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1.
Progress in Neurology and Psychiatry ; 26(2):29-32, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1826101

ABSTRACT

The link and association between COVID‐19 and Alzheimer's disease (AD) is controversial. This study aims to investigate whether COVID‐19 was associated with a different presenting clinical picture or a more severe course of illness (eg intubation and death) in people with AD in this study cohort.

2.
J Med Virol ; 2021 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718362

ABSTRACT

We investigated the frequency of brain fog in a large cohort of patients with documented coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) who have survived the illness. We also scrutinized the potential risk factors associated with the development of brain fog. Adult patients (18-55 years of age), who were referred to the healthcare facilities anywhere in Fars province from February 19, 2020 to November 20, 2020 were included. All patients had a confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis. In a phone call, at least 3 months after their discharge from the hospital, we obtained their current information. A questionnaire was specifically designed for data collection. In total, 2696 patients had the inclusion criteria; 1680 (62.3%) people reported long COVID syndrome (LCS). LCS-associated brain fog was reported by 194 (7.2%) patients. Female sex (odds ratio [OR]: 1.4), respiratory problems at the onset (OR: 1.9), and intensive care unit (ICU) admission (OR: 1.7) were significantly associated with reporting chronic post-COVID "brain fog" by the patients. In this large population-based study, we report that chronic post-COVID "brain fog" has significant associations with sex (female), respiratory symptoms at the onset, and the severity of the illness (ICU admission).

3.
Iran J Public Health ; 51(1): 172-177, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1716270

ABSTRACT

Background: Identifying effective biomarkers plays a critical role on screening; rapid diagnosis; proper managements and therapeutic options, which is helpful in preventing serious complications. The present study aimed to compare the liver laboratory tests between alive and dead hospitalized cases for prediction and proper management of the patients. Methods: This retrospective, cross sectional study consists of all deceased patients admitted in one center in Shiraz, Iran during 19 Feb 2020 to 22 Aug 2021. For further comparison, we selected a 1:2 ratios alive group randomly. Results: Overall, 875 hospitalized cases died due to COVID-19. We selected 1750 alive group randomly. The median age was significantly higher in died group (65.96 vs 51.20). Regarding the laboratory findings during the hospitalization ALT, AST, Bili.D were significantly higher in non-survivors than survivors but Albumin was less in deceased patients. It was revealed elevated levels of Albumin, AST, Bili.T and Bili.D were associated with increasing the risk of in hospital death. Moreover, the predictive effect of ALP and Bili.D had significantly more than others with high sensitivity and specify. Conclusion: We found patients with COVID-19 have reduced serum albumin level, and increase ALT and AST. The current results revealed abnormal liver chemistries is associated with poor outcome, which highlighted the importance of monitoring these patients more carefully and should be given more caution.

4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-319288

ABSTRACT

Background: As the COVID-19 pandemic unfolded, rapid case increase was observed in multiple cities in Iran. However, in the absence of seroprevalence surveys, the true infection rate remains unknown. In this population-based study we assessed the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in eighteen cities of Iran.Methods: We randomly selected and invited study participants from the general population (N = 3,547) and occupations with high risk of COVID-19 exposure, defined as high-risk population (e.g., supermarket employees) (N = 5,391), in eighteen cities of Iran. SARS-CoV-2 ELISA kits were used to detect antibody against COVID-19. Crude, population weight adjusted, and test performance adjusted seroprevalence rates were estimated.Findings: The population weight adjusted and test performance adjusted prevalence rates of antibody seropositivity in general population were 13·1% (95% CI 11·6-14·8%) and 18·5% (95% CI 16·1-21·3%), respectively. The population-weighted seroprevalence estimate implies that 3,290,633 (95% CI 2,907185-3,709,167) individuals, from the eighteen included cities in this study, were infected by end of April 2020.The overall prevalence rate was higher among individuals aged ≥ 60 years (32·0%, 95% CI 23·9-40·8%) and with comorbidity condition (23·7%, 95% CI 18·5-28·8%). The estimated seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies varied greatly by city and the highest population test-adjusted prevalence rates were in Rasht 78·1% (95% CI 58·3-98·3%) and Qom (66·5%, 95% CI 39·9-95·4%) cities. The test-adjusted prevalence did not differ between low and high-risk populations and was about 20.0%.Interpretations: The findings of this study imply that prevalence of seropositivity is likely much higher than the reported prevalence rates based on confirmed COVID-19 cases in Iran. Despite the high seroprevalence rates in a few cities, the low overall prevalence estimates indicate that a large proportion of population is still susceptible to the virus. The similar seroprevalence estimates between low and high-risk occupations might be an indicator of inadequate or low adherence to infection control measures among general population.Funding Statement: Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education COVID-19 Grant (number 99-1-97-47964).Declaration of Interests: None to disclose.Ethics Approval Statement: Ethics approval for this study was granted by Vice-Chancellor in Research Affairs-Tehran University of Medical Sciences (IR. TUMS.VCR.REC.1399.308)

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-310003

ABSTRACT

Purpose: According to the possible role of other comorbidities in increase the risk of mortality in diabetes patient, recent study was designed to manage complications and mortality rate in this group of patients. Methods: : In this cross-sectional study (25 February to 10 July 2020) total of 458 diabetic patients were enrolled based on their characteristics, symptoms and signs, and presence of underlying diseases. Multiple logistic regression and χ2 test analysis used to check the effectiveness of comorbidities on the mortality outcome among diabetic patients. Results: : Of 458 diabetic patients, 306 (67%) were with underlying diseases (200 (65.4%) hypertension, 103 (33.7%) cardiovascular diseases and 29 (9.5%) kidney diseases). The rate of fatality was significantly high in patients with chronic kidney and liver diseases. The odds of mortality outcome increase 3.1 fold for patients over 55 years as compared to under 55 years (P =0.011), and the odds of mortality outcome was more than 5.1 folds for those who had chronic kidney disease (P <0.001). Conclusions: : The presentation of SARS-CoV-2 in older diabetic patients with comorbidities (chronic kidney and liver diseases) is more severe in risk of mortality.

6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-309918

ABSTRACT

Background: In the current COVID-19 pandemic, COVID-19 viral respiratory symptoms have been confused with other viral respiratory infections such as influenza. Given that both viruses cause respiratory diseases, there are important differences between these two viruses in terms of how they are spread, controlled and treated. Due to these differences, a definitive diagnosis of each infection has important implications for the public health measures that can be implemented in response to the treatment of each virus. Method: In this cross-sectional retrospective study from 4th September 2020 to 5th December 2020 (time period of influenza outbreak in Iran, a total of 455 Severe Acute Respiratory Infections (SARI) patients were included. Two nasopharyngeal and one oropharyngeal throat swab samples were collected from all participants and evaluated for COVID-19 by real-time reverse transcriptase–polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assay using the E-Gene specific primers/FAM probe and S Gene primers/ROX probe (Covitech, Iran) for SARS-CoV-2. Due to the concurrence of the study in autumn and the history of influenza outbreak at this time in Iran. Nasopharyngeal samples were collected and tested for influenza viruses A (H1N1, H3N2, seasonal flu), and Influenza B by one step qRT-PCR Master Mix (Invitrogen, United States) and AG synthesis probe and primers (Metabion, Germany) for Influenza A (H1N1, H3N2, seasonal flu) and B. Results: In this study, 455 patients with SARI were hospitalized during September to December 2020. 203(44.61%) were infected with SARS-COV-2 and of these patients, one patient was positive for both COVID-19 and Influenza. The mean age was estimated 54.93 ± 17.00 and 50.65 ± 17.71 in COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 groups, respectively which was significantly different (P < 0.001). Sex distribution between two groups showed that most of COVID-19 patients were male, this is in contrast with the COVID-19 negative group, in which most of patients were female and these differences were statistically significant. (P = 0.057). Clinical outcomes of patients with diagnosed SARI were measured. The main parameters were discharge from ICU and death during hospital admission. There was no significant difference between the number of patients discharge from ICU who were COVID positive or COVID negative. In addition, there was no significant difference between the number of patients who died who were COVID positive or COVID negative. Conclusion: The decline in Influenza incidence and coinfection with COVID-19 in comparison to previous years appears to be significant due to its concurrence with the COVID19 pandemic and general population awareness on observing the instructions for personal respiratory protection e.g mask-wearing, hand washing, self-isolation and public health measures. Therefore, routine testing and empirical treatment for suspected influenza coinfection in COVID-19 patients is not recommended.

7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-305054

ABSTRACT

Background: Despite the whole world’s effort for controlling, an ongoing global outbreak of lower respiratory tract disease, caused by new corona virus;led to a major public health issue. Current study aims to evaluate the characteristics of infected case in Fars, Iran Methods: : According to the referral of suspicious patients during one month, 2538 samples were evaluated and extracted for Viral RNA nucleic acids by using the Invitrogen ChargeSwitch® Total RNA Cell Kit (Invitrogen Co.). Data were recorded based on the standardized data collection forms shared by WHO and the International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infection Consortium. Results: : By 19 March 2020, 440 admitted patients had been identified with CoVID-19 confirmation. More than 50% of cases were men. Mean age were estimated 48.15 ±18.07. Of all the patients, 30 (6.81%) had a history of travel to Qom city, which was the first infected zone in Iran, also 92(20.90%) had close contact with contaminated or suspected individuals. The mortality rate was estimated 2. 95% (13 cases). Cardiovascular disease (25, 5.68%), diabetes (33, 7.5%), and hypertension (35, 7.95%) were the most common co-existing disorders. Patients with underlying disease are more in danger of death [OR: 11.64, (95%CI 3.14 – 43.18), p= 0.0002]. Conclusion: Human to human transmission of SARS-CoV-II causes Fars province in southwest of Iran become infected and 440 cases identified during one month. The SARS-Cov-2 is more likely to affect male sex and individuals with old age and underlying disorders.

8.
Murray, Christopher J. L.; Ikuta, Kevin Shunji, Sharara, Fablina, Swetschinski, Lucien, Robles Aguilar, Gisela, Gray, Authia, Han, Chieh, Bisignano, Catherine, Rao, Puja, Wool, Eve, Johnson, Sarah C.; Browne, Annie J.; Chipeta, Michael Give, Fell, Frederick, Hackett, Sean, Haines-Woodhouse, Georgina, Kashef Hamadani, Bahar H.; Kumaran, Emmanuelle A. P.; McManigal, Barney, Agarwal, Ramesh, Akech, Samuel, Albertson, Samuel, Amuasi, John, Andrews, Jason, Aravkin, Aleskandr, Ashley, Elizabeth, Bailey, Freddie, Baker, Stephen, Basnyat, Buddha, Bekker, Adrie, Bender, Rose, Bethou, Adhisivam, Bielicki, Julia, Boonkasidecha, Suppawat, Bukosia, James, Carvalheiro, Cristina, Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos, Chansamouth, Vilada, Chaurasia, Suman, Chiurchiù, Sara, Chowdhury, Fazle, Cook, Aislinn J.; Cooper, Ben, Cressey, Tim R.; Criollo-Mora, Elia, Cunningham, Matthew, Darboe, Saffiatou, Day, Nicholas P. J.; De Luca, Maia, Dokova, Klara, Dramowski, Angela, Dunachie, Susanna J.; Eckmanns, Tim, Eibach, Daniel, Emami, Amir, Feasey, Nicholas, Fisher-Pearson, Natasha, Forrest, Karen, Garrett, Denise, Gastmeier, Petra, Giref, Ababi Zergaw, Greer, Rachel Claire, Gupta, Vikas, Haller, Sebastian, Haselbeck, Andrea, Hay, Simon I.; Holm, Marianne, Hopkins, Susan, Iregbu, Kenneth C.; Jacobs, Jan, Jarovsky, Daniel, Javanmardi, Fatemeh, Khorana, Meera, Kissoon, Niranjan, Kobeissi, Elsa, Kostyanev, Tomislav, Krapp, Fiorella, Krumkamp, Ralf, Kumar, Ajay, Kyu, Hmwe Hmwe, Lim, Cherry, Limmathurotsakul, Direk, Loftus, Michael James, Lunn, Miles, Ma, Jianing, Mturi, Neema, Munera-Huertas, Tatiana, Musicha, Patrick, Mussi-Pinhata, Marisa Marcia, Nakamura, Tomoka, Nanavati, Ruchi, Nangia, Sushma, Newton, Paul, Ngoun, Chanpheaktra, Novotney, Amanda, Nwakanma, Davis, Obiero, Christina W.; Olivas-Martinez, Antonio, Olliaro, Piero, Ooko, Ednah, Ortiz-Brizuela, Edgar, Peleg, Anton Yariv, Perrone, Carlo, Plakkal, Nishad, Ponce-de-Leon, Alfredo, Raad, Mathieu, Ramdin, Tanusha, Riddell, Amy, Roberts, Tamalee, Robotham, Julie Victoria, Roca, Anna, Rudd, Kristina E.; Russell, Neal, Schnall, Jesse, Scott, John Anthony Gerard, Shivamallappa, Madhusudhan, Sifuentes-Osornio, Jose, Steenkeste, Nicolas, Stewardson, Andrew James, Stoeva, Temenuga, Tasak, Nidanuch, Thaiprakong, Areerat, Thwaites, Guy, Turner, Claudia, Turner, Paul, van Doorn, H. Rogier, Velaphi, Sithembiso, Vongpradith, Avina, Vu, Huong, Walsh, Timothy, Waner, Seymour, Wangrangsimakul, Tri, Wozniak, Teresa, Zheng, Peng, Sartorius, Benn, Lopez, Alan D.; Stergachis, Andy, Moore, Catrin, Dolecek, Christiane, Naghavi, Mohsen.
Lancet ; 399(10325): 629-655, 2022 02 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1624565

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) poses a major threat to human health around the world. Previous publications have estimated the effect of AMR on incidence, deaths, hospital length of stay, and health-care costs for specific pathogen-drug combinations in select locations. To our knowledge, this study presents the most comprehensive estimates of AMR burden to date. METHODS: We estimated deaths and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) attributable to and associated with bacterial AMR for 23 pathogens and 88 pathogen-drug combinations in 204 countries and territories in 2019. We obtained data from systematic literature reviews, hospital systems, surveillance systems, and other sources, covering 471 million individual records or isolates and 7585 study-location-years. We used predictive statistical modelling to produce estimates of AMR burden for all locations, including for locations with no data. Our approach can be divided into five broad components: number of deaths where infection played a role, proportion of infectious deaths attributable to a given infectious syndrome, proportion of infectious syndrome deaths attributable to a given pathogen, the percentage of a given pathogen resistant to an antibiotic of interest, and the excess risk of death or duration of an infection associated with this resistance. Using these components, we estimated disease burden based on two counterfactuals: deaths attributable to AMR (based on an alternative scenario in which all drug-resistant infections were replaced by drug-susceptible infections), and deaths associated with AMR (based on an alternative scenario in which all drug-resistant infections were replaced by no infection). We generated 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs) for final estimates as the 25th and 975th ordered values across 1000 posterior draws, and models were cross-validated for out-of-sample predictive validity. We present final estimates aggregated to the global and regional level. FINDINGS: On the basis of our predictive statistical models, there were an estimated 4·95 million (3·62-6·57) deaths associated with bacterial AMR in 2019, including 1·27 million (95% UI 0·911-1·71) deaths attributable to bacterial AMR. At the regional level, we estimated the all-age death rate attributable to resistance to be highest in western sub-Saharan Africa, at 27·3 deaths per 100 000 (20·9-35·3), and lowest in Australasia, at 6·5 deaths (4·3-9·4) per 100 000. Lower respiratory infections accounted for more than 1·5 million deaths associated with resistance in 2019, making it the most burdensome infectious syndrome. The six leading pathogens for deaths associated with resistance (Escherichia coli, followed by Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) were responsible for 929 000 (660 000-1 270 000) deaths attributable to AMR and 3·57 million (2·62-4·78) deaths associated with AMR in 2019. One pathogen-drug combination, meticillin-resistant S aureus, caused more than 100 000 deaths attributable to AMR in 2019, while six more each caused 50 000-100 000 deaths: multidrug-resistant excluding extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis, third-generation cephalosporin-resistant E coli, carbapenem-resistant A baumannii, fluoroquinolone-resistant E coli, carbapenem-resistant K pneumoniae, and third-generation cephalosporin-resistant K pneumoniae. INTERPRETATION: To our knowledge, this study provides the first comprehensive assessment of the global burden of AMR, as well as an evaluation of the availability of data. AMR is a leading cause of death around the world, with the highest burdens in low-resource settings. Understanding the burden of AMR and the leading pathogen-drug combinations contributing to it is crucial to making informed and location-specific policy decisions, particularly about infection prevention and control programmes, access to essential antibiotics, and research and development of new vaccines and antibiotics. There are serious data gaps in many low-income settings, emphasising the need to expand microbiology laboratory capacity and data collection systems to improve our understanding of this important human health threat. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Wellcome Trust, and Department of Health and Social Care using UK aid funding managed by the Fleming Fund.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Global Burden of Disease , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Global Health , Humans , Models, Statistical
9.
Iran J Med Sci ; 46(6): 428-436, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513428

ABSTRACT

Background: Recently, people have recognized the post-acute phase symptoms of the COVID-19. We investigated the long-term symptoms associated with COVID-19, (Long COVID Syndrome), and the risk factors associated with it. Methods: This was a retrospective observational study. All the consecutive adult patients referred to the healthcare facilities anywhere in Fars province from 19 February 2020 until 20 November 2020 were included. All the patients had a confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis. In a phone call to the patients, at least three months after their discharge from the hospital, we obtained their current information. The IBM SPSS Statistics (version 25.0) was used. Pearson Chi square, Fisher's exact test, t test, and binary logistic regression analysis model were employed. A P value of less than 0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: In total, 4,681 patients were studied, 2915 of whom (62.3%) reported symptoms. The most common symptoms of long COVID syndrome were fatigue, exercise intolerance, walking intolerance, muscle pain, and shortness of breath. Women were more likely to experience long-term COVID syndrome than men (Odds Ratio: 1,268; 95% Confidence Interval: 1,122-1,432; P=0.0001), which was significant. Presentation with respiratory problems at the onset of illness was also significantly associated with long COVID syndrome (Odds Ratio: 1.425; 95% Confidence Interval: 1.177-1.724; P=0.0001). A shorter length of hospital stay was inversely associated with long COVID syndrome (Odds Ratio: 0.953; 95% Confidence Interval: 0.941-0.965; P=0.0001). Conclusion: Long COVID syndrome is a frequent and disabling condition and has significant associations with sex (female), respiratory symptoms at the onset, and the severity of the illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
11.
World J Pediatr ; 17(5): 495-499, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1392013

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To identify the prevalence and also the full spectrum of symptoms/complaints of children and adolescents who are suffering from long COVID. Furthermore, we investigated the risk factors of long COVID in children and adolescents. METHODS: All consecutive children and adolescents who were referred to the hospitals anywhere in Fars province, Iran, from 19 February 2020 until 20 November 2020 were included. All patients had a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19. In a phone call to patients/parents, at least 3 months after their discharge from the hospital, we obtained their current status and information if their parents agreed to participate. RESULTS: In total, 58 children and adolescents fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Twenty-six (44·8%) children/adolescents reported symptoms/complaints of long COVID. These symptoms included fatigue in 12 (21%), shortness of breath in 7 (12%), exercise intolerance in 7 (12%), weakness in 6 (10%), and walking intolerance in 5 (9%) individuals. Older age, muscle pain on admission, and intensive care unit admission were significantly associated with long COVID. CONCLUSIONS: Long COVID is a frequent condition in children and adolescents. The scientific community should investigate and explore the pathophysiology of long COVID to ensure that these patients receive appropriate treatments for their condition.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Adolescent , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Prevalence , Risk Factors
12.
Epilepsy Behav ; 122: 108207, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294313

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We performed a follow-up study of patients with COVID-19 presenting with seizures. METHODS: All consecutive patients with seizures, who were referred to Namazee Hospital, Shiraz, Iran, with a diagnosis of COVID-19, from 10 August 2020 until 20 October 2020 were included in this longitudinal study. The clinical data were collected by the admitting physician. In a follow-up phone call to the discharged patients (after eight weeks or more), we inquired their seizure outcome. RESULTS: In total, 32 patients were studied; 28 patients were followed. Twelve patients (37.5%) presented with a single tonic-clonic seizure and nine (28.1%) had convulsive status epilepticus; one patient had functional (psychogenic) seizures. Ten patients (31.3%) had pre-existing epilepsy, eight others (25%) had pre-existing CNS problems (without epilepsy), one person (3.1%) had pre-existing functional seizures, and 13 individuals (40.1%) neither had epilepsy nor had other CNS problems. Eight patients (28.6%) reported experiencing seizure(s) after being discharged from the hospital; six of these had pre-existing epilepsy and one had pre-existing functional seizures. One patient, who had a newly developed ischemic brain infarction, reported experiencing recurrent seizures. CONCLUSION: Seizures in patients with COVID-19 are either acute symptomatic (in about two-thirds) or an exacerbation of a pre-existing epilepsy/functional seizures (in about one-third). A thorough investigation of the underlying etiology of seizures in patients with COVID-19 is necessary. Seizure outcome in patients, who are hospitalized with COVID-19 and seizures, is generally good.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/complications , Seizures/drug therapy
13.
Obes Med ; 25: 100352, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230694

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with diabetes are one of the most high-risk group to become infected with SARS-CoV-2. Current study was designed to evaluate the risk of other complications in COVID-19 patients with diabetes. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study (25 February to July 10, 2020), 458 patients with diabetes were enrolled based on their characteristics, symptoms and signs, laboratory data and presence of other underlying diseases. Multiple logistic regression and Chi-square test analysis were used to check the effectiveness of other comorbidities on the mortality outcome among patients with diabetes. RESULTS: Of 458 patients with diabetes, 306 (67%) had other underlying diseases, such as 200 (65.4%) hypertension, 103 (33.7%) cardiovascular diseases and 29 (9.5%) kidney diseases. The rate of fatality was significantly high in patients with chronic kidney and liver diseases. The odds of mortality were increased 3.1-fold for patients over 55 years as compared to those under 55 years (P = 0.011), and the odds of mortality outcome were more than 5.1-fold for those who had chronic kidney disease (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The presentation of SARS-CoV-2 in older patients with diabetes with other comorbidities such as chronic kidney and liver diseases is more severe in risk of mortality.

14.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-3, 2021 May 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1211232

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine whether COVID-19 is associated with a different presenting clinical picture or a more severe course of illness in people with a past history of chemical war injury. METHODS: This is a multicenter retrospective study in Fars Province, Iran, from August 22 to October 4, 2020. People with a past history of chemical war injury and COVID-19 were studied. Two age- and sex-matched control groups, double the size of the patient group each, from the same database of patients with COVID-19 who were hospitalized at the same time (ie, healthy controls and pseudocontrols). RESULTS: A total of 46 people with a past history of chemical war injury, 92 healthy controls, and 92 pseudocontrols were studied. People with COVID-19 and a past history of chemical war injury had a significantly higher rate of chest pain compared with others. There were no other clinical differences between the groups. Mortality rate was 17.39%, 15.21%, and 27.17% in people with a past history of chemical war injury, the control group, and the pseudocontrol group, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A past history of a chemical war injury does not add to the risk of COVID-19 and does not significantly modify its clinical picture either.

15.
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica ; 143(6):624-628, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1208836

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo determine whether patients with epilepsy (PWE) are particularly over‐represented in a very large cohort of patients with COVID‐19. We also investigated whether COVID‐19 is associated with a different clinical picture or a more severe course of illness in PWE (compared with others).MethodsAll consecutive patients who referred to and admitted at healthcare facilities anywhere in Fars province (located in the south of Iran with a population of 4,851,000 people) from February 19, 2020 until November 20, 2020 were included.ResultsA total of 37,968 patients were studied. Eighty‐two patients (0.2%) had pre‐existing epilepsy. Seizures were significantly more frequent among PWE as a presenting manifestation of COVID‐19 compared with that in people without epilepsy (Odds Ratio = 27;p = 0.0001). Furthermore, PWE less often reported cough (significantly) and more often had gastrointestinal symptoms (vomiting and anorexia;as trends) compared with those in people without epilepsy. Patients with epilepsy were not differently likely to be intubated or admitted at ICUs. Case fatality rates were not different between the two groups [9.8% in PWE and 8.5% in people without epilepsy;p = 0.690].ConclusionPatients with epilepsy are not susceptible to contracting COVID‐19 more than other individuals. Furthermore, COVID‐19 in PWE is not associated with a more severe illness or a poorer prognosis. However, PWE and COVID‐19 may present somewhat differently than others with such an illness. Why PWE less often present with cough and more often present with gastrointestinal symptoms is not clear yet and should be investigated and clarified in the future studies.

16.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-4, 2021 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169326

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: A year after the emergence of a novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), as a new crisis in respiratory infections, there remain many uncertainties and unknowns about SARS-CoV-2 and the disease it causes, called coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Although COVID-19 is known as a respiratory disease, some atypical manifestations have been seen, different from those seen in other types of viral respiratory infections. This paper aims to describe designing, launching, and implementing a data collection system for all respiratory diseases, with a focus on SARS-CoV-2 from the onset of this pandemic. METHOD: The current registry is designed in compliance with the standard Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) guidelines, along with the declaration of Helsinki principles. RESULTS: A respiratory disease registry, with an emphasis on COVID-19 and other co-infections, was developed. Data consisted of demographic, clinical, and supporting information about SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory viral diseases. CONCLUSION: It is hoped that the current data registry will facilitate patient evaluation and improve the outcomes of cases of respiratory infection defined by a particular condition, disease, or exposure. Moreover, the registry can harmonize data about the treatment, outcomes, and well-being of patients who receive care over time, and identify best practices.

17.
Neurol Sci ; 42(5): 1649-1652, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1056021

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of the current study was to determine whether COVID-19 is associated with a different presenting clinical picture or a more severe course of illness in people with Down syndrome (DS). METHODS: All consecutive patients who were admitted at healthcare facilities anywhere in Fars province (located in the south of Iran with a population of 4,851,000 people) from 19 February 2020 to 20 November 2020 were included. For every patient with DS, three age- and sex-matched patients with COVID-19 and without any underlying medical conditions were selected as controls. RESULTS: During the study period, 37,968 patients were hospitalized with a diagnosis of COVID-19. Eighteen patients had DS. Patients with DS were significantly more likely to be intubated [7 patients (39%)] compared with those without DS [3 patients (6%)]; p = 0.002. Patients with DS significantly more often died of COVID-19 compared with the controls [8 (44.4%) vs. 1 (1.9%); odds ratio: 24.37; 95% confidence interval 2.39-247.94; p = 0.007]. CONCLUSION: Patients with DS are among the high-risk populations with respect to severe COVID-19 and should receive the vaccine as soon as possible. Furthermore, they should receive more intensive care if they get hospitalized with the illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Down Syndrome , Down Syndrome/complications , Down Syndrome/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Med J Islam Repub Iran ; 34: 128, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1029028

ABSTRACT

Background: In a resource-demanding COVID-19 pandemic, guidelines can free up health care resources needed for providing better care to those with COVID-19 and other patients. This study was performed to design a guideline to manage patients with colorectal cancers during the COVID-19pandemic. Methods: To design this guideline, major topics and headings of colon and rectal cancers (CRC) were selected and included. Based on the extent of COVID-19 infection in the community and availability of hospital resources, the guideline has been designed for 2 major COVID-19 phases. Several multidisciplinary discussion sessions were held to review the comments of experts, finalize the data, and write the guideline. Results: This guideline has been prepared in 2 main COVID-19 phases of the community/hospital. Phase A refers to the condition where a large number of COVID-19 patients are admitted to the hospital, but limited surgical ICU beds and facilities are still accessible. In phase B, many people are affected by COVID-19, and all hospital resources are allocated for COVID 19 patients. In phase A, 4 major groups are discussed, including malignant and suspicious colorectal polyps, colon cancers, rectal cancers, and recurrent cancers. The approach to emergent cases, including obstruction, bleeding, and perforation, will be presented in phase B. Conclusion: This guideline is a comprehensive instruction on the approach to colorectal cancers during the COVID-19 pandemic that covers the major topics of colon and rectal cancers in detail.

19.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(4): 473-481, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-989477

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rapid increases in cases of COVID-19 were observed in multiple cities in Iran towards the start of the pandemic. However, the true infection rate remains unknown. We aimed to assess the seroprevalence of antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in 18 cities of Iran as an indicator of the infection rate. METHODS: In this population-based cross-sectional study, we randomly selected and invited study participants from the general population (from lists of people registered with the Iranian electronic health record system or health-care centres) and a high-risk population of individuals likely to have close social contact with SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals through their occupation (from employee lists provided by relevant agencies or companies, such as supermarket chains) across 18 cities in 17 Iranian provinces. Participants were asked questions on their demographic characteristics, medical history, recent COVID-19-related symptoms, and COVID-19-related exposures. Iran Food and Drug Administration-approved Pishtaz Teb SARS-CoV-2 ELISA kits were used to detect SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG and IgM antibodies in blood samples from participants. Seroprevalence was estimated on the basis of ELISA test results and adjusted for population weighting (by age, sex, and city population size) and test performance (according to our independent validation of sensitivity and specificity). FINDINGS: From 9181 individuals who were initially contacted between April 17 and June 2, 2020, 243 individuals refused to provide blood samples and 36 did not provide demographic information and were excluded from the analysis. Among the 8902 individuals included in the analysis, 5372 had occupations with a high risk of exposure to SARS-CoV-2 and 3530 were recruited from the general population. The overall population weight-adjusted and test performance-adjusted prevalence of antibody seropositivity in the general population was 17·1% (95% CI 14·6-19·5), implying that 4 265 542 (95% CI 3 659 043-4 887 078) individuals from the 18 cities included were infected by the end of April, 2020. The adjusted seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies varied greatly by city, with the highest estimates found in Rasht (72·6% [53·9-92·8]) and Qom (58·5% [37·2-83·9]). The overall population weight-adjusted and test performance-adjusted seroprevalence in the high-risk population was 20·0% (18·5-21·7) and showed little variation between the occupations included. INTERPRETATIONS: Seroprevalence is likely to be much higher than the reported prevalence of COVID-19 based on confirmed COVID-19 cases in Iran. Despite high seroprevalence in a few cities, a large proportion of the population is still uninfected. The potential shortcomings of current public health policies should therefore be identified to prevent future epidemic waves in Iran. FUNDING: Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education. TRANSLATION: For the Farsi translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Testing , Cities/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Young Adult
20.
World J Plast Surg ; 9(3): 331-338, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-918636

ABSTRACT

Despite the whole world's effort for controlling an ongoing global outbreak caused by new corona virus; it is still a major public health issue. Any hospitalized patient or outpatient in burn departments should be considered as a potential infectious source of COVID-19, which may cause an overwhelming of disease. However, there are no previous experiences about COVID-19 in burn patients all over the world, and here we reported two burn cases at Amir-al-Momenin Burn Hospital Affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran with skin manifestations, which were detected as a rarely COVID-19 symptom. A 13-year-old girl [total body surface area (TBSA): 18%] and a 37-year-old woman (TBSA: 30%) who had burn injuries by gas explosion and car accident, respectively were enrolled. After admission, some vesicular injuries were visible in burn area. To confirm, skin biopsy specimens were either sent for histopathology examination or for real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as follow: Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV), chicken pox, and potassium hydroxide (KOH) for fungal infections. All test results were negative. Although they had no symptoms of COVID-19, two swabs from nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal samplings were taken, the result was negative either. Specimens were obtained from vesicular lesions for qRT-PCR assay of COVID-19. According to the molecular results for vesicular samples, all the results were positive for COVID-19. Unlike all other COVID-19 patients who have respiratory symptoms, SARS-COV-2 appeared by cutaneous vesicular and blisters in two burn cases.

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