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1.
researchsquare; 2022.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-1399172.v3

ABSTRACT

Background: Since the first case of COVID-19 in Sudan was reported in March 2020, the Federal Ministry of Health adopted an active surveillance system to collect and analyze information from the isolation centers and public and private laboratories about all suspected and confirmed COVID-19 cases. This study used the surveillance data to better understand the distribution and determinants of COVID-19 in Sudan and to construct a threshold level beyond which the dramatic surge may occur. Methods: Data of suspected and confirmed COVID-19 cases were extracted from the line list prepared by the Surveillance and Information Department at the Federal Ministry of Health after obtaining ethical approval from the National Ethics Committee. Data were cleaned, coded, and analyzed using SPSS version 21. Frequencies and proportions were used to describe data. A univariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the association of variables with the positivity of COVID-19. Variables with p-values < 0.05 in the univariate logistic analyses were included in multivariable logistic regression to determine the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence interval (CI). A two-sided α of less than 0.05 (p < 0.05) was considered statistically significant.Results: Out of 48,545 suspected cases, 27,453 were positive. Four waves were seen, with a distinct explosion point of around 200 cases observed nationwide. Khartoum reported the highest number of cases. Of those tested positive, 16,444 (59.9%) were male and 11,009 (40.1%) were female. The mean (SD) age of cases was 41.1 (19.0) years with 21.6% of cases above 60 years. 14,780 (53.8%) of cases were asymptomatic. Fever, cough, shortness of breath, and loss of smell and taste were reported in 32.7%, 26.4%, 19.1 and 4.5% of confirmed cases, respectively. A total of 1,793 confirmed cases died; the case fatality rate was 6.5%. A considerable proportion of infection was reported among health workers. A univariate logistic regression analysis revealed that being symptomatic is significantly associated with testing negative for COVID-19 (odds ratio < 1). Conclusions: COVID-19 was widely spread in Sudan with more cases in Khartoum, the capital of Sudan. The country experienced four waves with an observable epidemic explosion point of around 200 positive cases per week nationwide. Around half of the patients were asymptomatic; however, fever, cough, and shortness of breath were the commonest symptoms. The CFR all through was 6.5%, with death having a strong association with age. Further studies are recommended to clarify the image, especially among health workers. The study also highlighted the need to improve the quality of surveillance data.

2.
Trop Med Health ; 49(1): 91, 2021 Nov 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518305

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic caused by a newly discovered coronavirus. Although clinical manifestations of COVID-19 are mainly pulmonary, some patients have other systemic manifestations. This study aimed to describe the clinical finding and outcomes in Sudanese patients diagnosed with COVID-19. METHODS: This retrospective observational study is based on documented files that included patients diagnosed with COVID-19 in seven selected hospitals inside Khartoum. Clinical manifestations, complications and outcomes were extracted from patients' records using an extraction form designed for this study. RESULTS: Data of 243 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 were analyzed. The mean (SD) age in years was 55.8 (18.4). Out of 116 participants, 27 of them (23.3%) had severe disease, 15 (12.9%) were critically ill. 67.5% of patients were admitted to the hospital within 7 days from onset of symptoms; most of them were admitted to the wards (n = 140,72.5%). Fever (83.2%), cough (70.7%), and shortness of breath (69.2%) were the most commonly recorded clinical manifestations. Sepsis (9.8%) and acidosis (7.8%) were the most frequently reported complications. Death was the final outcome in 21.4% (56/243). Older age and presence of diabetes were found significantly associated with in-hospital death. The laboratory results showed high CRP in 85.6% (119/139), high ferritin in 88.9% (24/27), lactate dehydrogenase had a median of 409.0 (359-760), D-dimer had a median of 3.3 (1.2-16. 6), and 53/105 (50.5%) had low albumin. CONCLUSIONS: Fever was the most mentioned sign among the participants, followed by fatigue. Cough and shortness of breath were the most commonly recorded pulmonary symptoms manifested. Our study showed multiple variables were associated with in-hospital death. The mortality rate was high among severe and critically ill patients diagnosed with COVID-19.

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