adult , Autoantibodies , Autoantigens , Autoimmunity , COVID-19/complications , Child , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous , Ribonucleoproteins , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
Nat Med ; 28(5): 1050-1062, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701612


Pediatric Coronavirus Disease 2019 (pCOVID-19) is rarely severe; however, a minority of children infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) might develop multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), with substantial morbidity. In this longitudinal multi-institutional study, we applied multi-omics (analysis of soluble biomarkers, proteomics, single-cell gene expression and immune repertoire analysis) to profile children with COVID-19 (n = 110) and MIS-C (n = 76), along with pediatric healthy controls (pHCs; n = 76). pCOVID-19 was characterized by robust type I interferon (IFN) responses, whereas prominent type II IFN-dependent and NF-κB-dependent signatures, matrisome activation and increased levels of circulating spike protein were detected in MIS-C, with no correlation with SARS-CoV-2 PCR status around the time of admission. Transient expansion of TRBV11-2 T cell clonotypes in MIS-C was associated with signatures of inflammation and T cell activation. The association of MIS-C with the combination of HLA A*02, B*35 and C*04 alleles suggests genetic susceptibility. MIS-C B cells showed higher mutation load than pCOVID-19 and pHC. These results identify distinct immunopathological signatures in pCOVID-19 and MIS-C that might help better define the pathophysiology of these disorders and guide therapy.

COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/genetics , Child , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/genetics , T-Lymphocytes