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1.
RSC advances ; 11(46):28876-28891, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1812572

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has demonstrated the potential of emergent pathogens to severely damage public health and global economies. As a consequence of the pandemic, millions of people have been forced into self-isolation, which has negatively affected the global economy. More efforts are needed to find new innovative approaches that could fundamentally change our understanding and management of this disaster. Herein, lipid polymer hybrid nanoparticles (LPH NPs) were utilized as a platform for the delivery of azithromycin or niclosamide in combination with piroxicam. The obtained systems were successfully loaded with both azithromycin and piroxicam (LPHAzi–Pir) with entrapment efficiencies (EE%) of 74.23 ± 8.14% and 51.52 ± 5.45%, respectively, or niclosamide and piroxicam (LPHNic–Pir) with respective EE% of 85.14 ± 3.47% and 48.75 ± 4.77%. The prepared LPH NPs had a core–shell nanostructure with particle size ≈ 125 nm and zeta potential ≈ −16.5 irrespective of drug payload. A dose-dependent cellular uptake of both LPH NPs was observed in human lung fibroblast cells. An enhanced in vitro antiviral efficacy of both LPHAzi–Pir and LPHNic–Pir was obtained over the mixed solution of the drugs. The LPH NPs of azithromycin or niclosamide with piroxicam displyed a promising capability to hinder the replication of SARS-CoV-2, with IC50 of 3.16 and 1.86 μM, respectively. These results provide a rationale for further in vivo pharmacological as well as toxicological studies to evaluate the potential activity of these drugs to combat the COVID-19 outbreak, especially the concept of combination therapy. Additionally, the molecular docking of macrolide bioactive compounds against papain-like protease (PDB ID:6wuu) was achieved. A ligand-based study, especially rapid overlay chemical structure (ROCS), was also examined to identify the general pharmacophoric features of these compounds and their similarity to reported anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs. Molecular dynamic simulation was also implemented. Drug repurposing approach to combat SARS-CoV-2: lipid polymer hybrid nanoparticles (LPH) for the delivery of azithromycin or niclosamide in combination with piroxicam.

2.
Arab J Chem ; 14(4): 103092, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574281

ABSTRACT

This work was a structured virtual screening for marine bioactive compounds with reported antiviral activities which were subjected to structure-based studies against SARS-CoV-2 co-crystallized proteins. The molecular docking of marine bioactive compounds against the main protease (Mpro, PDB ID: 6lu7 and 6y2f), the spike glycoprotein (PDB ID: 6vsb), and the RNA polymerase (PDB ID: 6m71) of SARS-CoV-2 was performed. Ligand-based approach with the inclusion of rapid overlay chemical structures (ROCS) was also addressed in order to examine the probability of these marine compounds sharing relevance and druggability with the reported drugs. Among the examined marine library, the highest scores in different virtual screening aspects were displayed by compounds with flavonoids core, acyl indole, and pyrrole carboxamide alkaloids. Moreover, a complete overlay with the co-crystallized ligands of Mpro was revealed by sceptrin and debromo-sceptrin. Thalassoilin (A-B) which was found in the Red Sea exhibited the highest binding and similarity outcomes among all target proteins. These data highlight the importance of marine natural metabolites in regard to further studies for discovering new drugs to combat the COVID-19 pandemic.

3.
RSC Adv ; 10(50): 29983-29998, 2020 Aug 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-851319

ABSTRACT

3'-Hydroxy-4'-methoxy-chroman-7-O-ß-d-glucopyranoside 4 was first isolated from a natural source, together with three known compounds, the ferulic acid heptyl ester 1, naringenin 2, and 4,2',4'-trihydroxy-6'-methoxychalcone-4'-O-ß-d-glucopyranoside 3, which were isolated from peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] fruits. These compounds were subjected to different virtual screening strategies in order to examine their activity to combat the COVID-19 outbreak. The study design composed of some major aspects: (a) docking with main protease (Mpro), (b) docking with spike protein, (c) 3D shape similarity study (Rapid Overlay Chemical Similarity-ROCS) to the clinically used drugs in COVID-19 patients, and finally, (d) the rule of five and the estimated pre-ADMT properties of the separated flavonoids. Docking study with Mpro of SARS-CoV-2 (PDB ID:6LU7, and 6Y2F) showed that compound 3, its aglycone part, and compound 4 have a strong binding mode to a protease receptor with key amino acids, especially Gln:166AA, and having a similar docking pose to co-crystalized ligands. Docking with the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 illustrated that compounds 3 and 4 have a good binding affinity to PDB ID:6VSB through the formation of HBs with Asp:467A and Asn:422A. According to ROCS analysis, compounds 1, 3, and 4 displayed high similarities to drugs that prevent SARS-Co2 entry to the lung cells or block the inflammatory storm causing lung injury. Compounds 3 and 4 are good candidates for drug development especially because they showed predicted activity against SARS-CoV-2 through different mechanisms either by preventing genome replication or by blocking inflammatory storm that trigger lung injury. These compounds were isolated from peach fruit, and the study supports data and continues with the recommendation of peach fruits in controlling and managing COVID-19 cases.

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