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1.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 3716, 2022 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1984382

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic triggered the development of numerous diagnostic tools to monitor infection and to determine immune response. Although assays to measure binding antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 are widely available, more specific tests measuring neutralization activities of antibodies are immediately needed to quantify the extent and duration of protection that results from infection or vaccination. We previously developed a 'Serological Assay based on a Tri-part split-NanoLuc® (SATiN)' to detect antibodies that bind to the spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2. Here, we expand on our previous work and describe a reconfigured version of the SATiN assay, called Neutralization SATiN (Neu-SATiN), which measures neutralization activity of antibodies directly from convalescent or vaccinated sera. The results obtained with our assay and other neutralization assays are comparable but with significantly shorter preparation and run time for Neu-SATiN. As the assay is modular, we further demonstrate that Neu-SATiN enables rapid assessment of the effectiveness of vaccines and level of protection against existing SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern and can therefore be readily adapted for emerging variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Luciferases , Membrane Glycoproteins/metabolism , Neutralization Tests , Pandemics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Viral Envelope Proteins
2.
J Appl Lab Med ; 7(3): 698-710, 2022 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1831206

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Numerous serology assays are available for detection of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies but are limited in that only 1 or 2 target antigen(s) can be tested at a time. Here, we describe a novel multiplex assay that simultaneously detects and quantifies IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 antigens, spike (S), nucleocapsid (N), receptor-binding domain (RBD), and N-terminal domain (NTD) in a single well. METHODS: Sensitivity was determined using samples (n = 124) from confirmed SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR positive individuals. Prepandemic (n = 100) and non-COVID respiratory infection positive samples (n = 100) were used to evaluate specificity. Samples were analyzed using COVID-19 IgG multiplex serology assay from Meso Scale Discovery (MSD) and using commercial platforms from Abbott, EUROIMMUN, and Siemens. RESULTS: At >14 days post-PCR, MSD assay displayed >98.0% sensitivity [S 100% (95% CI 98.0%-100.0%); N 98.0% (95% CI 97.2%-98.9%); RBD 94.1% (95% CI 92.6%-95.6%); NTD 98.0% (95% CI, 97.2%-98.9%)] and 99% specificity (95% CI 99.3%-99.7%) for antibodies to all 4 antigens. Parallel assessment of antibodies to more than 1 antigen improved the sensitivity to 100% (95% CI 98.0%-100.0%) while maintaining 98% (95% CI 97.6%-98.4%) specificity regardless of the combinations used. When AU/mL concentrations of IgG antibodies from the MSD assay were compared against the corresponding IgG signals acquired from the single target commercial assays, the following correlations were observed: Abbott (vs MSD N, R2 = 0.73), Siemens (vs MSD RBD, R2 = 0.92), and EUROIMMUN (vs MSD S, R2 = 0.82). CONCLUSION: MSD assay offers an accurate and a comprehensive assessment of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies with higher sensitivity and equivalent specificity compared to the commercial IgG serology assays.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Sensitivity and Specificity
3.
J Appl Lab Med ; 7(3): 698-710, 2022 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506496

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Numerous serology assays are available for detection of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies but are limited in that only 1 or 2 target antigen(s) can be tested at a time. Here, we describe a novel multiplex assay that simultaneously detects and quantifies IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 antigens, spike (S), nucleocapsid (N), receptor-binding domain (RBD), and N-terminal domain (NTD) in a single well. METHODS: Sensitivity was determined using samples (n = 124) from confirmed SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR positive individuals. Prepandemic (n = 100) and non-COVID respiratory infection positive samples (n = 100) were used to evaluate specificity. Samples were analyzed using COVID-19 IgG multiplex serology assay from Meso Scale Discovery (MSD) and using commercial platforms from Abbott, EUROIMMUN, and Siemens. RESULTS: At >14 days post-PCR, MSD assay displayed >98.0% sensitivity [S 100% (95% CI 98.0%-100.0%); N 98.0% (95% CI 97.2%-98.9%); RBD 94.1% (95% CI 92.6%-95.6%); NTD 98.0% (95% CI, 97.2%-98.9%)] and 99% specificity (95% CI 99.3%-99.7%) for antibodies to all 4 antigens. Parallel assessment of antibodies to more than 1 antigen improved the sensitivity to 100% (95% CI 98.0%-100.0%) while maintaining 98% (95% CI 97.6%-98.4%) specificity regardless of the combinations used. When AU/mL concentrations of IgG antibodies from the MSD assay were compared against the corresponding IgG signals acquired from the single target commercial assays, the following correlations were observed: Abbott (vs MSD N, R2 = 0.73), Siemens (vs MSD RBD, R2 = 0.92), and EUROIMMUN (vs MSD S, R2 = 0.82). CONCLUSION: MSD assay offers an accurate and a comprehensive assessment of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies with higher sensitivity and equivalent specificity compared to the commercial IgG serology assays.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Sensitivity and Specificity
4.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 145(10): 1212-1220, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444461

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT.­: Emerging evidence shows correlation between the presence of neutralization antibodies (nAbs) and protective immunity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Currently available commercial serology assays lack the ability to specifically identify nAbs. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based nAb assay (GenScript cPass neutralization antibody assay) has recently received emergency use authorization from the Food and Drug Administration. OBJECTIVE.­: To evaluate the performance characteristics of this assay and compare and correlate it with the commercial assays that detect SARS-CoV-2-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG). DESIGN.­: Specimens from SARS-COV-2 infected patients (n = 124), healthy donors obtained prepandemic (n = 100), and patients with non-coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) respiratory infections (n = 92) were analyzed using this assay. Samples with residual volume were also tested on 3 commercial serology platforms (Abbott, Euroimmun, Siemens). Twenty-eight randomly selected specimens from patients with COVID-19 and 10 healthy controls were subjected to a plaque reduction neutralization test. RESULTS.­: The cPass assay exhibited 96.1% (95% CI, 94.9%-97.3%) sensitivity (at >14 days post-positive PCR), 100% (95% CI, 98.0%-100.0%) specificity, and zero cross-reactivity for the presence of non-COVID-19 respiratory infections. When compared with the plaque reduction assay, 97.4% (95% CI, 96.2%-98.5%) qualitative agreement and a positive correlation (R2 = 0.76) was observed. Comparison of IgG signals from each of the commercial assays with the nAb results from plaque reduction neutralization test/cPass assays displayed greater than 94.7% qualitative agreement and correlations with R2 = 0.43/0.68 (Abbott), R2 = 0.57/0.85 (Euroimmun), and R2 = 0.39/0.63 (Siemens), respectively. CONCLUSIONS.­: The combined data support the use of cPass assay for accurate detection of the nAb response. Positive IgG results from commercial assays associated reasonably with nAbs presence and can serve as a substitute.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Epidemics/prevention & control , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Middle Aged , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Young Adult
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