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Emerg Microbes Infect ; 12(1): 2220577, 2023 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235192


SARS-CoV-2 has demonstrated the ability to infect a wide range of animal species. Here, we investigated SARS-CoV-2 infection in livestock species in Oman and provided serological evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in cattle, sheep, goats, and dromedary camel using the surrogate virus neutralization and plaque reduction neutralization tests. To better understand the extent of SARS-CoV-2 infection in animals and associated risks, "One Health" epidemiological investigations targeting animals exposed to COVID-19 human cases should be implemented with integrated data analysis of the epidemiologically linked human and animal cases.

COVID-19 , Cattle , Humans , Animals , Sheep , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Oman/epidemiology , Camelus , SARS-CoV-2 , Data Analysis , Goats
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 12(1): e2164218, 2023 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2187798


Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is enzootic in dromedary camels and causes zoonotic infection and disease in humans. Although over 80% of the global population of infected dromedary camels are found in Africa, zoonotic disease had only been reported in the Arabia Peninsula and travel-associated disease has been reported elsewhere. In this study, genetic diversity and molecular epidemiology of MERS-CoV in dromedary camels in Ethiopia were investigated during 2017-2020. Of 1766 nasal swab samples collected, 61 (3.5%) were detected positive for MERS-CoV RNA. Of 484 turbinate swab samples collected, 10 (2.1%) were detected positive for MERS-CoV RNA. Twenty-five whole genome sequences were obtained from these MERS-CoV positive samples. Phylogenetically, these Ethiopian camel-originated MERS-CoV belonged to clade C2, clustering with other East African camel strains. Virus sequences from camel herds clustered geographically while in an abattoir, two distinct phylogenetic clusters of MERS-CoVs were observed in two sequential sampling collections, which indicates the greater genetic diversity of MERS-CoV in abattoirs. In contrast to clade A and B viruses from the Arabian Peninsula, clade C camel-originated MERS-CoV from Ethiopia had various nucleotide insertions and deletions in non-structural gene nsp3, accessory genes ORF3 and ORF5 and structural gene N. This study demonstrates the genetic instability of MERS-CoV in dromedaries in East Africa, which indicates that the virus is still actively adapting to its camel host. The impact of the observed nucleotide insertions and deletions on virus evolution, viral fitness, and zoonotic potential deserves further study.

Coronavirus Infections , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Animals , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Camelus , Phylogeny , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Molecular Epidemiology , Travel , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Genetic Variation , RNA
Heliyon ; 7(10): e08166, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1519728


To generate baseline information to help better understand the antibody kinetics and nasal shedding dynamics of MERS-CoV in camels in Jordan, a longitudinal surveillance study was conducted in two phases; phase 1 was between December, 2018 and January, 2019 and phase 2 between August and December 2020. In each phase, two camel herds were studied. These herds were located in Al-azraq and in Al-ramtha area and were named Al-azraq and Al-ramtha herds, respectively. The same camel herd of Al-zarqa area was sampled in both phases while two different camel herds, one in each phase, were sampled in Al-ramtha area. Blood and nasal swabs were collected from same selected animals in all visits to each herd in both phases. Additionally, nasal swabs and retropharyngeal lymph node tissue samples were collected from sixty-one camels slaughtered at Al-ramtha abattoir during phase 2 to enhance virus isolation opportunities and phylogenetic analysis. All sampled animals from Al-azraq camel herd were either borderline or seropositive on spike 1 based ELISA assay and negative on quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in both phases. In Al-ramtha camel herds, an unsteady pattern prevailed in animals' seropositivity in both phases and viral RNA was detected in all animals in the end of phase 1 and in one animal during phase 2. For the seroconversion, anti-MERS-CoV spike 1 antibodies were detected in two animals in phase 1 in the first collection only. While, in phase 2, intermittent seroconversion pattern was observed in several samples over time of collections that ended with all animals became seropositive in the last collection (after nineteen days from viral RNA detection). In addition, viral RNA was detected in nasal swabs of 3 slaughtered camels. Phylogenetic analysis of a partial fragment of spike 1 gene sequences of all MERS-CoV isolates clustered together with clade B of MERS-CoV. This cluster contains all MERS-CoV sequences obtained either from camels or human sources in the Arabian Peninsula indicating the continuous circulation of this clade also in Jordan.