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1.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol ; 36(4): 476-484, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794581

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multiple reports have described neonatal SARS-CoV-2 infection, including likely in utero transmission and early postnatal infection, but published estimates of neonatal infection range by geography and design type. OBJECTIVES: To describe maternal, pregnancy and neonatal characteristics among neonates born to people with SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy by neonatal SARS-CoV-2 testing results. METHODS: Using aggregated data from the Surveillance for Emerging Threats to Mothers and Babies Network (SET-NET) describing infections from 20 January 2020 to 31 December 2020, we identified neonates who were (1) born to people who were SARS-CoV-2 positive by RT-PCR at any time during their pregnancy, and (2) tested for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR during the birth hospitalisation. RESULTS: Among 28,771 neonates born to people with SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy, 3816 (13%) underwent PCR testing and 138 neonates (3.6%) were PCR positive. Ninety-four per cent of neonates testing positive were born to people with infection identified ≤14 days of delivery. Neonatal SARS-CoV-2 infection was more frequent among neonates born preterm (5.7%) compared to term (3.4%). Neonates testing positive were born to both symptomatic and asymptomatic pregnant people. CONCLUSIONS: Jurisdictions reported SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR results for only 13% of neonates known to be born to people with SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy. These results provide evidence of neonatal infection identified through multi-state systematic surveillance data collection and describe characteristics of neonates with SARS-CoV-2 infection. While perinatal SARS-CoV-2 infection was uncommon among tested neonates born to people with SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy, nearly all cases of tested neonatal infection occurred in pregnant people infected around the time of delivery and was more frequent among neonates born preterm. These findings support the recommendation for neonatal SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR testing, especially for people with acute infection around the time of delivery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
2.
J Perinatol ; 42(5): 617-623, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692641

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to assess differences in pregnancy outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to the previous year. STUDY DESIGN: In a cross-sectional study of delivery hospitalizations in the Premier Healthcare Database Special COVID-19 Release, we assessed differences in selected maternal and pregnancy outcomes occurring April-December in 2019 and 2020 in the United States. RESULT: Among 663,620 deliveries occurring in 2019 and 614,093 deliveries occurring in 2020, we observed an increase in in-hospital maternal death from 2019 to 2020, which was no longer statistically significant after excluding deliveries with a COVID-19 diagnosis. Intensive care unit admission and preterm birth decreased from 2019 to 2020. There was no difference in the prevalence of most other outcomes examined. CONCLUSION: The full impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on maternal and pregnancy outcomes remains to be understood. Most outcomes investigated experienced minimal change from 2019 to 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Premature Birth , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Premature Birth/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(47): 1640-1645, 2021 Nov 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1534934

ABSTRACT

Pregnant women are at increased risk for severe COVID-19-related illness, and COVID-19 is associated with an increased risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes and maternal and neonatal complications (1-3). To date, studies assessing whether COVID-19 during pregnancy is associated with increased risk for stillbirth have yielded mixed results (2-4). Since the B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant of SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) became the predominant circulating variant,* there have been anecdotal reports of increasing rates of stillbirths in women with COVID-19.† CDC used the Premier Healthcare Database Special COVID-19 Release (PHD-SR), a large hospital-based administrative database,§ to assess whether a maternal COVID-19 diagnosis documented at delivery hospitalization was associated with stillbirth during March 2020-September 2021 as well as before and during the period of Delta variant predominance in the United States (March 2020-June 2021 and July-September 2021, respectively). Among 1,249,634 deliveries during March 2020-September 2021, stillbirths were rare (8,154; 0.65%): 273 (1.26%) occurred among 21,653 deliveries to women with COVID-19 documented at the delivery hospitalization, and 7,881 (0.64%) occurred among 1,227,981 deliveries without COVID-19. The adjusted risk for stillbirth was higher in deliveries with COVID-19 compared with deliveries without COVID-19 during March 2020-September 2021 (adjusted relative risk [aRR] = 1.90; 95% CI = 1.69-2.15), including during the pre-Delta (aRR = 1.47; 95% CI = 1.27-1.71) and Delta periods (aRR = 4.04; 95% CI = 3.28-4.97). COVID-19 documented at delivery was associated with increased risk for stillbirth, with a stronger association during the period of Delta variant predominance. Implementing evidence-based COVID-19 prevention strategies, including vaccination before or during pregnancy, is critical to reducing the impact of COVID-19 on stillbirths.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Stillbirth/epidemiology , Adult , Delivery, Obstetric , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Pregnancy , Risk Assessment , United States/epidemiology
4.
Journal of perinatology : official journal of the California Perinatal Association ; : 1-8, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1498850

ABSTRACT

Objective To better understand COVID-19 in newborns, we compared in-hospital illness severity indicators by COVID-19 status during birth hospitalization. Study design In a retrospective cohort of newborns born March–December 2020 in the Premier Healthcare Database Special COVID-19 Release, we classified COVID-19 status and severe illness indicators using ICD-CM-10 codes, laboratory data, and billing records. Illness severity indicators were compared by COVID-19 status, stratified by gestational age and race/ethnicity. Result Among 701,777 newborns, 209 had a COVID-19 diagnosis during the birth hospitalization. COVID-19 status differed significantly by race/ethnicity, gestational age, payor, and region. Late preterm/term newborns with COVID-19 had increased intensive care unit admission and sepsis risk;early preterm newborns with COVID-19 had increased risk for invasive ventilation. Risk for illness severity varied among racial/ethnic strata. Conclusion From March to December 2020, COVID-19 diagnosis in newborns was rare. More clinical data are needed to describe the risk profiles of newborns with COVID-19.

5.
J Perinatol ; 42(4): 446-453, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500442

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To better understand COVID-19 in newborns, we compared in-hospital illness severity indicators by COVID-19 status during birth hospitalization. STUDY DESIGN: In a retrospective cohort of newborns born March-December 2020 in the Premier Healthcare Database Special COVID-19 Release, we classified COVID-19 status and severe illness indicators using ICD-CM-10 codes, laboratory data, and billing records. Illness severity indicators were compared by COVID-19 status, stratified by gestational age and race/ethnicity. RESULT: Among 701,777 newborns, 209 had a COVID-19 diagnosis during the birth hospitalization. COVID-19 status differed significantly by race/ethnicity, gestational age, payor, and region. Late preterm/term newborns with COVID-19 had increased intensive care unit admission and sepsis risk; early preterm newborns with COVID-19 had increased risk for invasive ventilation. Risk for illness severity varied among racial/ethnic strata. CONCLUSION: From March to December 2020, COVID-19 diagnosis in newborns was rare. More clinical data are needed to describe the risk profiles of newborns with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Patient Acuity , Retrospective Studies , United States/epidemiology
7.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol ; 2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1381139

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multiple studies have described increased risk of severe coronavirus disease (COVID-19) among pregnant women compared to nonpregnant women. The risk in middle-income countries where the distributions of age groups and preexisting conditions may differ is less known. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection are at increased risk for severe COVID-19 compared to nonpregnant women in Colombia. METHODS: We analysed national surveillance data from Colombia, of women aged 15-44 years with laboratory-confirmed infection with SARS-CoV-2 by molecular or antigen testing, from 6 March 2020 to 12 December 2020. An enhanced follow-up of pregnant women with COVID-19 was established to monitor pregnancy and birth outcomes. RESULTS: Of 371,363 women aged 15-44 years with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, 1.5% (n = 5614) were reported as pregnant; among those, 2610 (46.5%) were considered a complete pregnancy for reporting purposes at the time of analysis. Hospitalisation (23.9%) and death (1.3%) occurred more frequently among pregnant symptomatic women compared to nonpregnant symptomatic women (2.9% and 0.3%, respectively). Compared to nonpregnant symptomatic women, pregnant symptomatic women were at increased risk of hospitalisation (adjusted risk ratio (RR) 2.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.07, 2.32) and death (RR 1.82, 95% CI 1.60, 2.07), after adjusting for age, type of health insurance and presence of certain underlying medical conditions. Among complete pregnancies, 55 (2.1%) were pregnancy losses, 72 (2.8%) resulted in term low birthweight infants and 375 (14.4%) were preterm deliveries. CONCLUSIONS: Although pregnant women were infrequently reported with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, pregnant symptomatic women with COVID-19 were at increased risk for hospitalisation and death compared to nonpregnant symptomatic women. Almost all infections we reported on were third-trimester infections; ongoing follow-up is needed to determine pregnancy outcomes among women infected earlier in pregnancy. Healthcare providers should counsel pregnant women about preventive measures to protect from SARS-CoV-2 infection and when to seek care.

8.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(5): 1505-1508, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262597

ABSTRACT

We evaluated nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) for Zika virus on whole-blood specimens compared with NAAT on serum and urine specimens among asymptomatic pregnant women during the 2015-2016 Puerto Rico Zika outbreak. Using NAAT, more infections were detected in serum and urine than in whole blood specimens.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Puerto Rico , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology
9.
N Engl J Med ; 384(24): 2273-2282, 2021 06 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196904

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many pregnant persons in the United States are receiving messenger RNA (mRNA) coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) vaccines, but data are limited on their safety in pregnancy. METHODS: From December 14, 2020, to February 28, 2021, we used data from the "v-safe after vaccination health checker" surveillance system, the v-safe pregnancy registry, and the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) to characterize the initial safety of mRNA Covid-19 vaccines in pregnant persons. RESULTS: A total of 35,691 v-safe participants 16 to 54 years of age identified as pregnant. Injection-site pain was reported more frequently among pregnant persons than among nonpregnant women, whereas headache, myalgia, chills, and fever were reported less frequently. Among 3958 participants enrolled in the v-safe pregnancy registry, 827 had a completed pregnancy, of which 115 (13.9%) resulted in a pregnancy loss and 712 (86.1%) resulted in a live birth (mostly among participants with vaccination in the third trimester). Adverse neonatal outcomes included preterm birth (in 9.4%) and small size for gestational age (in 3.2%); no neonatal deaths were reported. Although not directly comparable, calculated proportions of adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes in persons vaccinated against Covid-19 who had a completed pregnancy were similar to incidences reported in studies involving pregnant women that were conducted before the Covid-19 pandemic. Among 221 pregnancy-related adverse events reported to the VAERS, the most frequently reported event was spontaneous abortion (46 cases). CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary findings did not show obvious safety signals among pregnant persons who received mRNA Covid-19 vaccines. However, more longitudinal follow-up, including follow-up of large numbers of women vaccinated earlier in pregnancy, is necessary to inform maternal, pregnancy, and infant outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Pregnancy , Abortion, Spontaneous/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Small for Gestational Age , Middle Aged , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Public Health Surveillance/methods , Registries , United States/epidemiology , Vaccines, Synthetic/adverse effects , Young Adult
10.
Matern Child Health J ; 25(2): 198-206, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1006455

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Public health responses often lack the infrastructure to capture the impact of public health emergencies on pregnant women and infants, with limited mechanisms for linking pregnant women with their infants nationally to monitor long-term effects. In 2019, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in close collaboration with state, local, and territorial health departments, began a 5-year initiative to establish population-based mother-baby linked longitudinal surveillance, the Surveillance for Emerging Threats to Mothers and Babies Network (SET-NET). OBJECTIVES: The objective of this report is to describe an expanded surveillance approach that leverages and modernizes existing surveillance systems to address the impact of emerging health threats during pregnancy on pregnant women and their infants. METHODS: Mother-baby pairs are identified through prospective identification during pregnancy and/or identification of an infant with retrospective linking to maternal information. All data are obtained from existing data sources (e.g., electronic medical records, vital statistics, laboratory reports, and health department investigations and case reporting). RESULTS: Variables were selected for inclusion to address key surveillance questions proposed by CDC and health department subject matter experts. General variables include maternal demographics and health history, pregnancy and infant outcomes, maternal and infant laboratory results, and child health outcomes up to the second birthday. Exposure-specific modular variables are included for hepatitis C, syphilis, and Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). The system is structured into four relational datasets (maternal, pregnancy outcomes and birth, infant/child follow-up, and laboratory testing). DISCUSSION: SET-NET provides a population-based mother-baby linked longitudinal surveillance approach and has already demonstrated rapid adaptation to COVID-19. This innovative approach leverages existing data sources and rapidly collects data and informs clinical guidance and practice. These data can help to reduce exposure risk and adverse outcomes among pregnant women and their infants, direct public health action, and strengthen public health systems.


Subject(s)
Civil Defense/methods , Mother-Child Relations , Population Surveillance/methods , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Civil Defense/instrumentation , Female , Hepatitis C/complications , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Mass Screening/methods , Pregnancy , Syphilis/complications , Syphilis/diagnosis
11.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(44): 1635-1640, 2020 Nov 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-914861

ABSTRACT

Pregnant women with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are at increased risk for severe illness and might be at risk for preterm birth (1-3). The full impact of infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, in pregnancy is unknown. Public health jurisdictions report information, including pregnancy status, on confirmed and probable COVID-19 cases to CDC through the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System.* Through the Surveillance for Emerging Threats to Mothers and Babies Network (SET-NET), 16 jurisdictions collected supplementary information on pregnancy and infant outcomes among 5,252 women with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection reported during March 29-October 14, 2020. Among 3,912 live births with known gestational age, 12.9% were preterm (<37 weeks), higher than the reported 10.2% among the general U.S. population in 2019 (4). Among 610 infants (21.3%) with reported SARS-CoV-2 test results, perinatal infection was infrequent (2.6%) and occurred primarily among infants whose mother had SARS-CoV-2 infection identified within 1 week of delivery. Because the majority of pregnant women with COVID-19 reported thus far experienced infection in the third trimester, ongoing surveillance is needed to assess effects of infections in early pregnancy, as well the longer-term outcomes of exposed infants. These findings can inform neonatal testing recommendations, clinical practice, and public health action and can be used by health care providers to counsel pregnant women on the risks of SARS-CoV-2 infection, including preterm births. Pregnant women and their household members should follow recommended infection prevention measures, including wearing a mask, social distancing, and frequent handwashing when going out or interacting with others or if there is a person within the household who has had exposure to COVID-19.†.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Abortion, Spontaneous/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Laboratories , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
12.
Obstet Gynecol ; 136(2): 262-272, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-599084

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To inform the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, we conducted a systematic literature review of case reports of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes COVID-19, during pregnancy and summarized clinical presentation, course of illness, and pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. DATA SOURCES: We searched MEDLINE and ClinicalTrials.gov from inception to April 23, 2020. METHODS OF STUDY SELECTION: We included articles reporting case-level data on MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnant women. Course of illness, indicators of severe illness, maternal health outcomes, and pregnancy outcomes were abstracted from included articles. TABULATION, INTEGRATION, AND RESULTS: We identified 1,328 unique articles, and 1,253 articles were excluded by title and abstract review. We completed full-text review on 75, and 29 articles were excluded by full-text review. Among 46 publications reporting case-level data, eight described 12 cases of MERS-CoV infection, seven described 17 cases of SARS-CoV infection, and 31 described 98 cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Clinical presentation and course of illness ranged from asymptomatic to severe fatal disease, similar to the general population of patients. Severe morbidity and mortality among women with MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, or SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including pregnancy loss, preterm delivery, and laboratory evidence of vertical transmission, were reported. CONCLUSION: Understanding whether pregnant women may be at risk for adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes from severe coronavirus infections is imperative. Data from case reports of SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SAR-CoV-2 infections during pregnancy are limited, but they may guide early public health actions and clinical decision-making for COVID-19 until more rigorous and systematically collected data are available. The capture of critical data is needed to better define how this infection affects pregnant women and neonates. This review was not registered with PROSPERO.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/mortality , Pregnancy Outcome , Abortion, Spontaneous/epidemiology , Abortion, Spontaneous/virology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Premature Birth/virology , SARS-CoV-2
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