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1.
Revista De Ciencias Humanas Da Universidade De Taubate ; 15(1), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2308342

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 is a deadly viral infection that kills many people throughout the globe. The goal of this study was to find out how people in Pakistan felt about the COVID-19 vaccine.Method: Convenience and respondent-driven sampling method was used to conduct an online survey with 15 closed-and open-ended questions to a sample of 330 participants. The proportion of people who had a positive attitude towards vaccination vs. those who had a negative attitude towards vaccination was revealed by the closed-ended questions. The open-ended questions elicited qualitative data on why peo-ple accepted or rejected the vaccination.Results: 62.9% of the total number of respondents, male 1.97 times more likely (OR: 1.97, CI: 1.08-3.58) than female, 80% younger than 50 years, higher age groups, 71.3% married, 69.3% of the working population intended to get vaccinated with COVID-19 vaccine. People who held pro-vaccine health beliefs, had knowledge of, access to the COVID-19 vaccine, were employed, or under government pressure to get vaccinated, or visited public vaccination location, reported a positive attitude towards vaccination. People with safety concerns, social pressure of not getting vaccinated, low levels of awareness, trust and belonging to communities with anti-vaccination beliefs were likely to have negative attitudes towards COVID-19 vaccine.Conclusion: This study helps to identify the attitudes of people and has implications for COVID-19 immunization efforts in Pakistan for various population segments.

2.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 11(4)2023 Feb 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2244435

ABSTRACT

There seem to currently be no therapeutic medications found for the severe coronavirus infection in 2019 (COVID-19). In light of this, it has been hypothesized that the immunomodulatory treatment known as tocilizumab can lessen the inflammatory response that occurs in the respiratory system, speed up the process of clinical benefit, lower the risk of death, and avert the need for ventilators. This randomized controlled trial (RCT) studied patients with a proven infection of SARS-CoV-2 and hyperinflammatory reactions. The inclusion criteria included fever (body temperature > 38 °C), pulmonary infiltrates, or supplemental oxygen. The patients received either conventional treatment with one dose of either tocilizumab (8 mg per kilogram of body weight) or conventional treatment only. The subjects were randomized to receive either treatment with a 1:1 ratio. A time-to-event test was conducted to determine the time to intubation or death. There was an insignificant difference between the investigated groups regarding the time to death, time to mechanical ventilation, and percentage of deaths. The conventional group's median (IQR) hospital length of stay was 4 (3-6) days, whereas the tocilizumab therapy group was 7 (4.75-10) days. There was a substantial difference in the mechanical ventilation rates in both groups, which were 17 (34%) and 28 (56%), respectively. In hospitalized patients with severe illness and COVID-19, tocilizumab was ineffective in preventing intubation or death. Trials must be larger, however, in order to exclude the potential benefits or harms.

3.
19th International Conference on Remote Engineering and Virtual Instrumentation, REV 2022 ; 524 LNNS:210-221, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2128456

ABSTRACT

The presence of the COVID-19 pandemic forced the educational systems all over the world to shift their activities to be hold remotely using online learning systems. Creating an efficient remote learning system that facilitate the transition to e-learning and distance education has become a must, especially in practical sectors such as Engineering, Science and Technology that require laboratory-demanded courses. Focusing only on the individual-based experiment where a single user can access and conduct the experiment, dismissing the structure of group-based laboratory experiment, can’t reflect comprehension construction as in the real on-site laboratories. In this paper, a group-based online learning system is proposed to provide a collaborative and cooperative virtual learning environment for laboratory experimentation taking into consideration different aspects that may impact the interactions between students. We divided the whole group-based laboratory experimentation platform process into four main parts: experiment creation using integrated authoring tool, experiment configuration and scheduling, monitored run-time process, and pre/post session configuration. We also proposed a runtime experiment student’s web-based graphical user interface that represents developed features that successfully achieve flexible, scalable and reusable system with the aim of maintaining satisfactory and effective user experience. © 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

4.
Infect Dis Rep ; 14(6): 841-854, 2022 Nov 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110014

ABSTRACT

Numerous measures have been taken to slow the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) rapid spread. Such population control techniques may have a substantial impact on people's attitudes, knowledge, and perception of COVID-19. This web-based cross-sectional survey aimed to assess Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices (KAP) towards COVID-19 among Hadhramout University Medical Students in Yemen from 15 June to 26 June 2020. This survey was performed using social media via the Google Platform among 422 Hadhramout University Medical students. After consenting, participants completed an online survey assessing sociodemographic data, 21 knowledge items, 15 attitudes items, and 5 perception items towards COVID-19. Of the total 422 participants, 389 (92.18%) were surveyed online, and 256 (65.8%) were females, and 133 (34.2%) were males aged 19-24 years (88.7%), studying medicine (58.9%), and living in urban areas (80.7%). The survey revealed that 64.0% of participants had good knowledge about the disease and 52.7% had positive attitudes towards protective measures against the virus. The majority of participants (98.2%) thought that the virus was transmitted through nasal droplets, and 59.6% agreed that the disease is dangerous. The majority of participants agreed that fever (99.2%), dry cough (97.9%), and difficulty breathing (99.5%) are the most common symptoms of the disease. The survey also showed high knowledge levels about preventive measures against the virus spreading, such as regular proper hand hygiene (99.7%), maintaining an appropriate distance (99.2%), avoiding touching eyes and nose (98.7%), and wearing facemasks in public places (97.4%). Moreover, 69.7% of participants agreed to be isolated at home if they got an infected person, 64.3% implemented washing hands with soap and water, 41.9% agreed to be separated at the hospital until they proved free from the disease, 46.0% agreed to inform the health authorities if they had any symptoms associated with the disease. By using sample T-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA), mean knowledge score about COVID-19 was significantly higher in males than in females (p = 0.029). Additionally, medicine students had significantly higher mean knowledge score than students of medical laboratory (p < 0.001) and nursing (p = 0.008). In general, our research revealed that participants had favorable opinions regarding the disease's preventative measures and a good awareness of it. However, more educational initiatives and campaigns that take into account KAP modifying elements are needed.

5.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 279(9): 4485-4490, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1844362

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to evaluate the phonatory function of recovered COVID-19 survivors. The universal outbreak of COVID-19 led to the occurrence of otolaryngological manifestations that raised concerns about the assessment of the phonatory function in recovering patients. METHODS: This is a prospective, cross-sectional, case-controlled study carried out on 364 laboratory-confirmed non-critical COVID-19 survivors and 100 as healthy controls. The study participants were classified into two groups according to the disease severity. Group1 comprised 212 survivors who recovered from pneumonia and group 2 was made up of 152 survivors of severe pneumonia. All patients were subjected to an auditory perceptual assessment of the voice (APA) and Maximum Phonation Time (MPT) measurements. RESULTS: Phonasthenic manifestations were significantly more frequent in COVID-19 survivors than in controls (P < 0.000) with a higher percentage recorded among severe pneumonia survivors (87.5%) than among pneumonia survivors (60.8%) with a P value of < 0.01. Dysphonia and excessively soft loudness were significantly more common among survivors than among controls (P < 0.002 and P < 0.000, respectively) with no significant difference between the patient groups. The MPT was significantly shorter among survivors than among controls (P < 0.000). The mean MPT was 15.97 s in the control group, 10.72 s in the pneumonia group, and 8.88 s in the severe pneumonia group, with the differences between the groups being statistically significant (P < 0.000), suggesting a higher impairment of lung volume and phonatory function in severe cases. CONCLUSIONS: Phonasthenia, dysphonia, and decreased MPT could be otolaryngological manifestations of COVID-19. Laryngeal function assessment should be considered in COVID-19 survivors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dysphonia , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hoarseness , Humans , Phonation , Prospective Studies , Survivors , Voice Quality
6.
Computers, Materials, & Continua ; 72(2):2729-2748, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1776821

ABSTRACT

With the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic, the World Health Organization (WHO) has urged scientists and industrialists to explore modern information and communication technology (ICT) as a means to reduce or even eliminate it. The World Health Organization recently reported that the virus may infect the organism through any organ in the living body, such as the respiratory, the immunity, the nervous, the digestive, or the cardiovascular system. Targeting the abovementioned goal, we envision an implanted nanosystem embedded in the intra living-body network. The main function of the nanosystem is either to perform diagnosis and mitigation of infectious diseases or to implement a targeted drug delivery system (i.e., delivery of the therapeutic drug to the diseased tissue or targeted cell). The communication among the nanomachines is accomplished via communication-based molecular diffusion. The control/interconnection of the nanosystem is accomplished through the utilization of Internet of bio-nano things (IoBNT). The proposed nanosystem is designed to employ a coded relay nanomachine disciplined by the decode and forward (DF) principle to ensure reliable drug delivery to the targeted cell. Notably, both the sensitivity of the drug dose and the phenomenon of drug molecules loss before delivery to the target cell site in long-distance due to the molecules diffusion process are taken into account. In this paper, a coded relay NM with conventional coding techniques such as RS and Turbo codes is selected to achieve minimum bit error rate (BER) performance and high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), while the detection process is based on maximum likelihood (ML) probability and minimum error probability (MEP). The performance analysis of the proposed scheme is evaluated in terms of channel capacity and bit error rate by varying system parameters such as relay position, number of released molecules, relay and receiver size. Analysis results are validated through simulation and demonstrate that the proposed scheme can significantly improve delivery performance of the desirable drugs in the molecular communication system.

7.
Front Public Health ; 9: 799812, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1648866

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has created a general state of worry and distress, especially among vulnerable groups such as those with psychiatric diagnoses. Worldwide, psychiatric care provision has drastically suffered during the pandemic, with many patients unable to access proper care, which may have implications for increased mental health consequences in patients with psychiatric disorders (e.g., relapse and suicide). This cross-sectional study used structural equation modeling to investigate COVID-19-related trauma and distress among Arab psychiatric population during COVID-19 quarantine. Patients with pre-existing psychiatric disorders (N = 168) completed an online survey that comprised the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 21 (DASS-21), the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), and a questionnaire on COVID-19-related attitudes/perceptions, sources of information, used protective measures, and socio-demographic information. Respondents commonly reported feeling down-hearted/blue, trouble concentrating, along with symptoms of avoidance and rumination related to the pandemic. Patients with depression and sleep disorders expressed higher COVID-19-related trauma than patients with other disorders. Perceived physical health mediated the effect of co-morbid chronic physical disorders on COVID-19 trauma, psychological distress, perceived vulnerability to COVID-19, and perceived likelihood of recovery in case of contracting COVID-19. Perceived physical health and perceived vulnerability to COVID-19 were strong direct predictors of COVID-19-related trauma and psychological distress. Staying at home negatively predicted COVID-19 trauma and exerted an indirect negative effect on psychological distress via COVID-19 trauma. COVID-19 trauma, age, and marital status directly predicted psychological distress, with COVID-19 trauma being the strongest predictor. Educational level, income, having family members working in the medical field, keeping up to date with the news on deaths/infected cases or the development of COVID-19 drugs or vaccines, satisfaction with available information on COVID-19, and using different protective measures were not associated with significant differences in COVID-19 trauma and psychological distress scores. Immuno-psychiatric interventions should be designed to target COVID-19-trauma and distress among younger single patients with perceived poor physical health, especially those diagnosed with depression and sleep disorders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Psychological Trauma , Sleep Wake Disorders , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Independent Living , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Metabolites ; 11(12)2021 Nov 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542668

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the disease caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2 responsible for the ongoing pandemic which has claimed the lives of millions of people. This has prompted the scientific research community to act to find treatments against the SARS-CoV-2 virus that include safe antiviral medicinal compounds. The edible green algae U. lactuca. is known to exhibit diverse biological activities such as anti-influenza virus, anti-Japanese encephalitis virus, immunomodulatory, anticoagulant, antioxidant and antibacterial activities. Herein, four new ceramides in addition to two known ones were isolated from Ulva lactuca. The isolated ceramides, including Cer-1, Cer-2, Cer-3, Cer-4, Cer-5 and Cer-6 showed promising antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 when investigated using in silico approaches by preventing its attachment to human cells and/or inhibiting its viral replication. Cer-4 and Cer-5 were the most effective in inhibiting the human angiotensin converting enzyme (hACE)-spike protein complex which is essential for the virus to enter the human host. In addition to this, Cer-4 also showed an inhibition of the SARS-CoV-2 protease (Mpro) that is responsible for its viral replication and transcription. In this study, we also used liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization high-resolution mass spectroscopy (LC-ESI-HRMS) to identify several metabolites of U. lactuca, including metabolites such as fatty acids, their glyceride derivatives, terpenoids, sterols and oxysterols from the organic extract. Some of these metabolites also possessed promising antiviral activity, as previously reported.

9.
J Public Health Res ; 10(3)2021 Jun 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444403

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease is a global pandemic that has led to radical changes in lifestyle habits, including dietary habits. Therefore, the objective of the present review is to evaluate the effect of quarantine on dietary habits when enforcing a lockdown. Some databases were used, including Web of Science, Science Direct, Google Scholar, and PubMed. Ten studies conducted between March and May 2020 were included. There is an increase in the number of meals and snacks during home confinement as well as unhealthy food such as fast food, sweets and chocolate, sugar-added drinks, and processed meat, while fruit and vegetable consumption was reduced. Very few studies reported that participants had increased fruit and vegetable intake. In conclusion, collateral effects of this pandemic include an environment that is not favorable to healthy dietary habits, which could have a lasting impact on health. The long-term health effects are unknown and worth investigating.

10.
Bioorg Chem ; 114: 105117, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1283943

ABSTRACT

At present therapeutic options for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) are very limited. We designed and synthesized three sets of small molecules using quinoline scaffolds. A series of quinoline conjugates (10a-l, 11a-c, and 12a-e) by incorporating 1,2,3-triazole were synthesized via a modified microwave-assisted click chemistry technique. Among the synthesized conjugates, 4-((1-(2-chlorophenyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)methoxy)-6-fluoro-2-(trifluoromethyl)quinoline (10g) and 6-fluoro-4-(2-(1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)ethoxy)-2-(trifluoromethyl)quinoline (12c) show high potency against SARS-CoV-2. The selectivity index (SI) of compounds 10g and 12c also indicates the significant efficacy compared to the reference drugs.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Quinolines/chemical synthesis , Triazoles/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Click Chemistry , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Quinolines/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Triazoles/chemistry
11.
Scientific Programming ; : 1-10, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1201835

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak produced devastating effects on the global economy and the health of entire communities. Although the COVID-19 survival rate is high, the number of severe cases that result in death is increasing daily. A timely prediction of at-risk patients of COVID-19 with precautionary measures is expected to increase the survival rate of patients and reduce the fatality rate. This research provides a prediction method for the early identification of COVID-19 patient's outcome based on patients' characteristics monitored at home, while in quarantine. The study was performed using 287 COVID-19 samples of patients from the King Fahad University Hospital, Saudi Arabia. The data were analyzed using three classification algorithms, namely, logistic regression (LR), random forest (RF), and extreme gradient boosting (XGB). Initially, the data were preprocessed using several preprocessing techniques. Furthermore, 10-k cross-validation was applied for data partitioning and SMOTE for alleviating the data imbalance. Experiments were performed using twenty clinical features, identified as significant for predicting the survival versus the deceased COVID-19 patients. The results showed that RF outperformed the other classifiers with an accuracy of 0.95 and area under curve (AUC) of 0.99. The proposed model can assist the decision-making and health care professional by early identification of at-risk COVID-19 patients effectively. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Scientific Programming is the property of Hindawi Limited and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

12.
Saudi Med J ; 41(8): 779-790, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-918553

ABSTRACT

[No Abstract Available]    Saudi Med J 2020; Vol. 41 (8): 779-790doi: 10.15537/smj.2020.8.25222 How to cite this article:Yaser A. Faden, Nadia A. Alghilan,  Samiha H. Alawami, Eman S. Alsulmi, Hythem A. Alsum, Yasir A. Katib, Yasser S. Sabr, Fadwah H. Tahir, Nabeel S. Bondagji. Saudi Society of Maternal-Fetal Medicine guidance on pregnancy and coronavirus disease 2019. Saudi Med J 2020; Vol. 41 (8): 779-790. doi: 10.15537/smj.2020.8.25222.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Prenatal Care/methods , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Congenital Abnormalities/virology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Critical Illness , Delivery, Obstetric/methods , Female , Heparin/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Magnesium Sulfate/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Perinatology , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Postnatal Care , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia , Societies, Medical , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Tocolytic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Drug Treatment
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