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1.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 929689, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987474

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection currently remains one of the biggest global challenges that can lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome (CARDS) in severe cases. In line with this, prior pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is a risk factor for long-term respiratory impairment. Post-TB lung dysfunction often goes unrecognized, despite its relatively high prevalence and its association with reduced quality of life. In this study, we used a metabolomics analysis to identify potential biomarkers that aid in the prognosis of COVID-19 morbidity and mortality in post-TB infected patients. This analysis involved blood samples from 155 SARS-CoV-2 infected adults, of which 23 had a previous diagnosis of TB (post-TB), while 132 did not have a prior or current TB infection. Our analysis indicated that the vast majority (~92%) of post-TB individuals showed severe SARS-CoV-2 infection, required intensive oxygen support with a significantly high mortality rate (52.2%). Amongst individuals with severe COVID-19 symptoms, we report a significant decline in the levels of amino acids, notably the branched chains amino acids (BCAAs), more so in the post-TB cohort (FDR <= 0.05) in comparison to mild and asymptomatic cases. Indeed, we identified betaine and BCAAs as potential prognostic metabolic biomarkers of severity and mortality, respectively, in COVID-19 patients who have been exposed to TB. Moreover, we identified serum alanine as an important metabolite at the interface of severity and mortality. Hence, our data associated COVID-19 mortality and morbidity with a long-term metabolically driven consequence of TB infection. In summary, our study provides evidence for a higher mortality rate among COVID-19 infection patients who have history of prior TB infection diagnosis, which mandates validation in larger population cohorts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tuberculosis , Adult , Alanine , Humans , Morbidity , Prognosis , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Tuberculosis/complications , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/epidemiology
2.
Arch Virol ; 167(9): 1773-1783, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1899184

ABSTRACT

Currently, health authorities around the world are struggling to limit the spread of COVID-19. Since the beginning of the pandemic, social distancing has been the most important strategy used by most countries to control disease spread by flattening and elongating the epidemic curve. Another strategy, herd immunity, was also applied by some countries through relaxed control measures that allow the free spread of natural infection to build up solid immunity within the population. In 2021, COVID-19 vaccination was introduced with tremendous effort as a promising strategy for limiting the spread of disease. Therefore, in this review, we present the current knowledge about social distancing, herd immunity strategies, and aspects of their implementation to control the COVID-19 pandemic in the presence of the newly developed vaccines. Finally, we suggest a short-term option for controlling the pandemic during vaccine application.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunity, Herd , Pandemics/prevention & control , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(4): 412-424, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1796484

ABSTRACT

Over the past two decades, diabetes mellitus (DM) has been receiving increasing attention among autoimmune diseases. The prevalence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes has increased rapidly and has become one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Therefore, a better understanding of the genetic and environmental risk factors that trigger the onset of DM would help develop more efficient therapeutics and preventive measures. The role and mechanism of respiratory viruses in inducing autoimmunity have been frequently reported. On the other hand, the association of DM with respiratory infections might result in severe complications or even death. Since influenza is the most common respiratory infection, DM patients experience disease severity and increased hospitalization during influenza season. Vaccinating diabetic patients against influenza would significantly reduce hospitalization due to disease severity. However, recent studies also report the role of viral vaccines in inducing autoimmunity, specifically diabetes. This review reports causes of diabetes, including genetic and viral factors, with a special focus on respiratory viruses. We further brief the burden of influenza-associated complications and the effectiveness of the influenza vaccine in DM patients.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Viruses , Hospitalization , Humans , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Respiratory Tract Infections/complications , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control
4.
Pathog Glob Health ; 116(5): 269-281, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662085

ABSTRACT

This study aims to estimate the prevalence and longevity of detectable SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and T and B memory cells after recovery. In addition, the prevalence of COVID-19 reinfection and the preventive efficacy of previous infection with SARS-CoV-2 were investigated. A synthesis of existing research was conducted. The Cochrane Library, the China Academic Journals Full Text Database, PubMed, and Scopus, and preprint servers were searched for studies conducted between 1 January 2020 to 1 April 2021. Included studies were assessed for methodological quality and pooled estimates of relevant outcomes were obtained in a meta-analysis using a bias adjusted synthesis method. Proportions were synthesized with the Freeman-Tukey double arcsine transformation and binary outcomes using the odds ratio (OR). Heterogeneity was assessed using the I2 and Cochran's Q statistics and publication bias was assessed using Doi plots. Fifty-four studies from 18 countries, with around 12,000,000 individuals, followed up to 8 months after recovery, were included. At 6-8 months after recovery, the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 specific immunological memory remained high; IgG - 90.4% (95%CI 72.2-99.9, I2 = 89.0%), CD4+ - 91.7% (95%CI 78.2-97.1y), and memory B cells 80.6% (95%CI 65.0-90.2) and the pooled prevalence of reinfection was 0.2% (95%CI 0.0-0.7, I2 = 98.8). Individuals previously infected with SARS-CoV-2 had an 81% reduction in odds of a reinfection (OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.1-0.3, I2 = 90.5%). Around 90% of recovered individuals had evidence of immunological memory to SARS-CoV-2, at 6-8 months after recovery and had a low risk of reinfection.RegistrationPROSPERO: CRD42020201234.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adaptive Immunity , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Prevalence , Reinfection/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Qatar Med J ; 2021(3): 59, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506895

ABSTRACT

Public health control measures for communicable diseases are often based on the identification of symptomatic cases. However, emerging epidemiological evidence demonstrates the role of pre-symptomatic and asymptomatic transmissions of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Understanding high-risk settings where transmissions can occur from infected individuals without symptoms has become critical for improving the response to the pandemic. In this review, we discussed the evidence on the transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2, its effect on control strategies, and lessons that can be applied in Qatar. Although Qatar has a small population, it has a distinct setting for COVID-19 control. It has a largely young population and is mostly composed of expatriates particularly from the Middle East and Asia that reside in Qatar for work. Further key considerations for Qatar and travel include population movement during extended religious holiday periods, screening and tracing of visitors and residents at entry points into the country, and expatriates living and working in high-density settings. We also consider how its international airport serves as a major transit destination for the region, as Qatar is expected to experience a rapid expansion of visitors while preparing to host the FIFA World Cup in 2022.

6.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(11)2021 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502542

ABSTRACT

A population's desire to take the COVID-19 vaccine is an important predictor of a country's future pandemic management. This cross-sectional study examines the impact of psychological and sociodemographic factors on attitudes toward and intentions to take the COVID-19 vaccine among students and faculty at four colleges of health professions and sciences at Qatar University. The data were collected through an online survey using Google Forms. The survey was distributed through various online platforms. Data analysis was conducted using Stata 16. Of the 364 participants, 9.89% expressed a high mistrust of vaccine safety, and 21.7% were uncertain about their levels of trust; 28% expressed strong worries about unforeseen side effects, whereas 54.95% expressed moderate worries. Furthermore, 7.69% expressed strong concerns and 39.84% showed moderate concerns about commercial profiteering. Approximately 13% of the participants expressed a strong preference towards natural immunity, whilst 45.33% appeared to believe that natural immunity might be better than a vaccine. Importantly, 68.13% of the participants intended to receive the COVID-19 vaccine once it became available, compared to 17.03% who were uncertain and 14.83% who were unwilling to be vaccinated. Our findings differ from the data on vaccine hesitancy among the general population of Qatar. We argue that this gap is due to scientific knowledge and domain of education. Furthermore, although knowledge and awareness may affect vaccine attitudes, mental health and sociodemographic factors play a role in shaping attitudes towards vaccines.

7.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 43: 102135, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1307224

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To synthesize findings from systematic reviews and meta-analyses on the efficacy and safety of chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) with or without Azithromycin for treating COVID-19, and to update the evidence using a meta-analysis. METHODS: A comprehensive search was carried out in electronic databases for systematic reviews, meta-analyses and experimental studies which investigated the efficacy and safety of CQ, HCQ with or without Azithromycin to treat COVID-19. Findings from the reviews were synthesised using tables and forest plots and the quality effect model was used for the updated meta-analysis. The main outcomes were mortality, the need for intensive care services, disease exacerbation, viral clearance and occurrence of adverse events. RESULTS: Thirteen reviews with 40 primary studies were included. Two meta-analyses reported a high risk of mortality, with ORs of 2.2 and 3.0, and the two others found no association between HCQ and mortality. Findings from two meta-analyses showed that HCQ with Azithromycin increased the risk of mortality, with similar ORs of 2.5. The updated meta-analysis of experimental studies showed that the drugs were not effective in reducing mortality (RR 1.1, 95%CI 1.0-1.3, I2 = 0.0%), need for intensive care services (OR 1.1, 95%CI 0.9-1.4, I2 = 0.0%), virological cure (OR 1.5, 95%CI 0.5-4.4, I2 = 39.6%) or disease exacerbation (OR 1.2, 95%CI 0.3-5.9, I2 = 31.9%) but increased the odds of adverse events (OR 12,3, 95%CI 2.5-59.9, I2 = 76.6%). CONCLUSION: There is conclusive evidence that CQ and HCQ, with or without Azithromycin are not effective in treating COVID-19 or its exacerbation. REGISTRATION: PROSPERO: CRD42020191353.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hydroxychloroquine , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Treatment Outcome
8.
Front Public Health ; 8: 573925, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1021920

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV-2 continues to claim hundreds of thousands of people's lives. It mostly affects the elderly and those with chronic illness but can also be fatal in younger age groups. This article is the first comprehensive analysis of the epidemiological and clinical outcomes of the travel-associated SARS-CoV-2 cases until April 19, 2020. Methods: Demographic and clinical data of travel-associated SARS-CoV-2 cases were collected for the period between January 16, 2020 and April 19, 2020. More than one hundred and eighty databases were searched, including the World Health Organization (WHO) database, countries' ministries websites, and official media sites. Demographic and clinical data were extracted and analyzed. Results: A total of 1,186 cases from 144 countries meeting the inclusion criteria were reported and included in the analysis. The mean age of the cases was 44 years, with a male to female ratio of 1.6:1. Travel-associated cases originated from more than 40 countries, with China, Italy, and Iran reporting the highest numbers at 208, 225, and 155, respectively. Clinical symptoms varied between patients, with some reporting symptoms during the flights (117 cases; 9.87%). A total of 312 (26.31%) cases were hospitalized, of which 50 cases (4.22%) were fatal. Conclusion: Major gaps exist in the epidemiology and clinical spectrum of the COVID-19 travel-associated cases due to a lack of reporting and sharing data of many counties. The identification and implementation of methodologies for measuring traveler's risk to coronavirus would help in minimizing the spread of the virus, especially in the next waves.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Demography , Infection Control , Travel , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Italy/epidemiology , Male , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
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