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1.
J King Saud Univ Sci ; 34(4): 101965, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739961

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The COVID-19 was identified for the first time from the sea food market, Wuhan city, China in 2019 and the pathogenic organism was identified as SARS-CoV-2. Currently, this virus has spread to 223 countries and territories and known as a serious issue for the global human community. Many vaccines have been developed and used for immunization. Methods: We have reported the insilico prediction, designing, secondary structure prediction, molecular docking analysis, and in vitro assessment of siRNAs against SARS-CoV-2. The online bioinformatic approach was used for siRNAs selection and designing. The selected siRNAs were evaluated for antiviral efficacy by using Lipofectamine 2000 as delivery agent to HEK-293 cells. The MTT assay was used for cytotoxicity determination. The antiviral efficacy of potential siRNAs was determined based on the Ct value of q-RT-PCR and the data analysis was done by Prism-GraphPad software. Results: The analyzed data resulted in the selection of only three siRNAs out of twenty-six siRNAs generated by online software. The secondary structure prediction and molecular docking analysis of siRNAs revealed the efficient binding to the target. There was no cellular toxicity observed in the HEK-293 cells at any tested concentrations of siRNAs. The purification of RNA was completed from inoculated cells and subjected to q-RT-PCR. The highest Ct value was observed in siRNA 3 than the others. The results offered valuable evidence and invigorated us to assess the potency of siRNAs by using alone or in combination in other human cells. Conclusion: The data generated from this study indicates the significance of in silico prediction and narrow down the potential siRNA' against SARS-CoV-2, and molecular docking investigation offered the effective siRNAs binding with the target. Finally, it is concluded that the online bioinformatics approach provided the prediction and selection of siRNAs with better antiviral efficacy. The siRNA-3 was observed to be the best for reduction of viral RNA in cells.

2.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1122257

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus, continues to be a global threat. The number of cases and deaths will remain escalating due to the lack of effective therapeutic agents. Several studies have established the importance of the viral main protease (Mpro) in the replication of SARS-CoV-2 which makes it an attractive target for antiviral drug development, including pharmaceutical repurposing and other medicinal chemistry approaches. Identification of natural products with considerable inhibitory potential against SARS-CoV-2 could be beneficial as a rapid and potent alternative with drug-likeness by comparison to de novo antiviral drug discovery approaches. Thereof, we carried out the structure-based screening of natural products from Echinacea-angustifolia, commonly used to prevent cold and other microbial respiratory infections, targeting SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. Four natural products namely, Echinacoside, Quercetagetin 7-glucoside, Levan N, Inulin from chicory, and 1,3-Dicaffeoylquinic acid, revealed significant docking energy (>-10 kcal/mol) in the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro catalytic pocket via substantial intermolecular contacts formation against co-crystallized ligand (<-4 kcal/mol). Furthermore, the docked poses of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro with selected natural products showed conformational stability through molecular dynamics. Exploring the end-point net binding energy exhibited substantial contribution of Coulomb and van der Waals interactions to the stability of respective docked conformations. These results advocated the natural products from Echinacea angustifolia for further experimental studies with an elevated probability to discover the potent SARS-CoV-2 Mpro antagonist with higher affinity and drug-likeness.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Echinacea/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Binding Sites , Drug Discovery , Flavones/chemistry , Fructans/chemistry , Glycosides/chemistry , Inulin/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Protein Binding , Quinic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Quinic Acid/chemistry
3.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085037

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus, continues to be a global threat. The number of cases and deaths will remain escalating due to the lack of effective therapeutic agents. Several studies have established the importance of the viral main protease (Mpro) in the replication of SARS-CoV-2 which makes it an attractive target for antiviral drug development, including pharmaceutical repurposing and other medicinal chemistry approaches. Identification of natural products with considerable inhibitory potential against SARS-CoV-2 could be beneficial as a rapid and potent alternative with drug-likeness by comparison to de novo antiviral drug discovery approaches. Thereof, we carried out the structure-based screening of natural products from Echinacea-angustifolia, commonly used to prevent cold and other microbial respiratory infections, targeting SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. Four natural products namely, Echinacoside, Quercetagetin 7-glucoside, Levan N, Inulin from chicory, and 1,3-Dicaffeoylquinic acid, revealed significant docking energy (>-10 kcal/mol) in the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro catalytic pocket via substantial intermolecular contacts formation against co-crystallized ligand (<-4 kcal/mol). Furthermore, the docked poses of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro with selected natural products showed conformational stability through molecular dynamics. Exploring the end-point net binding energy exhibited substantial contribution of Coulomb and van der Waals interactions to the stability of respective docked conformations. These results advocated the natural products from Echinacea angustifolia for further experimental studies with an elevated probability to discover the potent SARS-CoV-2 Mpro antagonist with higher affinity and drug-likeness.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Echinacea/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Binding Sites , Drug Discovery , Flavones/chemistry , Fructans/chemistry , Glycosides/chemistry , Inulin/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Protein Binding , Quinic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Quinic Acid/chemistry
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