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1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324369

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is a global health crisis that has severely affected mankind and posed a great challenge to the public health system of affected countries. The availability of a safe and effective vaccine is the need of the hour to overcome this crisis. Here, we have developed and assessed the protective efficacy and immunogenicity of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (BBV152) in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulata). Twenty macaques were divided into four groups of five animals each. One group was administered a placebo while three groups were immunized with three different vaccine candidates at 0 and 14 days. All the macaques were challenged with SARS-CoV-2 fourteen days after the second dose. The protective response was observed with increasing SARS-CoV-2 specific IgG and neutralizing antibody titers from 3rd-week post-immunization. Viral clearance was observed from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, nasal swab, throat swab, and lung tissues at 7 days post-infection in the vaccinated groups. No evidence of pneumonia was observed by histopathological examination in vaccinated groups, unlike the placebo group which showed features of interstitial pneumonia and localization of viral antigen in the alveolar epithelium and macrophages by immunohistochemistry. Data from this study substantiate the immunogenicity of the vaccine candidates and BBV152 is being evaluated in Phase I clinical trials in India (NCT04471519).

2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-317246

ABSTRACT

The availability of a safe and effective vaccine would be the eventual measure to deal with SARS-CoV-2 threat. Here, we have developed and assessed the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (BBV152) in hamsters. Three dose vaccination regime with three formulations of BBV152 induced significant titres of SARS-CoV-2 specific IgG and neutralizing antibodies. The formulation with imidazoquinoline adsorbed on alum adjuvant remarkably generated a quick and robust immune response. Th 1 biased immune response was demonstrated by the detection of IgG2 antibodies. Post-SARS-CoV-2 infection, vaccinated hamsters did not show any histopathological changes in the lungs. The protection of the hamsters was evident by the rapid clearance of the virus from lower respiratory tract, reduced virus load in upper respiratory tract, absence of lung pathology and robust humoral immune response. These findings confirm the immunogenic potential of BBV152 and further protection of hamsters challenged with SARS-CoV-2.

3.
Lancet ; 398(10317): 2173-2184, 2021 12 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586227

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We report the clinical efficacy against COVID-19 infection of BBV152, a whole virion inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine formulated with a toll-like receptor 7/8 agonist molecule adsorbed to alum (Algel-IMDG) in Indian adults. METHODS: We did a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre, phase 3 clinical trial in 25 Indian hospitals or medical clinics to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and immunological lot consistency of BBV152. Adults (age ≥18 years) who were healthy or had stable chronic medical conditions (not an immunocompromising condition or requiring treatment with immunosuppressive therapy) were randomised 1:1 with a computer-generated randomisation scheme (stratified for the presence or absence of chronic conditions) to receive two intramuscular doses of vaccine or placebo administered 4 weeks apart. Participants, investigators, study coordinators, study-related personnel, the sponsor, and nurses who administered the vaccines were masked to treatment group allocation; an unmasked contract research organisation and a masked expert adjudication panel assessed outcomes. The primary outcome was the efficacy of the BBV152 vaccine in preventing a first occurrence of laboratory-confirmed (RT-PCR-positive) symptomatic COVID-19 (any severity), occurring at least 14 days after the second dose in the per-protocol population. We also assessed safety and reactogenicity throughout the duration of the study in all participants who had received at least one dose of vaccine or placebo. This report contains interim results (data cutoff May 17, 2021) regarding immunogenicity and safety outcomes (captured on days 0 to 56) and efficacy results with a median of 99 days for the study population. The trial was registered on the Indian Clinical Trials Registry India, CTRI/2020/11/028976, and ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04641481 (active, not recruiting). FINDINGS: Between Nov 16, 2020, and Jan 7, 2021, we recruited 25 798 participants who were randomly assigned to receive BBV152 or placebo; 24 419 received two doses of BBV152 (n=12 221) or placebo (n=12 198). Efficacy analysis was dependent on having 130 cases of symptomatic COVID-19, which occurred when 16 973 initially seronegative participants had at least 14 days follow-up after the second dose. 24 (0·3%) cases occurred among 8471 vaccine recipients and 106 (1·2%) among 8502 placebo recipients, giving an overall estimated vaccine efficacy of 77·8% (95% CI 65·2-86·4). In the safety population (n=25 753), 5959 adverse events occurred in 3194 participants. BBV152 was well tolerated; the same proportion of participants reported adverse events in the vaccine group (1597 [12·4%] of 12 879) and placebo group (1597 [12·4%] of 12 874), with no clinically significant differences in the distributions of solicited, unsolicited, or serious adverse events between the groups, and no cases of anaphylaxis or vaccine-related deaths. INTERPRETATION: BBV152 was highly efficacious against laboratory-confirmed symptomatic COVID-19 disease in adults. Vaccination was well tolerated with no safety concerns raised in this interim analysis. FUNDING: Bharat Biotech International and Indian Council of Medical Research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Adult , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , India , Male
4.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(5): 637-646, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510469

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To mitigate the effects of COVID-19, a vaccine is urgently needed. BBV152 is a whole-virion inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine formulated with a toll-like receptor 7/8 agonist molecule adsorbed to alum (Algel-IMDG) or alum (Algel). METHODS: We did a double-blind, multicentre, randomised, controlled phase 1 trial to assess the safety and immunogenicity of BBV152 at 11 hospitals across India. Healthy adults aged 18-55 years who were deemed healthy by the investigator were eligible. Individuals with positive SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid and/or serology tests were excluded. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either one of three vaccine formulations (3 µg with Algel-IMDG, 6 µg with Algel-IMDG, or 6 µg with Algel) or an Algel only control vaccine group. Block randomisation was done with a web response platform. Participants and investigators were masked to treatment group allocation. Two intramuscular doses of vaccines were administered on day 0 (the day of randomisation) and day 14. Primary outcomes were solicited local and systemic reactogenicity events at 2 h and 7 days after vaccination and throughout the full study duration, including serious adverse events. Secondary outcome was seroconversion (at least four-fold increase from baseline) based on wild-type virus neutralisation. Cell-mediated responses were evaluated by intracellular staining and ELISpot. The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04471519). FINDINGS: Between July 13 and 30, 2020, 827 participants were screened, of whom 375 were enrolled. Among the enrolled participants, 100 each were randomly assigned to the three vaccine groups, and 75 were randomly assigned to the control group (Algel only). After both doses, solicited local and systemic adverse reactions were reported by 17 (17%; 95% CI 10·5-26·1) participants in the 3 µg with Algel-IMDG group, 21 (21%; 13·8-30·5) in the 6 µg with Algel-IMDG group, 14 (14%; 8·1-22·7) in the 6 µg with Algel group, and ten (10%; 6·9-23·6) in the Algel-only group. The most common solicited adverse events were injection site pain (17 [5%] of 375 participants), headache (13 [3%]), fatigue (11 [3%]), fever (nine [2%]), and nausea or vomiting (seven [2%]). All solicited adverse events were mild (43 [69%] of 62) or moderate (19 [31%]) and were more frequent after the first dose. One serious adverse event of viral pneumonitis was reported in the 6 µg with Algel group, unrelated to the vaccine. Seroconversion rates (%) were 87·9, 91·9, and 82·8 in the 3 µg with Algel-IMDG, 6 µg with Algel-IMDG, and 6 µg with Algel groups, respectively. CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses were detected in a subset of 16 participants from both Algel-IMDG groups. INTERPRETATION: BBV152 led to tolerable safety outcomes and enhanced immune responses. Both Algel-IMDG formulations were selected for phase 2 immunogenicity trials. Further efficacy trials are warranted. FUNDING: Bharat Biotech International.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Toll-Like Receptor 7/agonists , Toll-Like Receptor 8/agonists , Vaccination , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Young Adult
5.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(7): 950-961, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1290388

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: BBV152 is a whole-virion inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (3 µg or 6 µg) formulated with a toll-like receptor 7/8 agonist molecule (IMDG) adsorbed to alum (Algel). We previously reported findings from a double-blind, multicentre, randomised, controlled phase 1 trial on the safety and immunogenicity of three different formulations of BBV152 (3 µg with Algel-IMDG, 6 µg with Algel-IMDG, or 6 µg with Algel) and one Algel-only control (no antigen), with the first dose administered on day 0 and the second dose on day 14. The 3 µg and 6 µg with Algel-IMDG formulations were selected for this phase 2 study. Herein, we report interim findings of the phase 2 trial on the immunogenicity and safety of BBV152, with the first dose administered on day 0 and the second dose on day 28. METHODS: We did a double-blind, randomised, multicentre, phase 2 clinical trial to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of BBV152 in healthy adults and adolescents (aged 12-65 years) at nine hospitals in India. Participants with positive SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid and serology tests were excluded. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either 3 µg with Algel-IMDG or 6 µg with Algel-IMDG. Block randomisation was done by use of an interactive web response system. Participants, investigators, study coordinators, study-related personnel, and the sponsor were masked to treatment group allocation. Two intramuscular doses of vaccine were administered on day 0 and day 28. The primary outcome was SARS-CoV-2 wild-type neutralising antibody titres and seroconversion rates (defined as a post-vaccination titre that was at least four-fold higher than the baseline titre) at 4 weeks after the second dose (day 56), measured by use of the plaque-reduction neutralisation test (PRNT50) and the microneutralisation test (MNT50). The primary outcome was assessed in all participants who had received both doses of the vaccine. Cell-mediated responses were a secondary outcome and were assessed by T-helper-1 (Th1)/Th2 profiling at 2 weeks after the second dose (day 42). Safety was assessed in all participants who received at least one dose of the vaccine. In addition, we report immunogenicity results from a follow-up blood draw collected from phase 1 trial participants at 3 months after they received the second dose (day 104). This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04471519. FINDINGS: Between Sept 5 and 12, 2020, 921 participants were screened, of whom 380 were enrolled and randomly assigned to the 3 µg with Algel-IMDG group (n=190) or 6 µg with Algel-IMDG group (n=190). Geometric mean titres (GMTs; PRNT50) at day 56 were significantly higher in the 6 µg with Algel-IMDG group (197·0 [95% CI 155·6-249·4]) than the 3 µg with Algel-IMDG group (100·9 [74·1-137·4]; p=0·0041). Seroconversion based on PRNT50 at day 56 was reported in 171 (92·9% [95% CI 88·2-96·2] of 184 participants in the 3 µg with Algel-IMDG group and 174 (98·3% [95·1-99·6]) of 177 participants in the 6 µg with Algel-IMDG group. GMTs (MNT50) at day 56 were 92·5 (95% CI 77·7-110·2) in the 3 µg with Algel-IMDG group and 160·1 (135·8-188·8) in the 6 µg with Algel-IMDG group. Seroconversion based on MNT50 at day 56 was reported in 162 (88·0% [95% CI 82·4-92·3]) of 184 participants in the 3 µg with Algel-IMDG group and 171 (96·6% [92·8-98·8]) of 177 participants in the 6 µg with Algel-IMDG group. The 3 µg with Algel-IMDG and 6 µg with Algel-IMDG formulations elicited T-cell responses that were biased to a Th1 phenotype at day 42. No significant difference in the proportion of participants who had a solicited local or systemic adverse reaction in the 3 µg with Algel-IMDG group (38 [20·0%; 95% CI 14·7-26·5] of 190) and the 6 µg with Algel-IMDG group (40 [21·1%; 15·5-27·5] of 190) was observed on days 0-7 and days 28-35; no serious adverse events were reported in the study. From the phase 1 trial, 3-month post-second-dose GMTs (MNT50) were 39·9 (95% CI 32·0-49·9) in the 3µg with Algel-IMDG group, 69·5 (53·7-89·9) in the 6 µg with Algel-IMDG group, 53·3 (40·1-71·0) in the 6 µg with Algel group, and 20·7 (14·5-29·5) in the Algel alone group. INTERPRETATION: In the phase 1 trial, BBV152 induced high neutralising antibody responses that remained elevated in all participants at 3 months after the second vaccination. In the phase 2 trial, BBV152 showed better reactogenicity and safety outcomes, and enhanced humoral and cell-mediated immune responses compared with the phase 1 trial. The 6 µg with Algel-IMDG formulation has been selected for the phase 3 efficacy trial. FUNDING: Bharat Biotech International. TRANSLATION: For the Hindi translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Child , Double-Blind Method , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/immunology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Th1 Cells/immunology , Th2 Cells/immunology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Young Adult
6.
iScience ; 24(4): 102298, 2021 Apr 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1126886

ABSTRACT

We report the development and evaluation of safety and immunogenicity of a whole virion inactivated (WVI) SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (BBV152), adjuvanted with aluminum hydroxide gel (Algel), or TLR7/8 agonist chemisorbed Algel. We used a well-characterized SARS-CoV-2 strain and an established Vero cell platform to produce large-scale GMP-grade highly purified inactivated antigen. Product development and manufacturing process were carried out in a BSL-3 facility. Immunogenicity and safety were determined at two antigen concentrations (3µg and 6µg), with two different adjuvants, in mice, rats, and rabbits. Our results show that BBV152 vaccine formulations generated significantly high antigen-binding and neutralizing antibody titers (NAb), at both concentrations, in all three species with excellent safety profiles. The inactivated vaccine formulation contains TLR7/8 agonist adjuvant-induced Th1-biased antibody responses with elevated IgG2a/IgG1 ratio and increased levels of SARS-CoV-2-specific IFN-γ+ CD4+ T lymphocyte response. Our results support further development for phase I/II clinical trials in humans.

7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1386, 2021 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1114712

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is a global health crisis that poses a great challenge to the public health system of affected countries. Safe and effective vaccines are needed to overcome this crisis. Here, we develop and assess the protective efficacy and immunogenicity of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in rhesus macaques. Twenty macaques were divided into four groups of five animals each. One group was administered a placebo, while three groups were immunized with three different vaccine candidates of BBV152 at 0 and 14 days. All the macaques were challenged with SARS-CoV-2 fourteen days after the second dose. The protective response was observed with increasing SARS-CoV-2 specific IgG and neutralizing antibody titers from 3rd-week post-immunization. Viral clearance was observed from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, nasal swab, throat swab and lung tissues at 7 days post-infection in the vaccinated groups. No evidence of pneumonia was observed by histopathological examination in vaccinated groups, unlike the placebo group which exhibited interstitial pneumonia and localization of viral antigen in the alveolar epithelium and macrophages by immunohistochemistry. This vaccine candidate BBV152 has completed Phase I/II (NCT04471519) clinical trials in India and is presently in phase III, data of this study substantiates the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the vaccine candidates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Immunohistochemistry , Lymphocytes/immunology , Lymphocytes/metabolism , Macaca mulatta , Male , Pneumonia/immunology , Pneumonia/metabolism
8.
iScience ; 24(2): 102054, 2021 Feb 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1014569

ABSTRACT

The availability of a safe and effective vaccine would be the eventual measure to deal with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) threat. Here, we have assessed the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidates BBV152A, BBV152B, and BBV152C in Syrian hamsters. Three dose vaccination regimes with vaccine candidates induced significant titers of SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG and neutralizing antibodies. BBV152A and BBV152B vaccine candidates remarkably generated a quick and robust immune response. Post-SARS-CoV-2 infection, vaccinated hamsters did not show any histopathological changes in the lungs. The protection of the hamster was evident by the rapid clearance of the virus from lower respiratory tract, reduced virus load in upper respiratory tract, absence of lung pathology, and robust humoral immune response. These findings confirm the immunogenic potential of the vaccine candidates and further protection of hamsters challenged with SARS-CoV-2. Of the three candidates, BBV152A showed the better response.

9.
Indian pediatrics ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-60460

ABSTRACT

The world is currently facing an unprecedented global pandemic caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Predicting the next source of the pandemic can be very challenging. As vaccination is the best way to prevent an infectious disease, the development of an effective vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 can not only reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with it, but can also lessen the economic impact. As the traditional method of vaccine development takes many years for a vaccine to be available to the society, the vaccine development for SARS-CoV-2 should be speeded up using a pandemic approach with fast-track approvals from the regulatory authorities. Various challenges associated with developing a vaccine during the pandemic such as technological hurdles, clinical development pathways, regulatory issues, and support from global funding agencies are expressed here.

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