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Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J ; 21(2): e302-e307, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1296286


On 27 April 2020, the National Health Service England issued an emergency alert for a new condition owing to the observation of an increasing number of cases of a COVID-19-related hyperinflammatory syndrome termed multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). Some of the presenting symptoms appeared similar to the Kawasaki disease and toxic shock syndrome. We report the cases of six children fitting the criteria of MIS-C, admitted to Royal Hospital and Sohar Hospital, Oman, between the months of June and July in 2020. Four of these patients required admission at the paediatric intensive care unit for inotropic support while two were admitted to the paediatric ward on suspicion of appendicitis. MIS-C has been reported in a small number of individuals below the age of 21 years with a median age of 9-10 years. Five of the current patients were aged less than the median age reported in the existing literature. All of the patients showed complete recovery with supportive management, intravenous immunoglobulin and steroids, with one patient requiring interleukin-6 inhibitor (tocilizumab).

COVID-19/complications , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , Shock, Septic , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Oman , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , State Medicine
Int J Infect Dis ; 110: 258-260, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279609


The world is currently engaged in a race of vaccination versus infection in an effort to control the COVID-19 pandemic. Some countries have already achieved high vaccination rates, offering a glimpse into the so-called "post-vaccination" world. We describe here a striking comparison between the similar-sized and neighboring countries of Bahrain and Qatar. While both countries have achieved impressive vaccination rates, cases increased to unprecedented levels in one country while decreasing steadily in the other. Although this could be attributed to a number of factors, we argue here that the heavy reliance on alum-adjuvanted inactivated virus vaccines may have contributed to these discrepant outcomes. We then expand the analysis to compare the outcomes of the top 10 vaccinated countries based on their reliance on inactivated virus vaccines. The results remarkably align with the initial findings seen in Bahrain and Qatar. Countries that did not use inactivated virus vaccines achieved steady declines in daily COVID-19 deaths, while other countries did not. This work highlights the urgent need to further study the effectiveness of alum-adjuvanted inactivated virus vaccines for COVID-19 before expanding their use.

COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines, Inactivated
Int J Infect Dis ; 104: 655-660, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1101287


OBJECTIVES: To describe the epidemiology, clinical and laboratory features, and outcome of children hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the Middle East. METHODS: A multicenter retrospective study of children hospitalized with COVID-19 in 7 centers across Oman between February and July 2020. RESULTS: In total, 56 children <14 years old required hospitalization in 7 Omani centers over 5 months (February - July 2020). Thirty-seven (68%) children were admitted with uncomplicated COVID-19, 13 (23%) with pneumonia and 5 (9%) with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. Infants constituted 41% of cases (23/56), approximately half of whom (12/23, 52%) were <2-months old. Fever was the most common symptom (46, 82%), followed by respiratory symptoms (33, 59%), and gastrointestinal symptoms (31, 55%). Twenty-two (39%) children had underlying medical conditions: sickle cell disease (7, 13%), chronic respiratory disease (4, 7%) and severe neurological impairment (4, 7%). Leukocytosis, elevated inflammatory markers and anemia were independently associated with intensive care admission. There were no mortalities related to admission with COVID-19 in this cohort. CONCLUSION: Most of the children hospitalized with COVID-19 had a mild course and a satisfactory outcome. Sickle cell disease is the most common comorbidity associated with pediatric admission of COVID-19 in Oman.

COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Male , Oman/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies