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1.
Clin Pharmacokinet ; 2022 Apr 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783019

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Many patients treated for COVID-19 related acute respiratory distress syndrome in the intensive care unit are sedated with the benzodiazepine midazolam. Midazolam undergoes extensive metabolism by CYP3A enzymes, which may be inhibited by hyperinflammation. Therefore, an exaggerated proinflammatory response, as often observed in COVID-19, may decrease midazolam clearance. To develop a population pharmacokinetic model for midazolam in adult intensive care unit patients infected with COVID-19 and to assess the effect of inflammation, reflected by IL-6, on the pharmacokinetics of midazolam. METHODS: Midazolam blood samples were collected once a week between March 31 and April 30 2020. Patients were excluded if they concomitantly received CYP3A4 inhibitors, CYP3A4 inducers and/or continuous renal replacement therapy. Midazolam and metabolites were analyzed with an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. A population pharmacokinetic model was developed, using nonlinear mixed effects modelling. IL-6 and CRP, markers of inflammation, were analyzed as covariates. RESULTS: The data were described by a one-compartment model for midazolam and the metabolites 1-OH-midazolam and 1-OH-midazolam-glucuronide. The population mean estimate for midazolam clearance was 6.7 L/h (4.8-8.5 L/h). Midazolam clearance was reduced by increased IL-6 and IL-6 explained more of the variability within our patients than CRP. The midazolam clearance was reduced by 24% (6.7-5.1 L/h) when IL-6 increases from population median 116 to 300 pg/mL. CONCLUSIONS: Inflammation, reflected by high IL-6, reduces midazolam clearance in critically ill patients with COVID-19. This knowledge may help avoid oversedation, but further research is warranted.

2.
Immun Inflamm Dis ; 10(4): e609, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763241

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Myxovirus resistance protein 1 (MxA) is a biomarker that is elevated in patients with viral infections. The goal of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of MxA in diagnosing COVID-19 infections in the emergency department (ED) patients. METHODS: This was a single-center prospective observational cohort study including patients with a suspected COVID-19 infection. The primary outcome of this study was a confirmed COVID-19 infection by RT-PCR test. MxA was assessed using an enzyme immunoassay on whole blood and receiver operating chart and area under the curve (AUC) analysis was conducted. Sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, and positive predictive value of MxA on diagnosing COVID-19 at the optimal cut-off of MxA was determined. RESULTS: In 2021, 100 patients were included. Of these patients, 77 patients had COVID-19 infection and 23 were non-COVID-19. Median MxA level was significantly higher (p < .001) in COVID-19 patients compared to non-COVID-19 patients, respectively 1933 and 0.1 ng/ml. The AUC of MxA on a confirmed COVID-19 infection was 0.941 (95% CI: 0.867-1.000). The optimal cut-off point of MxA was 252 ng/ml. At this cut-off point, the sensitivity of MxA on a confirmed COVID-19 infection was 94% (95% CI: 85%-98%) and the specificity was 91% (95% CI: 72%-99%). CONCLUSION: MxA accurately distinguishes COVID-19 infections from bacterial infections and noninfectious diagnoses in the ED in patients with a suspected COVID-19 infection. If the results can be validated, MxA could improve the diagnostic workup and patient flow in the ED.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Orthomyxoviridae , COVID-19/diagnosis , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Myxovirus Resistance Proteins , Prospective Studies
3.
J Thromb Haemost ; 2022 Mar 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1752627

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection is associated with an increased incidence of thrombosis. OBJECTIVES: By studying the fibrin network structure of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, we aimed to unravel pathophysiological mechanisms that contribute to this increased risk of thrombosis. This may contribute to optimal prevention and treatment of COVID-19 related thrombosis. PATIENTS/METHODS: In this case-control study, we collected plasma samples from intensive care unit (ICU) patients with COVID-19, with and without confirmed thrombosis, between April and December 2020. Additionally, we collected plasma from COVID-19 patients admitted to general wards without thrombosis, from ICU patients with pneumococcal infection, and from healthy controls. Fibrin fiber diameters and fibrin network density were quantified in plasma clots imaged with stimulated emission depletion microscopy and confocal microscopy. Finally, we determined the sensitivity to fibrinolysis. RESULTS: COVID-19 ICU patients (n = 37) and ICU patients with pneumococcal disease (n = 7) showed significantly higher fibrin densities and longer plasma clot lysis times than healthy controls (n = 7). No differences were observed between COVID-19 ICU patients with and without thrombosis, or ICU patients with pneumococcal infection. At a second time point, after diagnosis of thrombosis or at a similar time point in patients without thrombosis, we observed thicker fibers and longer lysis times in COVID-19 ICU patients with thrombosis (n = 19) than in COVID-19 ICU patients without thrombosis (n = 18). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that severe COVID-19 is associated with a changed fibrin network structure and decreased susceptibility to fibrinolysis. Because these changes were not exclusive to COVID-19 patients, they may not explain the increased thrombosis risk.

4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 165, 2022 Feb 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700326

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with a severe COVID-19 infection often require admission at an intensive care unit (ICU) when they develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Hyperinflammation plays an important role in the development of ARDS in COVID-19. Procalcitonin (PCT) is a biomarker which may be a predictor of hyperinflammation. When patients with COVID-19 are in the emergency department (ED), elevated PCT levels could be associated with severe COVID-19 infections. The goal of this study is to investigate the association between PCT levels and severe COVID-19 infections in the ED. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study including patients with a confirmed COVID-19 infection who visited the ED of Erasmus Medical Center in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, between March and December 2020. The primary outcome was a severe COVID-19 infection, which was defined as patients who required ICU admission, all cause in-hospital mortality and mortality within 30 days after hospital discharge. PCT levels were measured during the ED visit. We used logistic regression to calculate the odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) and corresponding area under the curve (AUC) of PCT on a severe COVID-19 infection, adjusting for bacterial coinfections, age, sex, comorbidities, C-reactive protein (CRP) and D-dimer. RESULTS: A total of 332 patients were included in the final analysis of this study, of which 105 patients reached the composite outcome of a severe COVID-19 infection. PCT showed an unadjusted OR of 4.19 (95%CI: 2.52-7.69) on a severe COVID-19 infection with an AUC of 0.82 (95% CI: 0.76-0.87). Corrected for bacterial coinfection, the OR of PCT was 4.05 (95% CI: 2.45-7.41). Adjusted for sex, bacterial coinfection, age any comorbidity, CRP and D-dimer, elevated PCT levels were still significantly associated with a severe COVID-19 infection with an adjusted OR of 2.11 (95% CI: 1.36-3.61). The AUC of this multivariable model was 0.85 (95%CI: 0.81-0.90). CONCLUSION: High PCT levels are associated with high rates of severe COVID-19 infections in patients with a COVID-19 infection in the ED. The routine measurement of PCT in patients with a COVID-19 infection in the ED may assist physicians in the clinical decision making process regarding ICU disposition.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Procalcitonin , Biomarkers , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322844

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Patients with a severe COVID-19 infection often require admission at an intensive care unit (ICU) when they develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Hyperinflammation plays an important role in the development of ARDS in COVID-19. Procalcitonin (PCT) is a biomarker which may be a predictor of hyperinflammation. When patients with COVID-19 are in the emergency department (ED), PCT could be a predictor of severe COVID-19 infection. The goal of this study is to investigate the predictive value of PCT on severe COVID-19 infections in the ED. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study including patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection who visited the ED of Erasmus Medical Center in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, between March and December 2020. The primary endpoint was a severe COVID-19 infection, which was defined as patients who required ICU admission, in-hospital mortality and 30-day mortality after hospital discharge. PCT levels were measured during the ED visit. We used logistic regression to calculate the odds ratio (OR) of PCT on a severe COVID-19 infection, adjusting for bacterial coinfections, age, gender and comorbidities. Results: A total of 332 patients were included in the final analysis of this study, of which 105 patients reached the composite endpoint of a severe COVID-19 infection. PCT showed an unadjusted OR of 4.19 (CI: 2.52-7.69) on a severe COVID-19 infection. Corrected for bacterial coinfection, the OR of PCT was 4.05 (2.45 – 7.41). Adjusted for gender, bacterial coinfection, age and comorbidities, PCT was still an independent predictor of severe COVID-19 infection with an adjusted OR of 3.82 (CI: 2.26-7.48). Conclusion: PCT is a predictor of severe COVID-19 infections in patients with a COVID-19 infection in the ED. The routine measurement of PCT in patients with a COVID-19 infection in the ED may assist physicians in the clinical decision making process regarding ICU disposition when PCT levels are elevated.

6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-319564

ABSTRACT

Purpose:  To study the effect of Interferon-α auto-antibodies (IFN-α Abs) on clinical and virological outcomes in critically ill COVID-19 patients and the risk of IFN-α Abs transfer during convalescent plasma treatment. Methods: : Sera from cases of COVID-19 and other respiratory illness were tested for IFN-αAbs by ELISA and bioassay. IFN-α Abslevels were compared between critically, severely and moderately ill groups in both acute and convalescent stages. Longitudinal analyses were performed to determine whether IFN-α Abs levels change after convalescent plasma transfusion. Results: : Critically ill COVID-19 caseshad significantly higher IFN-α Abs detection rate and levels compared tonon-COVID-19 controls.Neutralizing IFN-α Abs levels were found in 1 out of 118plasma donors.Plasma from 2 positive donors was administered to 5 patients, with no subsequent elevation of IFN-α Abs levels in the recipients. Neutralizing levels of IFN-α Abswere associated with delayed viral clearance from the respiratory tract. Conclusions: : IFN-α Abs can be detected by ELISA in critical, severe, moderate and mild COVID-19 cases in both the acute and convalescent stages of disease. The presence of neutralizing IFN-α Abs in critically ill COVID-19 is associated with delayed viral clearance. Levels of IFN-α Abs inCOVID-19 convalescent plasma donorsare likely too low to be clinically relevant to the recipients.

7.
Curr Opin Crit Care ; 28(1): 66-73, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1672365

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the current knowledge about the application of advanced monitoring techniques in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). RECENT FINDINGS: Due to the heterogeneity between patients, management of COVID-19 requires daily monitoring of and/or aeration and inspiratory effort. Electrical impedance tomography can be used to optimize positive end-expiratory pressure, monitor the response to changes in treatment or body position and assess pulmonary perfusion and ventilation/perfusion matching. Lung ultrasound is more readily available and can be used to measure and monitor recruitment, provide an indication of diaphragm function and pulmonary perfusion disturbances. Esophageal pressure measurements enable the calculation of the transpulmonary pressure and inspiratory effort in order to prevent excessive stress on the lung. While esophageal pressure measurements are the golden standard in determining inspiratory effort, alternatives like P0.1, negative pressure swing during a single airway occlusion and change in central venous pressure are more readily available and capable of diagnosing extreme inspiratory efforts. SUMMARY: Although there is little data on the effectiveness of advanced monitoring techniques in COVID-19, regular monitoring should be a central part of the management of COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (C-ARDS).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Positive-Pressure Respiration , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Clin Immunol ; 42(2): 232-239, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669888

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To study the effect of interferon-α2 auto-antibodies (IFN-α2 Abs) on clinical and virological outcomes in critically ill COVID-19 patients and the risk of IFN-α2 Abs transfer during convalescent plasma treatment. METHODS: Sera from healthy controls, cases of COVID-19, and other respiratory illness were tested for IFN-α2 Abs by ELISA and a pseudo virus-based neutralization assay. The effects of disease severity, sex, and age on the risk of having neutralizing IFN-α2 Abs were determined. Longitudinal analyses were performed to determine association between IFN-α2 Abs and survival and viral load and whether serum IFN-α2 Abs appeared after convalescent plasma transfusion. RESULTS: IFN-α2 neutralizing sera were found only in COVID-19 patients, with proportions increasing with disease severity and age. In the acute stage of COVID-19, all sera from patients with ELISA-detected IFN-α2 Abs (13/164, 7.9%) neutralized levels of IFN-α2 exceeding physiological concentrations found in human plasma and this was associated with delayed viral clearance. Convalescent plasma donors that were anti-IFN-α2 ELISA positive (3/118, 2.5%) did not neutralize the same levels of IFN-α2. Neutralizing serum IFN-α2 Abs were associated with delayed viral clearance from the respiratory tract. CONCLUSIONS: IFN-α2 Abs were detected by ELISA and neutralization assay in COVID-19 patients, but not in ICU patients with other respiratory illnesses. The presence of neutralizing IFN-α2 Abs in critically ill COVID-19 is associated with delayed viral clearance. IFN-α2 Abs in COVID-19 convalescent plasma donors were not neutralizing in the conditions tested.


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Interferon alpha-2/immunology , Plasma/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antiviral Agents/immunology , Blood Component Transfusion/methods , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
9.
Journal of Clinical Investigation ; 131(21):1-13, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1503264

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Little is known about the interplay between preexisting immunity to endemic seasonal coronaviruses and the development of a SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG response. We investigated the kinetics, breadth, magnitude, and level of cross-reactivity of IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and heterologous seasonal and epidemic coronaviruses at the clonal level in patients with mild or severe COVID-19 as well as in disease control patients. We assessed antibody reactivity to nucleocapsid and spike antigens and correlated this IgG response to SARS-CoV-2 neutralization. Patients with COVID-19 mounted a mostly type-specific SARS-CoV-2 response. Additionally, IgG clones directed against a seasonal coronavirus were boosted in patients with severe COVID-19. These boosted clones showed limited cross-reactivity and did not neutralize SARS-CoV-2. These findings indicate a boost of poorly protective CoV-specific antibodies in patients with COVID-19 that correlated with disease severity, revealing "original antigenic sin."

10.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-291480

ABSTRACT

Background: Predicting disease severity is important for treatment decisions in patients with COVID-19 in the intensive care unit (ICU). Different biomarkers have been investigated in COVID-19 as predictor of mortality, including C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR). Using repeated measurements in a prediction model may result in a more accurate risk prediction than the use of single point measurements. The goal of this study is to investigate the predictive value of trends in repeated measurements of CRP, PCT, IL-6 and suPAR on mortality in patients admitted to the ICU with COVID-19. Methods: This was a retrospective single center cohort study. Patients were included if they tested positive on SARS-CoV-2 by PCR test and if IL-6, PCT, suPAR was measured during any of the ICU admission days. There were no exclusion criteria for this study. We used joint models to predict ICU-mortality. This analysis was done using the framework of joint models for longitudinal and survival data. The reported hazard ratios express the relative change in the risk of death resulting from a doubling or 20% increase of the biomarker’s value in a day compared to no change in the same period. Results: A total of 107 patients were included, of which 26 died during ICU admission. Adjusted for sex and age, a doubling in the next day in either levels of PCT, IL-6 and suPAR was significantly predictive of in-hospital mortality with and an HR of 1.523 (1.012 – 6.540), 75.25 (1.116 – 6247) and 24.45 (1.696 – 1057) respectively. With a 20% increase in biomarker value in a subsequent day, the HR of PCT, IL-6 and suPAR were 1.117 (1.03 – 1.639), 3.116 (1.029 – 9.963) and 2.319 (1.149 – 6.243) respectively. Conclusion: Joint models for the analysis of repeated measurements of PCT, suPAR and IL-6 are a useful method for predicting mortality in COVID-19 patients in the ICU. Patients with an increasing trend of biomarker levels in consecutive days are at increased risk for mortality.

11.
J Clin Invest ; 131(21)2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403157

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Little is known about the interplay between preexisting immunity to endemic seasonal coronaviruses and the development of a SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG response. We investigated the kinetics, breadth, magnitude, and level of cross-reactivity of IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and heterologous seasonal and epidemic coronaviruses at the clonal level in patients with mild or severe COVID-19 as well as in disease control patients. We assessed antibody reactivity to nucleocapsid and spike antigens and correlated this IgG response to SARS-CoV-2 neutralization. Patients with COVID-19 mounted a mostly type-specific SARS-CoV-2 response. Additionally, IgG clones directed against a seasonal coronavirus were boosted in patients with severe COVID-19. These boosted clones showed limited cross-reactivity and did not neutralize SARS-CoV-2. These findings indicate a boost of poorly protective CoV-specific antibodies in patients with COVID-19 that correlated with disease severity, revealing "original antigenic sin."


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Specificity , Case-Control Studies , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Cross Reactions , Female , Host Microbial Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Seasons , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
14.
Biomark Insights ; 16: 11772719211021647, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259132

ABSTRACT

Corticosteroids reduced mortality rate in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Previously, we hypothesized that corticosteroids mitigate the inflammation response resulting in reduced coagulation and thrombosis. In this retrospective study, we included 27 patients with COVID-19 that received high-dose corticosteroids (methylprednisolone 1000 mg i.v. daily for 3 days) for persistent respiratory failure or an excessive inflammation response. We found that inflammation, coagulation, and ventilation parameters improved significantly after methylprednisolone. The viral loads of SARS-CoV-2 remained stable or decreased. These results provides insight into the reduced mortality rate observed in patients with COVID-19 treated with corticosteroids.

15.
Surgeries ; 2(2):190-198, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1259618

ABSTRACT

We report a patient with COVID-19 requiring hospitalization for two weeks, complicated by multiple segmental pulmonary embolisms for which dabigatran was initiated. After clearing the infection, the patient remained asymptomatic for 5 months. He was then readmitted with a spontaneous haemothorax, most likely related to the use of dabigatran, which progressed to a pleural empyema with a trapped lung. The patient underwent a video assisted thoracoscopy (VATS) with decortication. Because of focal abnormalities, biopsies for histopathology were taken from the lung parenchyma. These showed an organizing pneumonia with progression towards fibrosis and arteries with intimal fibrosis. So far, no histopathological reports exist on late pulmonary changes after a COVID-19 infection. The unusual combined presence of microvascular damage and interstitial fibrosis may reflect a pathophysiological concept in which early endothelial damage by SARS-CoV-2 can lead to a chronic state of microvascular damage, low grade inflammation, and early progression towards pulmonary fibrosis.

16.
Front Immunol ; 12: 684142, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247870

ABSTRACT

Background: Lung histopathology demonstrates vasculopathy in a subset of deceased COVID19 patients, which resembles histopathology observed in antibody-mediated lung transplant rejection. Autoantibodies against angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and Endothelin receptor Type A (ETAR) have been demonstrated in antibody-mediated rejection and may also be associated with severe COVID19 infection. Objective To assess AT1R and ETAR auto-antibodies in COVID19 patients and controls, and explore their association with disease course. Methods: 65 hospitalized patients with COVID19 infection were included. Clinical and laboratory findings were retrospectively assessed. Patients with unfavorable disease course, admitted at the intensive care unit and/or deceased during hospital admission (n=33) were compared to admitted COVID19 patients with favorable disease course (n=32). The presence of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and auto-antibodies against AT1R or ETAR in peripheral blood were compared between COVID19 with unfavorable and favorable disease course and age matched controls (n=20). Results: The presence of ANA was not significantly different between COVID19 patients with unfavorable (n=7/33; 21%) and favorable disease course (n=6/32; 19%) (p= 0.804) and controls (n=3/20; 15%). Auto-antibodies against AT1R were significantly increased in unfavorable disease course (median 14.59 U/mL, IQR 11.28 - 19.89) compared to favorable disease course (median 10.67 U/mL, IQR 8.55 - 13.0, p< 0.01). ETAR antibody titers were also significantly increased in unfavorable disease course (median 7.21, IQR 5.0 - 10.45) as compared to favorable disease course (median 4.0, IQR 3.0 - 6.0, p <0.05). Conclusion: Auto-antibodies against AT1R and ETAR are significantly increased in COVID19 patients with an unfavorable disease course.


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/immunology , Receptor, Endothelin A/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/blood , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Netherlands , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/blood , Receptor, Endothelin A/blood , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Severity of Illness Index
17.
mSphere ; 6(3): e0031121, 2021 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247323

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is associated with a wide range of extrarespiratory complications, of which the pathogenesis is currently not fully understood. However, both systemic spread and systemic inflammatory responses are thought to contribute to the systemic pathogenesis. In this study, we determined the temporal kinetics of viral RNA in serum (RNAemia) and the associated inflammatory cytokines and chemokines during the course of COVID-19 in hospitalized patients. We show that RNAemia can be detected in 90% of the patients who develop critical disease, compared to 50% of the patients who develop moderate or severe disease. Furthermore, RNAemia lasts longer in patients who develop critical disease. Elevated levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10) and MCP-1-but not IL-6-are associated with viral load in serum, whereas higher levels of IL-6 in serum were associated with the development of critical disease. In conclusion, RNAemia is common in hospitalized patients, with the highest frequency and duration in patients who develop critical disease. The fact that several cytokines or chemokines are directly associated with the presence of viral RNA in the circulation suggests that the development of RNAemia is an important factor in the systemic pathogenesis of COVID-19. IMPORTANCE Severe COVID-19 can be considered a systemic disease as many extrarespiratory complications occur. However, the systemic pathogenesis is poorly understood. Here, we show that the presence of viral RNA in the blood (RNAemia) occurs more frequently in patients who develop critical disease, compared to patients with moderate or severe disease. In addition, RNAemia is associated with increased levels of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, like MCP-1 and IL-10, in serum during the course of disease. This suggests that extrarespiratory spread of SARS-CoV-2 contributes to systemic inflammatory responses, which are an important factor in the systemic pathogenesis of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/blood , RNA, Viral/blood , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/virology , Hospitalization , Humans , Kinetics , Severity of Illness Index
18.
Crit Care Med ; 49(4): 661-670, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238251

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In this study, we hypothesized that coronavirus disease 2019 patients exhibit sublingual microcirculatory alterations caused by inflammation, coagulopathy, and hypoxemia. DESIGN: Multicenter case-controlled study. SETTING: Two ICUs in The Netherlands and one in Switzerland. PATIENTS: Thirty-four critically ill coronavirus disease 2019 patients were compared with 33 healthy volunteers. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The microcirculatory parameters quantified included total vessel density (mm × mm-2), functional capillary density (mm × mm-2), proportion of perfused vessels (%), capillary hematocrit (%), the ratio of capillary hematocrit to systemic hematocrit, and capillary RBC velocity (µm × s-1). The number of leukocytes in capillary-postcapillary venule units per 4-second image sequence (4 s-1) and capillary RBC microaggregates (4 s-1) was measured. In comparison with healthy volunteers, the microcirculation of coronavirus disease 2019 patients showed increases in total vessel density (22.8 ± sd 5.1 vs 19.9 ± 3.3; p < 0.0001) and functional capillary density (22.2 ± 4.8 vs 18.8 ± 3.1; p < 0.002), proportion of perfused vessel (97.6 ± 2.1 vs 94.6 ± 6.5; p < 0.01), RBC velocity (362 ± 48 vs 306 ± 53; p < 0.0001), capillary hematocrit (5.3 ± 1.3 vs 4.7 ± 0.8; p < 0.01), and capillary-hematocrit-to-systemic-hematocrit ratio (0.18 ± 0.0 vs 0.11 ± 0.0; p < 0.0001). These effects were present in coronavirus disease 2019 patients with Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores less than 10 but not in patients with Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores greater than or equal to 10. The numbers of leukocytes (17.6 ± 6.7 vs 5.2 ± 2.3; p < 0.0001) and RBC microaggregates (0.90 ± 1.12 vs 0.06 ± 0.24; p < 0.0001) was higher in the microcirculation of the coronavirus disease 2019 patients. Receiver-operating-characteristics analysis of the microcirculatory parameters identified the number of microcirculatory leukocytes and the capillary-hematocrit-to-systemic-hematocrit ratio as the most sensitive parameters distinguishing coronavirus disease 2019 patients from healthy volunteers. CONCLUSIONS: The response of the microcirculation to coronavirus disease 2019-induced hypoxemia seems to be to increase its oxygen-extraction capacity by increasing RBC availability. Inflammation and hypercoagulation are apparent in the microcirculation by increased numbers of leukocytes and RBC microaggregates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Capillaries , Hypoxia/etiology , Leukocytes , Microcirculation/physiology , Erythrocytes , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
19.
J Infect Dis ; 223(9): 1512-1521, 2021 05 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238201

ABSTRACT

Lower respiratory tract (LRT) disease induced by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can deteriorate to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Because the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) is implicated in ARDS pathogenesis, we investigated the presence of NETs and correlates of pathogenesis in blood and LRT samples of critically ill patients with COVID-19. Plasma NET levels peaked early after intensive care unit admission and were correlated with the SARS-CoV-2 RNA load in sputum and levels of neutrophil-recruiting chemokines and inflammatory markers in plasma samples. The baseline plasma NET quantity was correlated with disease severity but was not associated with soluble markers of thrombosis or with development of thrombosis. High NET levels were present in LRT samples and persisted during the course of COVID-19, consistent with the detection of NETs in bronchi and alveolar spaces in lung tissue from deceased patient with COVID-19. Thus, NETs are produced and retained in the LRT of critically ill patients with COVID-19 and could contribute to SARS-CoV-2-induced ARDS disease.


Subject(s)
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Extracellular Traps/virology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers , Chemokines/blood , Cohort Studies , Computed Tomography Angiography , Critical Illness , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Male , Middle Aged , Netherlands/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombosis/virology , Viral Load
20.
J Infect Dis ; 223(9): 1512-1521, 2021 05 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1052199

ABSTRACT

Lower respiratory tract (LRT) disease induced by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can deteriorate to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Because the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) is implicated in ARDS pathogenesis, we investigated the presence of NETs and correlates of pathogenesis in blood and LRT samples of critically ill patients with COVID-19. Plasma NET levels peaked early after intensive care unit admission and were correlated with the SARS-CoV-2 RNA load in sputum and levels of neutrophil-recruiting chemokines and inflammatory markers in plasma samples. The baseline plasma NET quantity was correlated with disease severity but was not associated with soluble markers of thrombosis or with development of thrombosis. High NET levels were present in LRT samples and persisted during the course of COVID-19, consistent with the detection of NETs in bronchi and alveolar spaces in lung tissue from deceased patient with COVID-19. Thus, NETs are produced and retained in the LRT of critically ill patients with COVID-19 and could contribute to SARS-CoV-2-induced ARDS disease.


Subject(s)
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Extracellular Traps/virology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers , Chemokines/blood , Cohort Studies , Computed Tomography Angiography , Critical Illness , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Male , Middle Aged , Netherlands/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombosis/virology , Viral Load
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