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1.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(4): 100603, 2022 04 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2004611

ABSTRACT

The ongoing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic highlights the importance of determining the breadth and durability of humoral immunity to SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination. Herein, we characterize the humoral response in 27 naive and 40 recovered vaccinees. SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody and memory B cell (MBC) responses are durable up to 6 months, although antibody half-lives are shorter for naive recipients. The magnitude of the humoral responses to vaccination strongly correlates with responses to initial SARS-CoV-2 infection. Neutralization titers are lower against SARS-CoV-2 variants in both recovered and naive vaccinees, with titers more reduced in naive recipients. While the receptor-binding domain (RBD) is the main neutralizing target of circulating antibodies, Moderna-vaccinated naives show a lesser reliance on RBDs, with >25% neutralization remaining after depletion of RBD-binding antibodies. Overall, we observe that vaccination induces higher peak titers and improves durability in recovered compared with naive vaccinees. These findings have broad implications for current vaccine strategies deployed against the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccination
2.
J Virol ; 96(17): e0058222, 2022 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1992936

ABSTRACT

Emerging variants, especially the recent Omicron variant, and gaps in vaccine coverage threaten mRNA vaccine mediated protection against SARS-CoV-2. While children have been relatively spared by the ongoing pandemic, increasing case numbers and hospitalizations are now evident among children. Thus, it is essential to better understand the magnitude and breadth of vaccine-induced immunity in children against circulating viral variant of concerns (VOCs). Here, we compared the magnitude and breadth of humoral immune responses in adolescents and adults 1 month after the two-dose Pfizer (BNT162b2) vaccination. We found that adolescents (aged 11 to 16) demonstrated more robust binding antibody and neutralization responses against the wild-type SARS-CoV-2 virus spike protein contained in the vaccine compared to adults (aged 27 to 55). The quality of the antibody responses against VOCs in adolescents were very similar to adults, with modest changes in binding and neutralization of Beta, Gamma, and Delta variants. In comparison, a significant reduction of binding titers and a striking lack of neutralization was observed against the newly emerging Omicron variant for both adolescents and adults. Overall, our data show that a two-dose BNT162b2 vaccine series may be insufficient to protect against the Omicron variant. IMPORTANCE While plasma binding and neutralizing antibody responses have been reported for cohorts of infected and vaccinated adults, much less is known about the vaccine-induced antibody responses to variants including Omicron in children. This illustrates the need to characterize vaccine efficacy in key vulnerable populations. A third (booster) dose of BNTb162b was approved for children 12 to 15 years of age by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on January 1, 2022, and pediatric clinical trials are under way to evaluate the safety, immunogenicity, and effectiveness of a third dose in younger children. Similarly, variant-specific booster doses and pan-coronavirus vaccines are areas of active research. Our data show adolescents mounted stronger humoral immune responses after vaccination than adults. It also highlights the need for future studies of antibody durability in adolescents and children as well as the need for future studies of booster vaccination and their efficacy against the Omicron variant.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/administration & dosage , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Child , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
3.
J Clin Oncol ; 40(33): 3808-3816, 2022 Nov 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910387

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To examine COVID-19 mRNA vaccine-induced binding and neutralizing antibody responses in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to SARS-CoV-2 614D (wild type [WT]) strain and variants of concern after the primary 2-dose and booster vaccination. METHODS: Eighty-two patients with NSCLC and 53 healthy volunteers who received SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines were included in the study. Blood was collected longitudinally, and SARS-CoV-2-specific binding and neutralizing antibody responses were evaluated by Meso Scale Discovery assay and live virus Focus Reduction Neutralization Assay, respectively. RESULTS: A majority of patients with NSCLC generated binding and neutralizing antibody titers comparable with the healthy vaccinees after mRNA vaccination, but a subset of patients with NSCLC (25%) made poor responses, resulting in overall lower (six- to seven-fold) titers compared with the healthy cohort (P = < .0001). Although patients age > 70 years had lower immunoglobulin G titers (P = < .01), patients receiving programmed death-1 monotherapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of both did not have a significant impact on the antibody response. Neutralizing antibody titers to the B.1.617.2 (Delta), B.1.351 (Beta), and in particular, B.1.1.529 (Omicron) variants were significantly lower (P = < .0001) compared with the 614D (WT) strain. Booster vaccination led to a significant increase (P = .0001) in the binding and neutralizing antibody titers to the WT and Omicron variant. However, 2-4 months after the booster, we observed a five- to seven-fold decrease in neutralizing titers to WT and Omicron viruses. CONCLUSION: A subset of patients with NSCLC responded poorly to the SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination and had low neutralizing antibodies to the B.1.1.529 Omicron variant. Booster vaccination increased binding and neutralizing antibody titers to Omicron, but antibody titers declined after 3 months. These data highlight the concern for patients with cancer given the rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Lung Neoplasms , Humans , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines , Antibody Formation , SARS-CoV-2 , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/therapy , Lung Neoplasms/therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Antibodies, Viral , Immunization , Vaccination , Antibodies, Neutralizing , RNA, Messenger
4.
Cell ; 185(9): 1556-1571.e18, 2022 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1803704

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 Omicron is highly transmissible and has substantial resistance to neutralization following immunization with ancestral spike-matched vaccines. It is unclear whether boosting with Omicron-matched vaccines would enhance protection. Here, nonhuman primates that received mRNA-1273 at weeks 0 and 4 were boosted at week 41 with mRNA-1273 or mRNA-Omicron. Neutralizing titers against D614G were 4,760 and 270 reciprocal ID50 at week 6 (peak) and week 41 (preboost), respectively, and 320 and 110 for Omicron. 2 weeks after the boost, titers against D614G and Omicron increased to 5,360 and 2,980 for mRNA-1273 boost and 2,670 and 1,930 for mRNA-Omicron, respectively. Similar increases against BA.2 were observed. Following either boost, 70%-80% of spike-specific B cells were cross-reactive against WA1 and Omicron. Equivalent control of virus replication in lower airways was observed following Omicron challenge 1 month after either boost. These data show that mRNA-1273 and mRNA-Omicron elicit comparable immunity and protection shortly after the boost.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Macaca , RNA, Messenger
5.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327388

ABSTRACT

Summary SARS-CoV-2 Omicron is highly transmissible and has substantial resistance to antibody neutralization following immunization with ancestral spike-matched vaccines. It is unclear whether boosting with Omicron-specific vaccines would enhance immunity and protection. Here, nonhuman primates that received mRNA-1273 at weeks 0 and 4 were boosted at week 41 with mRNA-1273 or mRNA-Omicron. Neutralizing antibody titers against D614G were 4760 and 270 reciprocal ID 50 at week 6 (peak) and week 41 (pre-boost), respectively, and 320 and 110 for Omicron. Two weeks after boost, titers against D614G and Omicron increased to 5360 and 2980, respectively, for mRNA-1273 and 2670 and 1930 for mRNA-Omicron. Following either boost, 70-80% of spike-specific B cells were cross-reactive against both WA1 and Omicron. Significant and equivalent control of virus replication in lower airways was observed following either boost. Therefore, an Omicron boost may not provide greater immunity or protection compared to a boost with the current mRNA-1273 vaccine.

7.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(2): 100529, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649941

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) omicron variant emerged in November 2021 and consists of several mutations within the spike. We use serum from mRNA-vaccinated individuals to measure neutralization activity against omicron in a live-virus assay. At 2-4 weeks after a primary series of vaccinations, we observe a 30-fold reduction in neutralizing activity against omicron. Six months after the initial two-vaccine doses, sera from naive vaccinated subjects show no neutralizing activity against omicron. In contrast, COVID-19-recovered individuals 6 months after receiving the primary series of vaccinations show a 22-fold reduction, with the majority of the subjects retaining neutralizing antibody responses. In naive individuals following a booster shot (third dose), we observe a 14-fold reduction in neutralizing activity against omicron, and over 90% of subjects show neutralizing activity. These findings show that a third dose is required to provide robust neutralizing antibody responses against the omicron variant.


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/methods , Adult , Aged , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immunization, Secondary/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Mutation , Neutralization Tests , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vero Cells , Young Adult
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