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1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-337785

ABSTRACT

Background: Media coverage of Lyme disease (LD) has led to an increase in consultations for presumed LD in Europe. However, LD is confirmed in only 10-20% of patients, with a significant number remaining in a diagnostic dead-end. Objectives: To reach a deeper understanding of how patients themselves contribute to the diagnostic process. To describe the genesis of the LD hypothesis in care pathways. Methods: In 2019, 30 patients from a prospective cohort consulting in the infectious diseases department at University Hospital in Marseille for presumed LD were recruited for semi-structured interviews. The inclusion criteria were : suffering from subjective symptoms for 6 months, no clinical or paraclinical argument suggesting current LD. The patients’medical trajectories were collected using a biographical approach. Results: The diagnosis of Lyme disease was primarily triggered by identification with personal testimonies found on the internet. Most of patients were leading the diagnostic investigation. Majority of participants were convinced they had LD despite the lack of medical evidence and the scepticism of their referring GP. Conclusion: GPs should first systematically explore patients’etiologic representations. We hypothesize that a patient-centered approach improves adherence to the diagnosis especially in the management of medically unexplained symptoms. Long COVID-19 syndrome challenge offers an opportunity to promote active patient involvement in diagnosis.

2.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 41(4): 515-545, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1680941

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Long COVID-19 may affect patients after hospital discharge. AIMS: This study aims to describe the burden of the long-term persistence of clinical symptoms in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review by using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guideline. The PubMed and Google Scholar databases were searched for studies that included information on the prevalence of somatic clinical symptoms lasting at least 4 weeks after the onset of a PCR- or serology-confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19. The prevalence of persisting clinical symptoms was assessed and risk factors were described when investigated. Psychological symptoms and cognitive disorders were not evaluated in this study. RESULTS: Thirty-seven articles met the inclusion criteria. Eighteen studies involved in-patients only with a duration of follow-up of either less than 12 weeks, 12 weeks to 6 months, or more. In these studies, fatigue (16-64%), dyspnea (15-61%), cough (2-59%), arthralgia (8-55%), and thoracic pain (5-62%) were the most frequent persisting symptoms. In nineteen studies conducted in a majority of out-patients, the persistence of these symptoms was lower and 3% to 74% of patients reported prolonged smell and taste disorders. The main risk factors for persisting symptoms were being female, older, having comorbidities and severity at the acute phase of the disease. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 patients should have access to dedicated multidisciplinary healthcare allowing a holistic approach. Effective outpatient care for patients with long-COVID-19 requires coordination across multiple sub-specialties, which can be proposed in specialized post-COVID units.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Medically Unexplained Symptoms , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Fatigue/epidemiology , Fatigue/etiology , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Clin Med ; 10(10)2021 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234758

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has provided an opportunity to use low- and non-radiating chest imaging techniques on a large scale in the context of an infectious disease, which has never been done before. Previously, low-dose techniques were rarely used for infectious diseases, despite the recognised danger of ionising radiation. METHOD: To evaluate the role of low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) and lung ultrasound (LUS) in managing COVID-19 pneumonia, we performed a review of the literature including our cases. RESULTS: Chest LDCT is now performed routinely when diagnosing and assessing the severity of COVID-19, allowing patients to be rapidly triaged. The extent of lung involvement assessed by LDCT is accurate in terms of predicting poor clinical outcomes in COVID-19-infected patients. Infectious disease specialists are less familiar with LUS, but this technique is also of great interest for a rapid diagnosis of patients with COVID-19 and is effective at assessing patient prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 is currently accelerating the transition to low-dose and "no-dose" imaging techniques to explore infectious pneumonia and their long-term consequences.

7.
Viruses ; 13(5)2021 05 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1227067

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal shedding contributes to the spread of the COVID-19 epidemic. Among 3271 COVID-19 patients treated at the Hospital University Institute Méditerranée Infection, Marseille, France from 3 March to 27 April 2020, tested at least twice by qRT-PCR, the median SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal shedding duration was 6 days (range 2-54 days). Compared with short shedders (qRT-PCR positivity < 10 days), 34 (1.04%) persistent shedders (qRT-PCR positivity ≥ 17 days; mean ± SD: 23.3 ± 3.8 days) were significantly older, with associated comorbidities, exhibiting lymphopenia, eosinopenia, increased D-dimer and increased troponin (p < 0.05), and were hospitalized in intensive care unit in 17.7% vs. 1.1% of cases (p < 0.0001). Viral culture was positive in six persistent shedders after day 10, including in one patient after day 17, and no viral co-pathogen was detected in 33 tested patients. Persistent shedders received azithromycin plus hydroxychloroquine ≥ 3 days in 26/34 (76.5%) patients, a figure significantly lower than in short shedders (86.6%) (p = 0.042). Accordingly, mortality was 14.7% vs. 0.5% (p < 0.0001). Persistent shedding was significantly associated with persistent dyspnea and anosmia/ageusia (p < 0.05). In the context of COVID-19 treatment, including treatment with azithromycin plus hydroxychloroquine, the persistence of SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal shedding was a rare event, most frequently encountered in elderly patients with comorbidities and lacking azithromycin plus hydroxychloroquine treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Virus Shedding/drug effects , Adult , Aged , Azithromycin/metabolism , Azithromycin/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Comorbidity , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , France/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
9.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 35: 101738, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-398900

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In France, the combination hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and azithromycin (AZ) is used in the treatment of COVID-19. METHODS: We retrospectively report on 1061 SARS-CoV-2 positive tested patients treated for at least three days with the following regimen: HCQ (200 mg three times daily for ten days) + AZ (500 mg on day 1 followed by 250 mg daily for the next four days). Outcomes were death, clinical worsening (transfer to ICU, and >10 day hospitalization) and viral shedding persistence (>10 days). RESULTS: A total of 1061 patients were included in this analysis (46.4% male, mean age 43.6 years - range 14-95 years). Good clinical outcome and virological cure were obtained in 973 patients within 10 days (91.7%). Prolonged viral carriage was observed in 47 patients (4.4%) and was associated to a higher viral load at diagnosis (p < .001) but viral culture was negative at day 10. All but one, were PCR-cleared at day 15. A poor clinical outcome (PClinO) was observed for 46 patients (4.3%) and 8 died (0.75%) (74-95 years old). All deaths resulted from respiratory failure and not from cardiac toxicity. Five patients are still hospitalized (98.7% of patients cured so far). PClinO was associated with older age (OR 1.11), severity of illness at admission (OR 10.05) and low HCQ serum concentration. PClinO was independently associated with the use of selective beta-blocking agents and angiotensin II receptor blockers (p < .05). A total of 2.3% of patients reported mild adverse events (gastrointestinal or skin symptoms, headache, insomnia and transient blurred vision). CONCLUSION: Administration of the HCQ+AZ combination before COVID-19 complications occur is safe and associated with a very low fatality rate in patients.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Azithromycin/administration & dosage , Azithromycin/adverse effects , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Follow-Up Studies , France , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Viral Load , Young Adult
10.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 34: 101663, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-47331

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We need an effective treatment to cure COVID-19 patients and to decrease virus carriage duration. METHODS: We conducted an uncontrolled, non-comparative, observational study in a cohort of 80 relatively mildly infected inpatients treated with a combination of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin over a period of at least three days, with three main measurements: clinical outcome, contagiousness as assessed by PCR and culture, and length of stay in infectious disease unit (IDU). RESULTS: All patients improved clinically except one 86 year-old patient who died, and one 74 year-old patient still in intensive care. A rapid fall of nasopharyngeal viral load was noted, with 83% negative at Day7, and 93% at Day8. Virus cultures from patient respiratory samples were negative in 97.5% of patients at Day5. Consequently patients were able to be rapidly discharged from IDU with a mean length of stay of five days. CONCLUSION: We believe there is urgency to evaluate the effectiveness of this potentially-life saving therapeutic strategy at a larger scale, both to treat and cure patients at an early stage before irreversible severe respiratory complications take hold and to decrease duration of carriage and avoid the spread of the disease. Furthermore, the cost of treatment is negligible.


Subject(s)
Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , COVID-19 , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , France , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Pandemics , Pilot Projects , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load , Young Adult
11.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 36: 101632, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-14125

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rapid virological diagnosis is needed to limit the length of isolation for suspected COVID-19 cases. METHOD: We managed the first 280 patients suspected to have COVID-19 through a rapid care circuit and virological diagnosis in our infectious disease reference hospital in Marseille, France. Rapid viral detection was performed on sputum and nasopharyngeal samples. RESULTS: Over our study period, no SARS-CoV-2 was detected. Results were obtained within approximately 3 h of the arrival of patient samples at the laboratory. Other viral infections were identified in 49% of the patients, with most common pathogens being influenza A and B viruses, rhinovirus, metapneumovirus and common coronaviruses, notably HKU1 and NL63. CONCLUSION: Early recognition of COVID-19 is critical to isolate confirmed cases and prevent further transmission. Early rule-out of COVID-19 allows public health containment measures to be adjusted by reducing the time spent in isolation.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Referral and Consultation , SARS-CoV-2 , Sputum/virology , Young Adult
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