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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(10)2023 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235991

ABSTRACT

A new series of 4-((7-methoxyquinolin-4-yl) amino)-N-(substituted) benzenesulfonamide 3(a-s) was synthesized via the reaction of 4-chloro-7-methoxyquinoline 1 with various sulfa drugs. The structural elucidation was verified based on spectroscopic data analysis. All the target compounds were screened for their antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and unicellular fungi. The results revealed that compound 3l has the highest effect on most tested bacterial and unicellular fungal strains. The highest effect of compound 3l was observed against E. coli and C. albicans with MIC = 7.812 and 31.125 µg/mL, respectively. Compounds 3c and 3d showed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, but the activity was lower than that of 3l. The antibiofilm activity of compound 3l was measured against different pathogenic microbes isolated from the urinary tract. Compound 3l could achieve biofilm extension at its adhesion strength. After adding 10.0 µg/mL of compound 3l, the highest percentage was 94.60% for E. coli, 91.74% for P. aeruginosa, and 98.03% for C. neoformans. Moreover, in the protein leakage assay, the quantity of cellular protein discharged from E. coli was 180.25 µg/mL after treatment with 1.0 mg/mL of compound 3l, which explains the creation of holes in the cell membrane of E. coli and proves compound 3l's antibacterial and antibiofilm properties. Additionally, in silico ADME prediction analyses of compounds 3c, 3d, and 3l revealed promising results, indicating the presence of drug-like properties.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Urinary Tract Infections , Escherichia coli , Structure-Activity Relationship , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Sulfanilamide/pharmacology , Sulfonamides/pharmacology , Fungi , Biofilms
2.
RSC Adv ; 13(18): 12438-12454, 2023 Apr 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2294638

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is the largest global public health outbreak in the 21st century so far. It has contributed to a significant increase in the generation of waste, particularly personal protective equipment and hazardous medical, as it can contribute to environmental pollution and expose individuals to various hazards. To minimize the risk of infection, the entire surrounding environment should be disinfected or neutralized regularly. Effective medical waste management can add value by reducing the spread of COVID-19 and increasing the recyclability of materials instead of sending them to landfill. Developing an antiviral coating for the surface of objects frequently used by the public could be a practical solution to prevent the spread of virus particles and the inactivation of virus transmission. Relying on an abundance of engineered materials identifiable by their useful physicochemical properties through versatile chemical functionalization, nanotechnology offers a number of approaches to address this emergency. Here, through a multidisciplinary perspective encompassing various fields such as virology, biology, medicine, engineering, chemistry, materials science, and computer science, we describe how nanotechnology-based strategies can support the fight against COVID-19 well as infectious diseases in general, including future pandemics. In this review, the design of the antiviral coating to combat the spread of COVID-19 was discussed, and technological attempts to minimize the coronavirus outbreak were highlighted.

3.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(30): 40409-40415, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115884

ABSTRACT

In this editorial trend, we aim to collect and present recently available data about the characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 virus, severity, infection, replication, diagnosis, and current medications. In addition, we propose the role of nanomaterials in controlling and treating COVID-19 through their antiviral and antibacterial potential with suggested action mechanisms indicating the capability of interaction between these nanomaterials and SARS-CoV-2. These nanomaterials might be among the possible and most effective cures against coronavirus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanostructures , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Virol J ; 19(1): 167, 2022 10 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089214

ABSTRACT

The rise of the highly lethal severe acute respiratory syndrome-2 (SARS-2) as corona virus 2019 (COVID-19) reminded us of the history of other pandemics that happened in the last century (Spanish flu) and stayed in the current century, which include Severe-Acute-Respiratory-Syndrome (SARS), Middle-East-Respiratory-Syndrome (MERS), Corona Virus 2019 (COVID-19). We review in this report the newest findings and data on the origin of pandemic respiratory viral diseases, reservoirs, and transmission modes. We analyzed viral adaption needed for host switch and determinants of pathogenicity, causative factors of pandemic viruses, and symptoms and clinical manifestations. After that, we concluded the host factors associated with pandemics morbidity and mortality (immune responses and immunopathology, ages, and effect of pandemics on pregnancy). Additionally, we focused on the burdens of COVID-19, non-pharmaceutical interventions (quarantine, mass gatherings, facemasks, and hygiene), and medical interventions (antiviral therapies and vaccines). Finally, we investigated the nanotechnology between COVID-19 analysis and immune system boosting (Nanoparticles (NPs), antimicrobial NPs as antivirals and immune cytokines). This review presents insights about using nanomaterials to treat COVID-19, improve the bioavailability of the abused drugs, diminish their toxicity, and improve their performance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Pandemic, 1918-1919 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , History, 20th Century , Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Nanotechnology , Immune System , Cytokines
5.
J Inorg Organomet Polym Mater ; 32(11): 4270-4283, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1955987

ABSTRACT

Global food crisis due to climate change, pandemic COVID-19 outbreak, and Russia-Ukraine conflict leads to catastrophic consequences; almost 10 percent of the world's population go to bed hungry daily. Narrative solution for green agriculture with high vegetation and crop yield is mandatory; novel nanomaterials can improve plant immunity and restrain plant diseases. Iron is fundamental nutrient element; it plays vital role in enzyme activity and RNA synthesis; furthermore it is involved in photosynthesis electron-transfer chains. This study reports on the facile synthesis of colloidal ferric oxide nanoparticles as novel nano-fertilizer to promote vegetation and to suppress Fusarium wilt disease in tomato plant. Disease index, protection percent, photosynthetic pigments, and metabolic indicators of resistance in plant as response to induction of systemic resistance (SR) were recorded. Results illustrated that Fe2O3 NPs had antifungal activity against F. oxysporum. Fe2O3 NPs (at 20 µg/mL) was the best treatment and reduced percent disease indexes by 15.62 and gave highly protection against disease by 82.15% relative to untreated infected plants. Fe2O3 NPs treatments in either (non-infected or infected) plants showed improvements in photosynthetic pigments, osmolytes, and antioxidant enzymes activity. The beneficial effects of the synthesized Fe2O3 NPs were extended to increase not only photosynthetic pigments, osmolytes contents but also the activities of peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), enzymes of the healthy and infected tomato plants in comparison with control. For, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activities it was found that, application of Fe2O3 NPs (10 µg/mL) on challenged plants offered the best treatments which increased the activities of POD by (34.4%) and PPO by (31.24%). On the other hand, application of Fe2O3 NPs (20 µg/mL) on challenged plants offered the best treatments which increased the activities of CAT by (30.9%), and SOD by (31.33%). Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s10904-022-02442-6.

6.
Opt Quantum Electron ; 54(5): 322, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1826748

ABSTRACT

Oxygen saturation level plays a vital role in screening, diagnosis, and therapeutic assessment of disease's assortment. There is an urgent need to design and implement early detection devices and applications for the COVID-19 pandemic; this study reports on the development of customized, highly sensitive, non-invasive, non-contact diffused reflectance system coupled with hyperspectral imaging for mapping subcutaneous blood circulation depending on its oxygen saturation level. The forearm of 15 healthy adult male volunteers with age range of (20-38 years) were illuminated via a polychromatic light source of a spectrum range 400-980 nm. Each patient had been scanned five times to calculate the mean spectroscopic reflectance images using hyperspectral camera. The customized signal processing algorithm includes normalization and moving average filter for noise removal. Afterward, employing K-means clustering for image segmentation to assess the accuracy of blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) levels. The reliability of the developed diffused reflectance system was verified with the ground truth technique, a standard pulse oximeter. Non-invasive, non-contact diffused reflectance spectrum demonstrated maximum signal variation at 610 nm according to SpO2 level. Statistical analysis (mean, standard deviation) of diffused reflectance hyperspectral images at 610 nm offered precise calibrated measurements to the standard pulse oximeter. Diffused reflectance associated with hyperspectral imaging is a prospective technique to assist with phlebotomy and vascular approach. Additionally, it could permit future surgical or pharmacological intercessions that titrate or limit ischemic injury continuously. Furthermore, this technique could offer a fast reliable indication of SpO2 levels for COVID-19 diagnosis.

7.
Nanotechnology Reviews ; 11(1):1-25, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1551332

ABSTRACT

Since the beginning of the third Millennium, specifically during the last 18 years, three outbreaks of diseases have been recorded caused by coronaviruses (CoVs). The latest outbreak of these diseases was Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), which has been declared by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a pandemic. For this reason, current efforts of the environmental, epidemiology scientists, engineers, and water sector professionals are ongoing to detect CoV in environmental components, especially water, and assess the relative risk of exposure to these systems and any measures needed to protect the public health, workers, and public, in general. This review presents a brief overview of CoV in water, wastewater, and surface water based on a literature search providing different solutions to keep water protected from CoV. Membrane techniques are very attractive solutions for virus elimination in water. In addition, another essential solution is nanotechnology and its applications in the detection and protection of human and water systems.

8.
RSC Adv ; 11(43): 26463-26480, 2021 Aug 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1361652

ABSTRACT

Once the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the COVID-19 outbreak to be pandemic, massive efforts have been launched by researchers around the globe to combat this emerging infectious disease. Here we review the most recent data on the novel SARS-CoV-2 pathogen. We analyzed its etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, prevention, and current medications. After that, we summarized the promising drug delivery application of nanomaterial-based systems. Their preparation routes, unique advantages over the traditional drug delivery routes and their toxicity though risk analysis were also covered. We also discussed in detail the mechanism of action for one example of drug-loaded nanomaterial drug delivery systems (Avigan-contained nano-emulsions). This review provides insights about employing nanomaterial-based drug delivery systems for the treatment of COVID-19 to increase the bioavailability of current drugs, reducing their toxicity, and to increase their efficiency.

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