Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 38
Filter
1.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2022 Mar 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740791

ABSTRACT

The Collaborative Cohort of Cohorts for COVID-19 Research (C4R) is a national prospective study of adults comprising 14 established United States (US) prospective cohort studies. Starting as early as 1971, C4R cohorts have collected data on clinical and subclinical diseases and their risk factors, including behavior, cognition, biomarkers, and social determinants of health. C4R links this pre-COVID phenotyping to information on SARS-CoV-2 infection and acute and post-acute COVID-related illness. C4R is largely population-based, has an age range of 18-108 years, and reflects the racial, ethnic, socioeconomic, and geographic diversity of the US. C4R ascertains SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 illness using standardized questionnaires, ascertainment of COVID-related hospitalizations and deaths, and a SARS-CoV-2 serosurvey via dried blood spots. Master protocols leverage existing robust retention rates for telephone and in-person examinations, and high-quality events surveillance. Extensive pre-pandemic data minimize referral, survival, and recall bias. Data are harmonized with research-quality phenotyping unmatched by clinical and survey-based studies; these will be pooled and shared widely to expedite collaboration and scientific findings. This resource will allow evaluation of risk and resilience factors for COVID-19 severity and outcomes, including post-acute sequelae, and assessment of the social and behavioral impact of the pandemic on long-term trajectories of health.

2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322674

ABSTRACT

Background: Vaccine induced immune medicated thrombocytopenia or VITT, is a recent and rare phenomenon of thrombosis with thrombocytopenia, frequently including cerebral venous thromboses (CVT), that has been described following vaccination with adenovirus vaccines ChAdOx1 nCOV-19 (AstraZeneca) and Ad26.COV2.S Johnson and Johnson (Janssen/J&J). The evaluation and management of suspected cases of CVT post COVID-19 vaccination are critical skills for a broad range of healthcare providers. Methods: A collaborative comprehensive review of literature was conducted among a global group of expert neurologists and hematologists. Findings: Strategies for rapid evaluation and treatment of the CVT in the context of possible VITT exist, including inflammatory marker measurements, PF4 assays, and non-heparin anticoagulation. Interpretation: There are many unanswered questions regarding cases of CVT, possibly in association with VITT. Public health specialists should explore ways to enhance public and professional education, surveillance, and reporting of this syndrome to reduce its impact on health and global vaccination efforts. Funding: None

3.
Circulation ; 144(23): e461-e471, 2021 12 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1666518

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had worldwide repercussions for health care and research. In spring 2020, most non-COVID-19 research was halted, hindering research across the spectrum from laboratory-based experimental science to clinical research. Through the second half of 2020 and the first half of 2021, biomedical research, including cardiovascular science, only gradually restarted, with many restrictions on onsite activities, limited clinical research participation, and the challenges associated with working from home and caregiver responsibilities. Compounding these impediments, much of the global biomedical research infrastructure was redirected toward vaccine testing and deployment. This redirection of supply chains, personnel, and equipment has additionally hampered restoration of normal research activity. Transition to virtual interactions offset some of these limitations but did not adequately replace the need for scientific exchange and collaboration. Here, we outline key steps to reinvigorate biomedical research, including a call for increased support from the National Institutes of Health. We also call on academic institutions, publishers, reviewers, and supervisors to consider the impact of COVID-19 when assessing productivity, recognizing that the pandemic did not affect all equally. We identify trainees and junior investigators, especially those with caregiving roles, as most at risk of being lost from the biomedical workforce and identify steps to reduce the loss of these key investigators. Although the global pandemic highlighted the power of biomedical science to define, treat, and protect against threats to human health, significant investment in the biomedical workforce is required to maintain and promote well-being.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research/trends , COVID-19 , Cardiology/trends , Research Design/trends , Research Personnel/trends , Advisory Committees , American Heart Association , Biomedical Research/education , Cardiology/education , Diffusion of Innovation , Education, Professional/trends , Forecasting , Humans , Public Opinion , Research Personnel/education , Time Factors , United States
6.
Nat Med ; 27(4): 601-615, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517636

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the pathogen responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, which has resulted in global healthcare crises and strained health resources. As the population of patients recovering from COVID-19 grows, it is paramount to establish an understanding of the healthcare issues surrounding them. COVID-19 is now recognized as a multi-organ disease with a broad spectrum of manifestations. Similarly to post-acute viral syndromes described in survivors of other virulent coronavirus epidemics, there are increasing reports of persistent and prolonged effects after acute COVID-19. Patient advocacy groups, many members of which identify themselves as long haulers, have helped contribute to the recognition of post-acute COVID-19, a syndrome characterized by persistent symptoms and/or delayed or long-term complications beyond 4 weeks from the onset of symptoms. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the current literature on post-acute COVID-19, its pathophysiology and its organ-specific sequelae. Finally, we discuss relevant considerations for the multidisciplinary care of COVID-19 survivors and propose a framework for the identification of those at high risk for post-acute COVID-19 and their coordinated management through dedicated COVID-19 clinics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Acute Disease , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Humans , Patient Advocacy , Syndrome , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control
7.
Stroke ; 53(3): 800-807, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495767

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may be associated with increased risk for ischemic stroke. We present prevalence and characteristics of strokes in patients with laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 infection enrolled in the American Heart Association COVID-19 Cardiovascular Disease Registry. METHODS: In this quality improvement registry study, we examined demographic, baseline clinical characteristics, and in-hospital outcomes among hospitalized COVID-19 patients. The primary outcomes were ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) and in-hospital death. RESULTS: Among 21 073 patients with COVID-19 admitted at 107 hospitals between January 29, 2020, and November 23, 2020, 160 (0.75%) experienced acute ischemic stroke/TIA (55.3% of all acute strokes) and 129 (0.61%) had other types of stroke. Among nonischemic strokes, there were 44 (15.2%) intracerebral hemorrhages, 33 (11.4%) subarachnoid hemorrhages, 21 (7.3%) epidural/subdural hemorrhages, 2 (0.7%) cerebral venous sinus thromboses, and 24 (8.3%) strokes not otherwise classified. Asians and non-Hispanic Blacks were overrepresented among ischemic stroke/TIA patients compared with their overall representation in the registry, but adjusted odds of stroke did not vary by race. Median time from COVID-19 symptom onset to ischemic stroke was 11.5 days (interquartile range, 17.8); median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was 11 (interquartile range, 17). COVID-19 patients with acute ischemic stroke/TIA had higher prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, and atrial fibrillation compared with those without stroke. Intensive care unit admission and mechanical ventilation were associated with higher odds of acute ischemic stroke/TIA, but older age was not a predictor. In adjusted models, acute ischemic stroke/TIA was not associated with in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Ischemic stroke risk did not vary by race. In contrast to the association between older age and death from COVID-19, ischemic stroke risk was the highest among middle-aged adults after adjusting for comorbidities and illness severity, suggesting a potential mechanism for ischemic stroke in COVID-19 independent of age-related atherosclerotic pathways.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospital Mortality , Ischemic Attack, Transient , Ischemic Stroke , Registries , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , American Heart Association , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Ischemic Attack, Transient/etiology , Ischemic Attack, Transient/mortality , Ischemic Attack, Transient/therapy , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Ischemic Stroke/mortality , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , United States/epidemiology
8.
Curr Cardiol Rep ; 23(12): 174, 2021 10 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1469768

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cryptogenic stroke represents a heterogenous but clinically important collection of stroke etiologies for which our understanding continues to grow. Here, we review our current knowledge and most recent recommendations on secondary prevention for common causes of cryptogenic stroke including paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, atrial cardiopathy, patent foramen ovale, and substenotic atherosclerotic disease as well as the under-recognized mechanisms of occult malignancy, heart failure, and, most recently, infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). RECENT FINDINGS: The results from recent observational studies and randomized clinical trials have provided greater insight into the causal relationship and attributable risk of these suspected etiologies and have identified potential strategies to reduce the rates of recurrence. However, further clinical trials are needed to confirm the benefits of specific stroke prevention strategies, including the patient populations most likely to benefit from anticoagulation. There is ongoing research aimed at both reducing the proportion of ischemic strokes classified as cryptogenic and resolving much of the clinical equipoise that still exists. The results of these studies have the potential to provide us with a better understanding of these occult mechanisms and allow for more targeted interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Foramen Ovale, Patent , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Foramen Ovale, Patent/complications , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/prevention & control
9.
Eur Heart J ; 42(32): 3044-3048, 2021 08 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447591
10.
Brain Behav Immun ; 97: 186-192, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432970

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether immune protein panels add significant information to correlates of cognition. BACKGROUND: Immune mechanisms in vascular cognitive aging are incompletely characterized. DESIGN/METHODS: A subsample of the prospective Northern Manhattan Study underwent detailed neuropsychological testing. Cognitive scores were converted into Z-scores and categorized into four domains (memory, language, processing speed, and executive function) based on factor analysis. Blood samples were analyzed using a 60-plex immunoassay. We used least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) procedures to select markers and their interactions independently associated with cognitive scores. Linear regression models assessed cross-sectional associations of known correlates of cognition with cognitive scores, and assessed model fit before and after addition of LASSO-selected immune markers. RESULTS: Among 1179 participants (mean age 70 ± 8.9 years, 60% women, 68% Hispanic), inclusion of LASSO-selected immune markers improved model fit above age, education, and other risk factors (p for likelihood ratio test < 0.005 for all domains). C-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 11 (CCL 11, eotaxin), C-X-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 9 (CXCL9), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and serpin E1 (plasminogen activator inhibitor-1) were associated with each of the domains and with overall cognitive function. Immune marker effects were comparable to conventional risk factors: for executive function, each standard deviation (SD) increase in CCL11 was associated with an effect equivalent to aging three years; for memory, HGF had twice the effect of aging. CONCLUSIONS: Immune markers associate with cognitive function in a multi-ethnic cohort. Further work is needed to validate these findings and determine optimal treatment targets.


Subject(s)
Cognition , Aged , Biomarkers , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neuropsychological Tests , Prospective Studies
11.
Circ Heart Fail ; 14(9): e008354, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406681

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is important to understand the risk for in-hospital mortality of adults hospitalized with acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection with a history of heart failure (HF). METHODS: We examined patients hospitalized with COVID-19 infection from January 1, 2020 to July 22, 2020, from 88 centers across the US participating in the American Heart Association's COVID-19 Cardiovascular Disease registry. The primary exposure was history of HF and the primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. To examine the association between history of HF and in-hospital mortality, we conducted multivariable modified Poisson regression models that included sociodemographics and comorbid conditions. We also examined HF subtypes based on left ventricular ejection fraction in the prior year, when available. RESULTS: Among 8920 patients hospitalized with COVID-19, mean age was 61.4±17.5 years and 55.5% were men. History of HF was present in 979 (11%) patients. In-hospital mortality occurred in 31.6% of patients with history of HF, and 16.9% in patients without a history of HF. In a fully adjusted model, history of HF was associated with increased risk for in-hospital mortality (relative risk: 1.16 [95% CI, 1.03-1.30]). Among 335 patients with left ventricular ejection fraction, heart failure with reduced ejection fraction was significantly associated with in-hospital mortality in a fully adjusted model (heart failure with reduced ejection fraction relative risk: 1.40 [95% CI, 1.10-1.79]; heart failure with mid-range ejection fraction relative risk: 1.06 [95% CI, 0.65-1.73]; heart failure with preserved ejection fraction relative risk, 1.06 [95% CI, 0.84-1.33]). CONCLUSIONS: Risk for in-hospital mortality was substantial among adults with history of HF, in large part due to age and comorbid conditions. History of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction may confer especially elevated risk. This population thus merits prioritization for the COVID-19 vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19/mortality , Heart Failure/mortality , Stroke Volume/physiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
12.
J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 28(11): 2461-2466, 2021 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343694

ABSTRACT

Hundreds of interventional clinical trials have been launched in the United States to identify effective treatment strategies for combating the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. However, to date, only a small fraction of these trials have completed enrollment, delaying the scientific investigation of COVID-19 and its treatment options. This study presents novel metrics to examine the geographic alignment between COVID-19 hotspots and interventional clinical trial sites and evaluate trial access over time during the evolving pandemic. Using temporal COVID-19 case data from USAFacts.org and trial data from ClinicalTrials.gov, U.S. counties were categorized based on their numbers of cases and trials. Our analysis suggests that alignment and access have worsened as the pandemic shifted over time. We recommend strategies and metrics to evaluate the alignment between cases and trials. Future studies are warranted to investigate the impact of the misalignment of cases and clinical trial sites on clinical trial recruitment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clinical Trials as Topic , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , United States
13.
Stroke Vasc Neurol ; 5(4): 403-405, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318203

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Patients with stroke-like symptoms may be underutilising emergency medical services and avoiding hospitalisation during the COVID-19 pandemic. We investigated a decline in admissions for stroke and transient ischaemic attack (TIA) and emergency department (ED) stroke alert activations. METHODS: We retrospectively compiled total weekly hospital admissions for stroke and TIA between 31 December 2018 and 21 April 2019 versus 30 December 2019 and 19 April 2020 at five US tertiary academic comprehensive stroke centres in cities with early COVID-19 outbreaks in Boston, New York City, Providence and Seattle. We collected available data on ED stroke alerts, stroke severity using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and time from symptom onset to hospital arrival. RESULTS: Compared with 31 December 2018 to 21 April 2019, a decline in stroke/TIA admissions and ED stroke alerts occurred during 30 December 2019 to 19 April 2020 (p trend <0.001 for each). The declines coincided with state stay-at-home recommendations in late March. The greatest decline in hospital admissions was observed between 23 March and 19 April 2020, with a 31% decline compared with the corresponding weeks in 2019. Three of the five centres with 2019 and 2020 stroke alert data had a 46% decline in ED stroke alerts in late March and April 2020, compared with 2019. Median baseline NIHSS during these 4 weeks was 10 in 2020 and 7 in 2019. There was no difference in time from symptom onset to hospital arrival. CONCLUSION: At these five large academic US hospitals, admissions for stroke and TIA declined during the COVID-19 pandemic. There was a trend for fewer ED stroke alerts at three of the five centres with available 2019 and 2020 data. Acute stroke therapies are time-sensitive, so decreased healthcare access or utilisation may lead to more disabling or fatal strokes, or more severe non-neurological complications related to stroke. Our findings underscore the indirect effects of this pandemic. Public health officials, hospital systems and healthcare providers must continue to encourage patients with stroke to seek acute care during this crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Stroke/epidemiology , Emergency Medical Services/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Ischemic Attack, Transient/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Time-to-Treatment , United States/epidemiology
15.
Circulation ; 143(24): 2332-2342, 2021 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304327

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has exposed longstanding racial and ethnic inequities in health risks and outcomes in the United States. We aimed to identify racial and ethnic differences in presentation and outcomes for patients hospitalized with COVID-19. METHODS: The American Heart Association COVID-19 Cardiovascular Disease Registry is a retrospective observational registry capturing consecutive patients hospitalized with COVID-19. We present data on the first 7868 patients by race/ethnicity treated at 88 hospitals across the United States between January 17, 2020, and July 22, 2020. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes included major adverse cardiovascular events (death, myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure) and COVID-19 cardiorespiratory ordinal severity score (worst to best: death, cardiac arrest, mechanical ventilation with mechanical circulatory support, mechanical ventilation with vasopressors/inotrope support, mechanical ventilation without hemodynamic support, and hospitalization alone. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the relationship between race/ethnicity and each outcome adjusting for differences in sociodemographic, clinical, and presentation features, and accounting for clustering by hospital. RESULTS: Among 7868 patients hospitalized with COVID-19, 33.0% were Hispanic, 25.5% were non-Hispanic Black, 6.3% were Asian, and 35.2% were non-Hispanic White. Hispanic and Black patients were younger than non-Hispanic White and Asian patients and were more likely to be uninsured. Black patients had the highest prevalence of obesity, hypertension, and diabetes. Black patients also had the highest rates of mechanical ventilation (23.2%) and renal replacement therapy (6.6%) but the lowest rates of remdesivir use (6.1%). Overall mortality was 18.4% with 53% of all deaths occurring in Black and Hispanic patients. The adjusted odds ratios for mortality were 0.93 (95% CI, 0.76-1.14) for Black patients, 0.90 (95% CI, 0.73-1.11) for Hispanic patients, and 1.31 (95% CI, 0.96-1.80) for Asian patients compared with non-Hispanic White patients. The median odds ratio across hospitals was 1.99 (95% CI, 1.74-2.48). Results were similar for major adverse cardiovascular events. Asian patients had the highest COVID-19 cardiorespiratory severity at presentation (adjusted odds ratio, 1.48 [95% CI, 1.16-1.90]). CONCLUSIONS: Although in-hospital mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events did not differ by race/ethnicity after adjustment, Black and Hispanic patients bore a greater burden of mortality and morbidity because of their disproportionate representation among COVID-19 hospitalizations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Health Status Disparities , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , American Heart Association , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/pathology , Comorbidity , Female , Hospital Mortality/ethnology , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Race Factors , Registries , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , United States
20.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(5): e218828, 2021 05 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1210568

ABSTRACT

Importance: In-hospital mortality rates from COVID-19 are high but appear to be decreasing for selected locations in the United States. It is not known whether this is because of changes in the characteristics of patients being admitted. Objective: To describe changing in-hospital mortality rates over time after accounting for individual patient characteristics. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a retrospective cohort study of 20 736 adults with a diagnosis of COVID-19 who were included in the US American Heart Association COVID-19 Cardiovascular Disease Registry and admitted to 107 acute care hospitals in 31 states from March through November 2020. A multiple mixed-effects logistic regression was then used to estimate the odds of in-hospital death adjusted for patient age, sex, body mass index, and medical history as well as vital signs, use of supplemental oxygen, presence of pulmonary infiltrates at admission, and hospital site. Main Outcomes and Measures: In-hospital death adjusted for exposures for 4 periods in 2020. Results: The registry included 20 736 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 from March through November 2020 (9524 women [45.9%]; mean [SD] age, 61.2 [17.9] years); 3271 patients (15.8%) died in the hospital. Mortality rates were 19.1% in March and April, 11.9% in May and June, 11.0% in July and August, and 10.8% in September through November. Compared with March and April, the adjusted odds ratios for in-hospital death were significantly lower in May and June (odds ratio, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.58-0.76; P < .001), July and August (odds ratio, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.49-0.69; P < .001), and September through November (odds ratio, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.47-0.73). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, high rates of in-hospital COVID-19 mortality among registry patients in March and April 2020 decreased by more than one-third by June and remained near that rate through November. This difference in mortality rates between the months of March and April and later months persisted even after adjusting for age, sex, medical history, and COVID-19 disease severity and did not appear to be associated with changes in the characteristics of patients being admitted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospital Mortality/trends , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Time Factors , Age Factors , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Outcome Assessment , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Registries , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , United States/epidemiology , Vital Signs
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL