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BMC Vet Res ; 16(1): 405, 2020 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-895005


BACKGROUND: Apart from the huge worldwide economic losses often occasioned by bovine coronavirus (BCoV) to the livestock industry, particularly with respect to cattle rearing, continuous surveillance of the virus in cattle and small ruminants is essential in monitoring variations in the virus that could enhance host switching. In this study, we collected rectal swabs from a total of 1,498 cattle, sheep and goats. BCoV detection was based on reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Sanger sequencing of the partial RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) region for postive samples were done and nucleotide sequences were compared with homologous sequences from the GenBank. RESULTS: The study reports a BCoV prevalence of 0.3%, consisting of 4 positive cases; 3 goats and 1 cattle. Less than 10% of all the animals sampled showed clinical signs such as diarrhea and respiratory distress except for high temperature which occurred in > 1000 of the animals. However, none of the 4 BCoV positive animals manifested any clinical signs of the infection at the time of sample collection. Bayesian majority-rule cladogram comparing partial and full length BCoV RdRp genes obtained in the study to data from the GenBank revealed that the sequences obtained from this study formed one large monophyletic group with those from different species and countries. The goat sequences were similar to each other and clustered within the same clade. No major variations were thus observed between our isolates and those from elsewhere. CONCLUSIONS: Given that Ghana predominantly practices the extensive and semi-intensive systems of animal rearing, our study highlights the potential for spillover of BCoV to small ruminants in settings with mixed husbandry and limited separation between species.

Cattle Diseases/virology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus, Bovine/isolation & purification , Goat Diseases/virology , Sheep Diseases/virology , Animals , Base Sequence , Bayes Theorem , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus, Bovine/genetics , Diarrhea/veterinary , Ghana/epidemiology , Goat Diseases/epidemiology , Goats , Phylogeny , Prevalence , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/veterinary , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Sheep , Sheep Diseases/epidemiology