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2.
Frontiers in nutrition ; 9, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1876991

ABSTRACT

Objectives This current study aims to assess the prevalence and factors associated with body mass index (BMI), dietary patterns, and the extent of physical activities among university students following the prolonged coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) lockdown in Bangladesh. Methods A cross-sectional web-based survey was conducted between July 10 to August 10, 2021, through a pre-designed Google Form to collect the data from Bangladeshi university students (age: ≥18 years). Informed consent was electronically obtained from each participant, and a simple snowball technique was employed during the sampling. Frequency and percentage distribution, paired t-test, chi-square [χ2] test, and multinomial and binary logistic regression analyses were consecutively applied to analyze the collected data. Results Among the total participants (n = 1,602), 45.1% were female and 55.6% were 22–25 years' age group students. The BMI (mean ± standard deviation, SD) during the COVID-19 lockdown was 23.52 ± 7.68 kg/m2, which was 22.77 ± 4.11 kg/m2 during the pre-lockdown period (mean difference = 0.753;p < 0.001). The multinomial logistic regression analysis found a significant impact of gender [male vs. female: adjusted relative risk ratio (RRR) = 1.448;95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.022, 2.053;p = 0.037], age (years) (<22 vs. >25: RRR =0.389, 95% CI = 0.213,0.710;p = 0.002, and 22–25 vs. >25: RRR = 0.473, 95% CI = 0.290, 0.772;p = 0.003), monthly family income (BDT) (<25,000 vs. >50,000: RRR = 0.525, 95% CI = 0.334,0.826;p = 0.005), university type (public vs. private: RRR = 0.540, 95% CI = 0.369, 0.791;p = 0.002), eating larger meals/snacks (increased vs. unchanged: RRR = 2.401, 95% CI = 1.597, 3.610;p < 0.001 and decreased vs. unchanged: RRR = 1.893, 95% CI = 1.218, 2.942;p = 0.005), and verbally or physically abuse (yes vs. no: RRR = 1.438, 95% CI = 0.977, 2.116;p = 0.066) on obesity during COVID-19 pandemic. Besides, the female students and those who have constant eating habits, were more likely to be underweight. Additionally, the binary logistic regression analysis found that the students from private universities [others vs. private: adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.461, 95% CI = 0.313, 0.680;p < 0.001], urban areas (urban vs. rural: AOR = 1.451, 95% CI = 1.165, 1.806;p = 0.001), wealthier families (<25,000 BDT vs. >50,000 BDT: AOR = 0.727, 95% CI = 0.540, 0.979;p = 0.036), and who were taking larger meals/snacks (increased vs. unchanged: AOR = 2.806, 95% CI = 2.190, 3.596;p < 0.001) and had conflicts/arguments with others (no vs. yes: AOR = 0.524, 95% CI = 0.418, 0.657;p < 0.001), were significantly more physically inactive. Finally, the level of education and smoking habits significantly influenced the eating habits of university students during the extended strict lockdown in Bangladesh. Conclusion The current findings would be helpful tools and evidence for local and international public health experts and policymakers to reverse these worsening effects on students mediated by the prolonged lockdown. Several effective plans, programs, and combined attempts must be earnestly implemented to promote a smooth academic and daily life.

3.
Vet Q ; 42(1): 125-147, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1852679

ABSTRACT

Swine coronaviruses (SCoVs) are one of the most devastating pathogens affecting the livelihoods of farmers and swine industry across the world. These include transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV), porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (PHEV), swine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV), and porcine delta coronavirus (PDCoV). Coronaviruses infect a wide variety of animal species and humans because these are having single stranded-RNA that accounts for high mutation rates and thus could break the species barrier. The gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and nervous systems are the primary organ systems affected by SCoVs. Infection is very common in piglets compared to adult swine causing high mortality in the former. Bat is implicated to be the origin of all CoVs affecting animals and humans. Since pig is the only domestic animal in which CoVs cause a wide range of diseases; new coronaviruses with high zoonotic potential could likely emerge in the future as observed in the past. The recently emerged severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus virus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), causing COVID-19 pandemic in humans, has been implicated to have animal origin, also reported from few animal species, though its zoonotic concerns are still under investigation. This review discusses SCoVs and their epidemiology, virology, evolution, pathology, wildlife reservoirs, interspecies transmission, spill-over events and highlighting their emerging threats to swine population. The role of pigs amid ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic will also be discussed. A thorough investigation should be conducted to rule out zoonotic potential of SCoVs and to design appropriate strategies for their prevention and control.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Alphacoronavirus , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Swine , Swine Diseases/epidemiology
5.
J Med Virol ; 94(7): 3006-3016, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1844114

ABSTRACT

Broad-spectrum antiviral agents targeting viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) are expected to be a key therapeutic strategy in the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and its future variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes COVID-19. Molnupiravir is a nucleoside analog that in vivo experiments have been reported to inhibit the replication of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. Clinical trials of molnupiravir as a therapy for patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 also suggest its significant therapeutic efficacy in comparison to placebo. Molnupiravir is lethally mutagenic against viral RNA, but its effect on host cell DNA is being questioned. Herein, the safety concerns of molnupiravir are discussed with recent findings from published reports and clinical trials. The unchanged efficacy of molnupiravir against mutated SARS-CoV-2 variants is also highlighted. With its administration via the oral route, molnupiravir is expected to turn the tide of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Humans , Hydroxylamines , Mutagens/pharmacology , Pandemics , Pharmaceutical Preparations
6.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 78: 103737, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1821120

ABSTRACT

Despite many nations' best efforts to contain the so-called COVID-19 pandemic, the emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron strain (B.1.1.529) has been identified as a serious concern. After more than two years of COVID-19 pandemic and more than a year of worldwide vaccination efforts, the globe will not be free of COVID-19 variants such as Delta and Omicron variants. According to current statistics, the Omicron variant has more than 30 mutations when contrasted to other VOCs such as Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), and Delta (B.1.617.2). High numbers of changes, particularly in the spike protein (S-Protein), raise worries about the virus's capacity to resist pre-existing immunity acquired by vaccination or spontaneous infection and antibody-based therapy. The Omicron variant raised international concerns, resuming travel bans and coming up with many questions about its severity, transmissibility, testing, detection, and vaccines efficiency against it. Additionally, inadequate health care infrastructures and many immunocompromised individuals increase the infection susceptibility. The current status of low vaccination rates will play a significant role in omicron spreading and create a fertile ground for producing new variants. As a result, this article emphasizes the mutational changes and their consequences. In addition, the potential preventing measures have been examined in detail.

7.
Vet Q ; 42(1): 48-67, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1815728

ABSTRACT

Natural antioxidants applied as feed additives can improve not only animals' health and overall performance but also increase their resistance to environmental stress such as heat stress, bad housing conditions, diseases, etc. Marine organisms, for example seaweeds - red, brown, and green macroalgae contain a plethora of biologically active substances, including phenolic compounds, polysaccharides, pigments, vitamins, micro- and macroelements, and proteins known for their antioxidant activity, which can help in the maintenance of appropriate redox status in animals and show pleiotropic effects for enhancing good health, and productivity. The dysregulated production of free radicals is a marked characteristic of several clinical conditions, and antioxidant machinery plays a pivotal role in scavenging the excessive free radicals, thereby preventing and treating infections in animals. Supplementation of seaweeds to animal diet can boost antioxidant activity, immunity, and the gut environment. Dietary supplementation of seaweeds can also enhance meat quality due to the deposition of marine-derived antioxidant components in muscles. The use of natural antioxidants in the meat industry is a practical approach to minimize or prevent lipid oxidation. However, overconsumption of seaweeds, especially brown macroalgae, should be avoided because of their high iodine content. An important point to consider when including seaweeds in animal feed is their variable composition which depends on the species, habitat, location, harvest time, growing conditions such as nutrient concentration in water, light intensity, temperature, etc. This review highlights the beneficial applications of seaweeds and their extracted compounds, which have antioxidant properties as feed additives and impact animal health and production.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Seaweed , Animals , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Meat
8.
RSC advances ; 11(29):18103-18121, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1812920

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), resulting in a contagious respiratory tract infection that has become a global burden since the end of 2019. Notably, fewer patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 progress from acute disease onset to death compared with the progression rate associated with two other coronaviruses, SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Several research organizations and pharmaceutical industries have attempted to develop successful vaccine candidates for the prevention of COVID-19. However, increasing evidence indicates that the SARS-CoV-2 genome undergoes frequent mutation;thus, an adequate analysis of the viral strain remains necessary to construct effective vaccines. The current study attempted to design a multi-epitope vaccine by utilizing an approach based on the SARS-CoV-2 structural proteins. We predicted the antigenic T- and B-lymphocyte responses to four structural proteins after screening all structural proteins according to specific characteristics. The predicted epitopes were combined using suitable adjuvants and linkers, and a secondary structure profile indicated that the vaccine shared similar properties with the native protein. Importantly, the molecular docking analysis and molecular dynamics simulations revealed that the constructed vaccine possessed a high affinity for toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). In addition, multiple descriptors were obtained from the simulation trajectories, including the root-mean-square deviation (RMSD), root-mean-square fluctuation (RMSF), solvent-accessible surface area (SASA), and radius of gyration (Rg), demonstrating the rigid nature and inflexibility of the vaccine and receptor molecules. In addition, codon optimization, based on Escherichia coli K12, was used to determine the GC content and the codon adaptation index (CAI) value, which further followed for the incorporation into the cloning vector pET28+(a). Collectively, these findings suggested that the constructed vaccine could be used to modulate the immune reaction against SARS-CoV-2. COVID-19 is caused by SARS-CoV-2, resulting in a contagious respiratory tract infection. For designing a multi-epitope vaccine, we utilized the four structural proteins from the SARS-CoV-2 by using bioinformatics and immunoinformatics analysis.

10.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 77: 103638, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1797202

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to severe financial, clinical, and societal repercussions and imposed more pressure on the healthcare system of many nations. COVID-19 impacts the immune system by causing a systemic inflammatory reaction, often known as cytokine release syndrome (CRS). COVID-19 patients had elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. In this context, many dietary interventions have been utilized to mitigate the adverse effects of COVID-19 by regulating the excessive secretion of cytokines and chemokines. Zinc, an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant mineral in food with a well-established role in immunity, is now being employed in several clinical studies against COVID-19. Zn deficiency has been correlated with the increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. As a result, we will summarise zinc's immunomodulatory effects in this article. We will investigate how zinc deficiency might contribute to a poor prognosis of COVID-19 disease by altering the release of particular cytokines.

11.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-332771

ABSTRACT

Background: Although vaccination is underway, antiviral drugs against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are lacking. Remdesivir, a nucleoside analog that works by inhibiting the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), is the only fully approved antiviral for the treatment of COVID-19. However, it is limited to intravenous use and is usually recommended only for hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19;therefore, oral drugs that can be prescribed even to non-hospitalized patients are required. According to a recent study, 4′-fluoruridine, a nucleoside analog similar to remdesivir, is a promising candidate for COVID-19 oral therapy due to its ability to stall viral RdRp. Methods: : We examined the antiviral activity of 4′-fluorouridine and compared it to other drugs currently in development. The current literature on 4′-fluorouridine's antiviral activity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been compiled and discussed in this review. Results: : The 4'-fluorouridine has antiviral activity against the respiratory syncytial virus, hepatitis C virus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, and other RNA viruses, including SARS-CoV-2. In vitro studies have shown that SARS-CoV-2 is susceptible to 4'-fluorouridine, with the half-maximal effective concentration (EC 50 ) of 0.2 to 0.6 M, and that the 4′-fluorouridine derivative, 4′-fluorouridine-5′-triphosphate, inhibited RdRp via a mechanism distinct from that of the already approved COVID-19 oral drug, molnupiravir. In addition, an in vivo study revealed that SARS-CoV-2 is highly susceptible to 4'-fluorouridine and was effective with a single daily dose versus molnupiravir administered twice daily. Conclusions: : Concerns about the genetic effects of molnupiravir may be resolved by the use of 4′-fluorouridine and its derivative, which, unlike molnupiravir, do not alter genetics, but inhibit RdRp instead. Although they are currently considered as strong candidates, further studies are required to determine the antiviral activity of 4′-fluorouridine and its derivative against SARS-CoV-2 and their genetic effects on humans.

12.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 77: 103612, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783163
13.
Molecules ; 27(7):2221, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1762045

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is still ongoing, with no signs of abatement in sight. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is the causative agent of this pandemic and has claimed over 5 million lives, is still mutating, resulting in numerous variants. One of the newest variants is Omicron, which shows an increase in its transmissibility, but also reportedly reduces hospitalization rates and shows milder symptoms, such as in those who have been vaccinated. As a result, many believe that Omicron provides a natural vaccination, which is the first step toward ending the COVID-19 pandemic. Based on published research and scientific evidence, we review and discuss how the end of this pandemic is predicted to occur as a result of Omicron variants being surpassed in the community. In light of the findings of our research, we believe that it is most likely true that the Omicron variant is a natural way of vaccinating the masses and slowing the spread of this deadly pandemic. While the mutation that causes the Omicron variant is encouraging, subsequent mutations do not guarantee that the disease it causes will be less severe. As the virus continues to evolve, humans must constantly adapt by increasing their immunity through vaccination.

14.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 18(5): 2045853, 2022 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730554

ABSTRACT

Multiple vaccines have recently been developed, and almost all the countries are presently vaccinating their population to tackle the COVID-19 pandemic. Most of the COVID-19 vaccines in use are administered via intramuscular (IM) injection, eliciting protective humor and cellular immunity. COVID-19 intranasal (IN) vaccines are also being developed that have shown promising ability to induce a significant amount of antibody-mediated immune response and a robust cell-mediated immunity as well as hold the added ability to stimulate protective mucosal immunity along with the additional advantage of the ease of administration as compared to IM injected vaccines. By inducing secretory IgA antibody responses specifically in the nasal compartment, the intranasal SARS-CoV-2 vaccine can prevent virus infection, replication, shedding, and disease development, as well as possibly limits virus transmission. This article highlights the current progress, advantages, prospects, and challenges in developing intranasal COVID-19 vaccines for countering the ongoing pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Administration, Intranasal , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 18(1): 2027197, 2022 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1722105

ABSTRACT

Several severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants have recently been reported in many countries. These have exacerbated the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-induced global health threats and hindered COVID-19 vaccine development and therapeutic progress. This commentary discusses the potential risk of the newly classified Mu variant of interest, seeming a highly vaccine-resistant variant, and the approaches that can be adopted to tackle this variant based on the available evidence. The SARS-CoV-2 B.1.621 (Mu variant) lineage has shown approximately ten times higher resistance to neutralizing sera obtained from COVID-19 survivors or BNT161b2-vaccinated people than the parenteral B.1 lineage. Several urgent and long-term strategic plans, including quick genomic surveillance for uncovering the genetic characteristics of the variants, equitable global mass vaccination, booster dose administration if required, and strict implementation of public health measures or non-pharmaceutical interventions, must be undertaken concertedly to restrict further infections, mutations, or recombination of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and its deadly strains.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Genomics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
16.
Front Public Health ; 9: 807474, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715072

ABSTRACT

Severe session jam phobia (SJP), the extent of underprivileged online education, and subsequent mental health disorders among students have emerged as distinguished global problems due to the overwhelming effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The purpose of this research was to evaluate the impact of extended COVID-19 lockdown and its mediating factors on current e-Learning activities, the prevalence of severe SJP and psychological distress among university students in Bangladesh. A web-based cross-sectional study was conducted to assemble responses through Google Form by applying a simple snowball sampling technique among university students aged 18 years or above in Bangladesh. All ethical considerations were maintained, and univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyses were employed to analyze the acquired data set. Among the total analyzed data (n = 1,122), the male and female ratio was almost 1:1, and a remarkable segment (63.7%) was aged between 21-24 years. Alarmingly, around 50-60% of the students were suffering from severe SJP, prevailing underprivileged education in the e-Learning platform, and severe mental distress. Logistic regression analyses demonstrated that the students from public universities, lower- and mid-income families, lower-aged, and junior years education groups were significantly (p < 0.05) more underprivileged than their counter groups. Besides, the monthly family income and university type significantly influenced the extent of severe SJP. Finally, the students who were female, rustic, come from low-income families (below 25,000 BDT), who had academic uncertainty, job insecurity, online exam phobia, and dissatisfaction with e-Learning education, were significantly suffering from moderate to severe mental distress. The current evidence demonstrates that a substantial number of Bangladeshi university students are struggling with extreme session jam phobia, underprivileged e-Learning education, and subsequent psychological distress, which need to be immediately addressed through concerted efforts by the government, parents, and university authorities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Computer-Assisted Instruction , Phobic Disorders , Adult , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Phobic Disorders/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Students/psychology , Universities , Young Adult
17.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-319721

ABSTRACT

Currently, with a large number of fatality rates, coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has emerged as a potential threat to human health worldwide. It has been well-known that severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for COVID-19 and World Health Organization (WHO) proclaimed the contagious disease as a global pandemic. Researchers from different parts of the world amalgamate together inquest of remedies for this deadly virus. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the spike glycoprotein (SGP) of SARS-CoV-2 is the mediator behind the entrance into the host cells. Our group has comprehensibly analyzed the SGP of SARS-CoV-2 through multiple sequence analysis along with the phylogenetic analysis. Further, this research work predicted the most immunogenic epitopes for both B-cell and T-cell. Notably, we focused mainly on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I potential peptides and predicted two epitopes;WTAGAAAYY and GAAAYYVGY, that bind with the MHC class I alleles which are further validated by molecular docking analysis. Furthermore, this study also proposed that the selected epitopes were shown availability in a greater range of the population. Hence, our study comes up with a strong base for the implementation of designing novel vaccine candidates against SARS-CoV-2, however adequate laboratory works will need to be conducted for the appropriate application.

18.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-319720

ABSTRACT

With an increasing fatality rate, severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has emerged as a promising threat to human health worldwide. SARS-CoV-2 is a member of the Coronaviridae family, which is transmitted from animal to human and because of being contagious, further it transmitted human to human. Recently, the World Health Organization (WHO) has announced the infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, which is known as coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-2019) as a global pandemic. But, no specific medications are available for the treatment of COVID-19 so far. As a corollary, there is a need for a potential vaccine to impede the progression of the disease. Lately, it has been documented that the nucleocapsid (N) protein of SARS-CoV-2 is responsible for viral replication as well as interferes with host immune responses. We have comparatively analyzed the sequences of N protein of SARS-CoV-2 for the identification of core attributes and analyzed the ancestry through phylogenetic analysis. Subsequently, we have predicted the most immunogenic epitope for T-cell as well as B-cell. Importantly, our investigation mainly focused on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I potential peptides and NTASWFTAL interacted with most human leukocyte antigen (HLA) that are encoded by MHC class I molecules. Further, molecular docking analysis unveiled that NTASWFTAL possessed a greater affinity towards HLA and also available in a greater range of the population. Our study provides a consolidated base for vaccine design and we hope that this computational analysis will pave the way for designing novel vaccine candidates.

19.
ProQuest Central;
Preprint in English | ProQuest Central | ID: ppcovidwho-328276

ABSTRACT

Background: This study aimed to determine the cumulative prevalence of prolonged gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, lack of appetite, abdominal pain, and dysgeusia, in survivors of both mild and severe COVID-19 worldwide and to discuss the potential pathogenesis.   Methods: Three databases (PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science) were searched for relevant articles up to January 30, 2021. Data on study characteristics, clinical characteristics during follow-up, the number of patients with prolonged GI symptoms, and total number of COVID-19 survivors were retrieved according to PRISMA guidelines. The quality of eligible studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. The pooled prevalence of specific prolonged GI symptoms was calculated and the association between COVID-19 severity and the occurrence of prolonged GI symptoms was assessed if appropriate.   Results: The global prevalence of prolonged nausea was 3.23% (95%

20.
ProQuest Central;
Preprint in English | ProQuest Central | ID: ppcovidwho-328245

ABSTRACT

Background: In this study, we aimed to determine the global prevalence, chronological order of symptom appearance, and mortality rates with regard to hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and to discuss possible pathogeneses of hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke in individuals with the disease. Methods: We searched the PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases for relevant articles published up to November 8, 2020. Data regarding study characteristics, hemorrhagic stroke, ischemic stroke, and COVID-19 were retrieved in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. The Newcastle-Ottawa scale was used to assess the quality of the eligible studies. The pooled prevalence and mortality rate of hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke were calculated. Results: The pooled estimate of prevalence of hemorrhagic stroke was 0.46% (95% CI 0.40%–0.53%;I 2=89.81%) among 67,155 COVID-19 patients and that of ischemic stroke was 1.11% (95% CI 1.03%–1.22%;I 2=94.07%) among 58,104 COVID-19 patients. Ischemic stroke was more predominant (incidence: 71.58%) than hemorrhagic stroke (incidence: 28.42%) in COVID-19 patients who experienced a stroke. In COVID-19 patients who experienced a stroke, hospital admission with respiratory symptoms was more commonly reported than that with neurological symptoms (20.83% for hemorrhagic stroke and 5.51% for ischemic stroke versus 6.94% for hemorrhagic stroke and 5.33% for ischemic stroke, respectively). The pooled mortality rate of COVID-19 patients who experienced a hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke was 44.72% (95% CI 36.73%–52.98%) and 36.23% (95% CI 30.63%–42.24%), respectively. Conclusions: Although the occurrence of hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke is low, the mortality rates of both stroke types in patients with COVID-19 are concerning, and therefore, despite several potential pathogeneses that have been proposed, studies aimed at definitively elucidating the mechanisms of hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke in individuals with COVID-19 are warranted. PROSPERO registration: CRD42020224470 (04/12/20)

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