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Perspect Med Educ ; 11(1): 45-52, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1872787


INTRODUCTION: Coaching is a growing clinician-educator role. Self-efficacy is a powerful faculty motivator that is associated positively with job satisfaction and negatively with burnout. This study examines self-efficacy, job satisfaction, and burnout in coaches and other clinician-educators. METHODS: We conducted a mixed methods study using a quantitative survey followed by qualitative interviews of faculty at the University of California, San Francisco. Coaches (funded 20% full-time equivalents), faculty with other funded education positions ("funded"), and faculty without funded education positions ("unfunded") completed a 48-item survey addressing self-efficacy (teaching, professional development, and scholarship), job satisfaction, and burnout. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance followed by post-hoc tests and chi-square tests. To elaborate quantitative results, we conducted qualitative interviews of 15 faculty and analyzed data using framework analysis. RESULTS: 202 of 384 faculty (52.6%) responded to the survey; 187 complete surveys were analyzed. Teaching self-efficacy was similar across groups. Coaches and funded educators had significantly higher professional development self-efficacy and job satisfaction than unfunded educators. Burnout was more prevalent in coaches and unfunded educators. Qualitative analysis yielded three themes: sources of reward, academic identity, and strategies to mitigate burnout. Educator roles provide reward that enhances self-efficacy and job satisfaction but also generate competing demands. Coaches cited challenges in forming professional identities and working with struggling learners. DISCUSSION: The coaching role provides faculty with benefits similar to other funded educator roles, but the particular demands of the coach role may contribute to burnout.

Burnout, Professional , Job Satisfaction , Faculty , Humans , Self Efficacy , Surveys and Questionnaires
Hosp Pediatr ; 2021 Dec 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592714


OBJECTIVE: To describe challenges in inpatient pediatric quality and safety during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: In a previous qualitative study, our team sought to broadly describe changes in pediatric inpatient care during the pandemic. For both that study and this ancillary analysis, we purposefully sampled participants from community and children's hospitals in the 6 US states with the highest COVID-19 hospitalization rates from March to May 2020. We recruited 2 to 3 participants from each hospital (administrators, front-line physicians, nurses, caregivers) for semistructured interviews. We used constant comparative methods to identify themes regarding quality and safety challenges during the pandemic. RESULTS: We interviewed 30 participants from 12 hospitals. Participants described several impacts to clinical workflows, including decreased direct clinician-patient interactions and challenges to communication, partly addressed through innovative use of telehealth technology. Participants reported changes in the discharge and transfer process (eg, discharges, difficulties accessing specialized facilities). Participants also described impacts to hospital operations, including changes in quality monitoring and operations (eg, decreased staff, data collection), increased health risks for clinicians and staff (eg, COVID-19 exposure, testing delays), and staff and supply shortages. Participants voiced concerns that negative quality and safety impacts could include increased risk of preventable safety events and hospital readmissions, and decreased patient engagement, education, and satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS: We identified several impacts to clinical workflows and hospital operations during the pandemic that may have affected inpatient pediatric care quality and safety. Our findings highlight potentially important areas of focus for planning pandemic recovery, preparing for future pandemics, and conducting future research on inpatient pediatric quality and safety.

BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 953, 2021 09 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1413410


BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has necessitated rapid changes in healthcare delivery in the United States, including changes in the care of hospitalized children. The objectives of this study were to identify major changes in healthcare delivery for hospitalized children during the COVID-19 pandemic, identify lessons learned from these changes, and compare and contrast the experiences of children's and community hospitals. METHODS: We purposefully sampled participants from both community and children's hospitals serving pediatric patients in the six U.S. states with the highest COVID-19 hospitalization rates at the onset of the pandemic. We recruited 2-3 participants from each hospital (mix of administrators, front-line physicians, nurses, and parents/caregivers) for semi-structured interviews. We analyzed interview data using constant comparative methods to identify major themes. RESULTS: We interviewed 30 participants from 12 hospitals. Participants described how leaders rapidly developed new hospital policies (e.g., directing use of personal protective equipment) and how this was facilitated by reviewing internal and external data frequently and engaging all relevant stakeholders. Hospital leaders optimized communication through regular, transparent, multi-modal, and bi-directional communication. Clinicians increased use of videoconference and telehealth to facilitate physical distancing, but these technologies may have disadvantaged non-English speakers. Due to declining volumes of hospitalized children and surges of adult patients, clinicians newly provided care for hospitalized adults. This was facilitated by developing care teams supported by adult hospitalists, multidisciplinary support via videoconference, and educational resources. Participants described how the pandemic negatively impacted clinicians' mental health, and they stressed the importance of mental health resources and wellness activities/spaces. CONCLUSIONS: We identified several major changes in inpatient pediatric care delivery during the COVID-19 pandemic, including the adoption of new hospital policies, video communication, staffing models, education strategies, and staff mental health supports. We outline important lessons learned, including strategies for successfully developing new policies, effectively communicating with staff, and supporting clinicians' expanding scope of practice. Potentially important focus areas in pandemic recovery include assessing and supporting clinicians' mental health and well-being, re-evaluating trainees' skills/competencies, and adapting educational strategies as needed. These findings can help guide hospital leaders in supporting pandemic recovery and addressing future crises.

COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Child , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology